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Nanking Incident

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					Nanking Incident
    …the Forgotten Holocaust




    Jacqueline Chiou
          Block E
                  Timeline

1937…China Incident
July.    "The China Incident" -- a skirmish between Japan and Chinese
         troops at the Marco Polo Bridge (Luguoqiao), near Peking, sparks
         off a full scale invasion of China.

Aug.     Japanese bombers make the first trans-oceanic raids in history --
         from Taiwan and Kyushu to Nanking and Shanghai.

Nov.     Imperial General Headquarters established in Tokyo (the
         Emperor, the Chiefs of the Army, and Naval General Staffs).

Dec.    The Nanking Massacre (Rape of Nanking) -- the Chinese
        Capital sacked by Japanese troops. The American gunboat
        USS Panay bombed and sunk near Nanking.
Photographs…




  Japanese monks were
  subjected to military drills. And
  well used these lessons when
  they actually got to Nanking.
  At the time, Japanese soldiers
 chopped Chinese civilians heads
with their bayonets and hung them.
The unimaginable cruelty of
          Japanese:
   children are treated the
same--slaughtered. Even the
 bodies of fetus were pulled
out from bellies of pregnant
       Chinese women.
                                     Chinese victims
Over the six weeks of the
massacre, in addition to the
murder of about 300,000
civilians, the Japanese troops
raped over 20,000 women, most
of whom were murdered
thereafter.




                          Japanese

                                     Chinese woman




                          Japanese
News Clippings
 "Four Days of Hell"
                        Dec. 15, 1937, Archibald Steele, Chicago Daily News



"I was 29 and it was my first big story for the New York Times. So I drove down to the
waterfront in my car. And to get to the gate I had to just climb over masses of bodies
accumulated there. The car just had to drive over these dead bodies. And the scene
on the river front, as I waited for the launch ... was of a group of smoking chattering
Japanese officers overseeing the massacring of a battalion of Chinese captured
troops. They were marching about in groups of about 15, machine-gunning them."

                          Dec 9th, 1937, Tillman Durdin, New York Times
 "Wholesale looting, the violation of women, the murder of civilians, the
 eviction of Chinese from their homes, mass executions of war prisoners
 and the impressing of able-bodied men turned Nanking into a city of
 terror,"
                     December 17, 1937, Frank Tillman Durdin, New York Times




"There probably is no crime that has not been committed in this city today. Thirty
girls were taken from the language school [where she worked] last night, and
today I have heard scores of heartbreaking stories of girls who were taken from
their homes last night - one of the girls was but 12 years old... How many
thousands were mowed down by guns or bayoneted we shall probably never
know. For in many cases oil was thrown over their bodies and then they were
burned. Charred bodies tell the tales of some of these tragedies. The events of
the following ten days are growing dim. But there are certain of them that lifetime
will not erase from my memory and the memories of those who have been in
Nanking through this period."

