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SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE

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					SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE
     Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances
prescribed by Governments of some Country / State’s
        Regulations and other related aspects
                                                  ***

        Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
                    E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com;
          Website: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/
                                                  ***

1. Introduction - Although nearly every country on Earth, including the US, UK, the whole of
European Union, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Australia and Canada etc, have enacted laws to
regulate the movement of dangerous goods that can harm humanity, it is virtually impossible to ban
the commercial use, handling, storage and sale of a number of readily available chemical compounds
like Ammonium Nitrate that are serving both mankind and the terrorists at the same time.

However, a few countries like Australia did take a giant leap forward to ban the use of Ammonium
Nitrate fertilizer after the October 12, 2002 Bali Night Club bombings, which had claimed 202 lives
and had left over 240 souls precariously injured.

In Australia, the Dangerous Goods Regulations had also come into effect in August 2005 to enforce
licensing in dealing with such substances and licenses were only granted industries with appropriate
security measures in place to prevent any misuse. The Australian Dangerous Goods Code (Seventh
edition in 2008) also complies with international standards of importation and exportation of
dangerous goods in line with the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

Dangerous goods include materials that are radioactive, flammable, explosive, corrosive, oxidizing,
asphyxiating, bio-hazardous and toxic.

Ammonium Nitrate s chemical formula is NH4NO3. It is a chemical compound that is commonly used
in agriculture as a high-Nitrogen fertilizer. Farmers all over the planet like it more because it is easy
to spread, it is shelf stable (as long as it is coated) and it gives crops the desired Nitrogen levels.

On the other hand, terrorists are also regularly using this compound in the manufacture of
explosives since World War II. (References: The government of Victoria (Australia) s awareness
brochure Regulating the use of Ammonium Nitrate - Balancing Access & Protection and The hazards
and dangers of Ammonium Nitrate by Messrs Nortech Laboratories Incorporated, United States)

2. Properties and Hazards associated with Ammonium Nitrate - Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is
primarily used as a fertilizer, but also used as a blasting agent when mixed with fuel oil (ANFO).
Generally, the risk associated with the production, distribution and use of pure ammonium nitrate
(AN) is low. However the hazardous properties of AN can give rise to a decomposition with release
of toxic fumes or detonation as the worst case under very specific conditions.
SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects

Pure AN is a colourless, water soluble, crystalline substance. Pure ammonium nitrate melts at 170oC
and decomposes above 210oC producing copious clouds of toxic fumes (mainly oxides of nitrogen)
that may be yellow or brown. Some fertiliser grades of AN have an increased susceptibility to slow
burning (cigar burning) due to chloride in the formulation associated with potassium as an additive.
The Explosive grade or Technical grade is a lower density prilled material designed to absorb fuel.
Technical grade AN, supplied as a porous material in prilled form, have a density in range 700–800
g/litre. Ammonium nitrate readily absorbs water and is very soluble (190 grams dissolve in 100
grams of water at 20oC). AN sold for fertiliser is the same substance as AN sold for use as an
explosive.

Whenever AN passes 32oC it undergoes a crystal change known as thermal cycling. It results in the
prill breaking down, caking and becoming less useful as an explosive as it cannot absorb fuel.
Prilled AN may start to decompose at lower temperatures than for pure AN due to chemical
additives. Decomposition of AN takes place through several reactions:

    •   In early stage sublimation to ammonia and nitric acid dominates.
    •   At slightly higher temperature, nitrous oxide (N2O) is the main decomposition product.
    •   Above 260 degrees C toxic nitrogen oxide gases (NOx) are formed in considerable amounts.

Ammonium nitrate is an oxidising agent so it supplies oxygen to the fuel in a fire and supports
burning even when air is excluded. AN is classified as an oxidising agent Class 5.1 (UN No. 1942 for
technical grade and UN No. 2067 for fertilizer grade). Being an oxidiser, AN will support the burning
of organic matter. Technical grade AN is used extensively to support the “fast” burning required in
explosives.

In a fire pools of hot molten ammonium nitrate may form and if confined (e.g in a drain) may
explode. This is because hot and molten ammonium nitrate becomes very sensitive to shock
particularly if it contacts incompatible material. As the size of the AN stack increases or the density
of the product decreases, the vulnerability to detonation increases.