                                       Dec 16th, 1937, Minnie Vautrin, BBC News
It is a newspaper
published in Japan at the
time. The article is saying
that two Japanese officers,
Toshiaki Mukai and Iwa
Noda, held a competition
of beheading Chinese.
They killed 211 Chinese in
total; one killed 106, the
other 105 in their contest.
These are post cards. At the
timeThese photos are from Hora
Tomio's book The Great Nanjing
Massacre and the Kill All, Loot All,
Burn All War. They are stamped
by the military censors: "Not
Allowed" to be published.
Dear diary,
                                              Personal Letters
       At the time, I was pregnant for seven months. Almost twenty females, including
youth and elder, were hidden in a basement of a school which was established for foreign
students. Three Japanese soldiers came into this room and pushed way all those old women
who were stood in front of the door way and pulled out the teenagers who were originally
hidden behind the elders. They came beside me when I was laid on the bed since I was a
patient. A Japanese soldier drove off all the people outside the street and turned back,
staring at me. When he bent down, I swiftly drew out his bayonet and rolled quickly
aside to have my back depended on the wall, so I didn’t need to guard stuff behind me.
My legs were stood firmly. The Japanese soldier came over and was frightened because his
bayonet was in my hand. He grabbed my hands so hard, so I twisted his collar and started
biting him. Because he realized that I was so powerful that even he couldn’t have taken
over my bayonet, he yelled in Japanese and two other Japanese soldiers who were raping
Chinese girls dropped them and came over to fight me. They started poking my legs, but
only my left leg got injured. They found out it was hard to chop off my legs, so they aimed
at my face. My jaws had nearly fallen apart and lots of cuts on my face was made. My
stomach was poked and started bleeding abundantly and continuously. I was dead,
actually fainted, so the Japanese soldiers had left. Afterwards, my dad thought I was
dead, so he ordered people to bury me. But when they tried to move me, blood started
coming out of my mouth. I was alive and my dad had moved me to a hospital named Gu
Lo and had the all the cuts on my face sew by an American doctor whom we called Dr.
Wilson. The second day, I suffered a miscarriage. I lost my seven-month baby…
                                                             Xiu-Ying Lee
                                                                    Dec 28th, 1937
Dear Aunt,
      It was around ten in the morning when a big group of
Japanese soldiers rushed into our courtyard. Dad was shot
immediately, so was my neighbor. Terrified, my grandparents
grabbed my sisters and I went to hide in the furthest room. My
grandparents sat on the bed edges and tried to cover me, my two
older sisters, and one younger sister. Moment later, the soldiers
broke into the room and pushed my grandparents aside. My
grandparents wouldn’t let go. They kept coming back to the bed,
trying to protect us. Yet, the soldiers just shot both of them. And
then, one of the Japanese soldiers violently dragged my 18-year-old
sister to the table and stripped off her clothe; and my 16-year-old
sister was pressed down on the bed. They screamed and were raped.
Scared, I started screaming too and a soldier poked me in three
different spots; I guess I fainted. Didn’t know how long it had
been when I was back to conscious state, hearing my four-year-old
sister crying on the bed. My body hurt a lot, and I hardly walked.
The blanket was all wet and colored with my blood. My little
sister and I crawled out of the room and took a look in the
courtyard. Everyone was dead, even my mom was raped too. There
were originally thirteen lively people in the morning, but now, only
two survivors were left.
                                                     Xia-Shu Chin
       In the afternoon, two Japanese soldiers came to our house and took my
brother and I away. Japanese soldiers tied all Chinese civilians twenty a bundle
and pushed these hurdles into the Long River, which was already fulfilled with
heads. From our garden, eleven people were taken away. We couldn’t just wait
to be dead, so we decided to jump into the river initiatively. When I grabbed my
brother’s shoulder and prepared to jump into the river, my brother got shot by a
Japanese soldier and died immediately. Yet, I headed into the river which caused
the Japanese soldiers mad and started throwing the grenades into the river,
blowing the bodies and heads off. I was in the middle of the river where there is
an abandoned warship of Nationalists. I leaned on the warship and none of the
bullets had hit me. It was winter, snowing. The water level was up to my belly
and I was freezing to death. But I thought I cannot just stay there forever, so I
swam slowly to the edge of the river and lied flat on the river bank to wait.
Moment later, Japanese used the bayonets and poked all the corps, but they
missed me. It was a bless that I didn’t get poked.


                                                    Yong-Shin Liu
                                                          Dec 16th, 1937
Artifacts…




             Japanese Grenades Model 97 (1937)
This is a Japanese
sword with craved
words saying “Nanking:
107 people killed”
under this sword
P
                               It is a Chinese
r                               propaganda
                             poster on the wall
o                               that writes
                             “ Cruelty of the
p                               Japanese
                                  Devils!"
a
g
a   However, here is a
n   Japanese military
    postcard: soldiers are

d   playing with Chinese
    children…

a
                                            Documents




                             JAPAN SURRENDERS




                                          On September 2, 1945, the
                                          Japanese representatives
                                          signed the official
                                          Instrument of Surrender on
                                          the deck of the U.S.S.
The photocopy of the original document.   Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
 “ We can forgive, but not to forget.”

                           Nanking Massacre Museum




                                              ::: The End :::
"The tragedy of history,
the shame of humanity"
Photographs:
                                                   Bibliography
• http://www.diaoyuislands.org/photo/1/nanking.html
• http://www.bergen.org/AAST/Projects/ChinaHistory/rape.html
• http://www.fatherryan.org/holocaust/holocaust77/rapenanking.htm
News Clippings:
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/39166.stm
    http://www.interq.or.jp/sheep/clarex/discovery/discovery02.html
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/nanking.html
    http://prion.bchs.uh.edu/~zzhang/1/Nanking_Massacre/gallery4.html
Personal letters:
    based on real stories from survivors told in the video clips:
    http://home.kimo.com.tw/oldgisan/njd.html
Document:
    http://prion.bchs.uh.edu/~zzhang/1/Nanking_Massacre/epilogue.html
Propaganda:
    http://www.geocities.com/nankingatrocities/Propaganda/propaganda_02.htm
Artifacts:
    http://www.pacificghosts.com/guadalcanal/weapons/japanese/jap-grenades.html
Postcards:
    http://prion.bchs.uh.edu/~zzhang/1/Nanking_Massacre/gallery5.html
Map:
    http://www.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/NanjingMassacre/nmmap.gif

				
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