Thus, Ammonium Nitrate has three main hazards (I) toxic decomposition products, (II) fire due to
oxidising nature and (III) explosion.


International approaches to regulating Ammonium Nitrate: In the matter of framing and
implementing Regulations on Ammonium Nitrate, Council of Australian Governments’ (COAG) stand
is remarkable. COAG has developed principles regarding the use, manufacture, storage, transport,
supply, import and export of security sensitive ammonium nitrate (SSAN). Various States and
Territories around Australia are currently working on adopting these principles through legislative
changes. The intent of these changes is to limit SSAN access to only those who are authorised to use,
manufacture, store, transport, supply, import and export this material; thereby mitigating the risk of
a significant terrorist event occurring in Australia.

In the United States (US), about half of the 1.8 million tonnes of ammonium nitrate sold each year is
used for fertiliser. However, only a few states have introduced regulations for controlling the sale of
ammonium nitrate fertilisers. These regulations require retailers to be licensed, obtain valid
identification from the buyer, keep transaction records and report any suspicious purchases.
Retailers in other US states have adopted a voluntary security campaign, Be Aware America, where
they report suspicious transactions involving ammonium nitrate.

In 2007 and 2011, the Department of Homeland Security introduced national standards for chemical

                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
   E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com; Weblog: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ Page 2
SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects

facilities of high risk. These standards, which are still being implemented, impose tight security
measures, with the certification of chemicals stores requiring the implementation of security plans
and inventory management procedures.

Canada is in the process of implementing regulations that are somewhere in between the voluntary
approach and the COAG agreed principles. Under the Canadian regulations, retailers are required to
obtain valid identification of farmers, such as a pesticides licence, and determine whether the
amounts of ammonium nitrate fertiliser purchased are consistent with the farms’ needs. The
regulations also impose some requirements on the security arrangements for storage facilities and
record keeping through the supply chain.

Government of India have also in the process of implementing a regulation on ammonium nitrate,
and for that purpose Draft - Ammonium Nitrate Rule, 2011 has been issued.

The UK Government has taken a light-handed approach to regulation, even though it is one of the
greatest users of ammonium nitrate fertilisers in the world. Specifically, it has taken a layered
approach to security of ammonium nitrate fertiliser, utilising regulation and industry partnerships to
achieve security outcomes. It manufactures and imports about four million tonnes of ammonium
nitrate products per year. It restricts the types of ammonium nitrate fertilisers that can be sold —
they must be certified as detonation resistant, and must satisfy other technical requirements
pertaining to porosity and particle size. Further, farmers are provided with advice regarding
appropriate storage and security measures for their ammonium nitrate fertilisers. The Government
also supports the Fertiliser Industry Assurance Scheme, which is a voluntary scheme for businesses
to improve ammonium nitrate fertiliser supply chain security.

Indonesia, South Africa, Peru and Colombia have all banned the use of ammonium nitrate fertilisers.
Other countries have imposed bans on the fertilisers based on their ammonium nitrate content. For
example, China has banned the use of 100 per cent ammonium nitrate fertilisers, while in the
Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; fertilisers containing more than 79 per cent ammonium
nitrate are banned.

The New Zealand Government has not introduced controls on ammonium nitrate fertilisers due to
the relatively low usage of the substance. However, the Government has introduced controls on
other essential elements of an explosive device — such as detonators and primers — that can be
used to set off an ammonium nitrate based explosion. Such controls are standard in almost all the
countries internationally.


3. Safe Storage and Handling of Ammonium Nitrate (AN) -

a. SAFE STORAGE – Whatever the quantity you store, the principles of good and safe storage is
important to ensure that the quality is maintained right up to the point of use. Ammonium nitrate
(AN) is readily soluble in water and has a crystal transition point of 32 degrees C. Both of these
properties have influence on suitable storage conditions. It is desirable that storage temperature
should be kept below 32 degrees C. It should be noted that if the product is cycled through 32
degrees C several times the prill structure of the AN material will break down.

• Nitrate is a pollutant in waterways and aquifers. Storage sites should be selected to ensure no
contamination of water, including that used in fire-fighting.

• Locate storage away from sources of heat, fire or explosion.

                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
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SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects



• Do not store ammonium nitrate in the same stack as other products.

• Store well away from other chemicals, fuel oil, metal powder and combustible materials – also
separate the storage from offspec product, explosives, explosive manufacturing or blasting
operations.

• Wherever possible, store the bags covered on a smooth level surface in a suitable building made of
non-flammable materials. Inside the building, stacks should be at least 1 m away from walls, eaves
and beams. Avoid lamps hanging directly above the stacks or secure the lamps from falling down
with an extra chain. If possible, avoid having any electrical connection in the storage room.

• Keep ammonium nitrate dry as the risk of explosion increases once the product becomes caked.

• Even if the risk associated with the storage and handling of AN is very low, the hazardous
properties can in certain situations as a big fire give rise to a decomposition or detonation as worst
case. To minimise the consequences in a worst case scenario, the amount of AN in each stack should
be limited based on the storage location and the distance to “sensitive” locations such as residential
areas, main roads etc in the vicinity.

• The separation distance between stacks for preventing sympathetic detonation is depending on
the sensitivity of AN and the configuration of the stack of bags.

• If bags have to be stored outside, then the bags should be placed on a drained and clean area and
covered to protect from sunshine or heavy rain. In countries with hot climate be aware of the risk for
high temperatures underneath the covering. If possible choose a north facing site to minimise direct
sunlight.

• Make sure there is no source of ignition in the store. No vehicle parking inside the storage or close
to an outside located stack.

• “No smoking” signs must be clearly and visible at all entrances. Make sure all electric equipments
are in good and approved conditions.

• Avoid draining system in all areas, inside as well as outside, where product or molten concentrate
can deposit, in an event of fire.

• Keep storage buildings well secured by locking and visible signs, to prevent unauthorised access.

• Follow a good house-keeping standard. Pickup spills and keep storage areas and equipment clean
in order to prevent contamination of product.

• Make sure there is a valid Safety Data Sheet available at store site.

• Keep records of the amount of product in store and follow a first-in- first-out principle. Report
immediately any loss of product to relevant authority.

• Sufficient supply of fire fighting water and fire hydrants must be readily available in the vicinity of
the storage. Inspect all equipment regularly. Ask the local fire-brigade for advice and keep them well
informed regarding your facilities on site.


                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
   E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com; Weblog: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ Page 4
SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects



INCOMPATIBLE MATERIAL :
Do not store ammonium nitrate in the same building as incompatible materials. The risk of fire or
explosion is increased if ammonium nitrate is mixed with combustible or incompatible materials
(including when molten in a fire) such as:
• Flammable or combustible liquids such as petrol, diesel, oil, grease, paint, carbonaceous material.
• Pressure vessels and gas cylinders.
• Oil based pesticides.
• Organic matter, such as hay, straw, grain and animal feedstuffs.
• Sulphur.
• Corrosive liquids, acids, alkalis and other reactive substances (oxidising or reducing) such as
chlorates, hypochlorites, bleaching powder, nitrites, copper or chromium salts, chromates,
permanganates.
• Powdered metals, alkali metals, zinc or galvanised iron, copper or copper alloy.
• Urea.
• Chlorides.
• Products which generate heat in the presence of moisture, such as quick-lime, and calcium
cyanamide.
• Products, which will generate ammonia gas from the ammonium nitrate, such as cement, lime,
basic slag and other alkaline substances.
• Other agricultural products whose behaviour towards ammonium nitrate is uncertain, for example
branded pesticides, disinfectants or weedkillers.


HOUSEKEEPING :

Keep vehicles, forklift trucks etc clean and well maintained to prevent ammonium nitrate contacting
fuel, oil or grease.

Clean up spillages promptly and dispose of contaminated product by dissolving in water before
disposal.

Do not use organic matter as a cleaning aid (eg sawdust), use inert material such as sand or
vermiculite.

Do not allow pallets, ropes, tarpaulins or other equipment to become impregnated with ammonium
nitrate.

Keep walls, floors and equipment clean.

Avoid hollow sections in equipment to prevent build up of ammonium nitrate. If unavoidable they
must be regularly washed.

Ensure any contaminated equipment is thoroughly washed to remove ammonium nitrate before
allowing maintenance, particularly that involving heat, such as welding or cutting.

AN can generally be disposed of by dissolving in water and using as a fertiliser.




                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
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SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects

b. SAFE STACKING

• To minimise the consequences in a worst case scenario, the amount in each stack should be
limited.

• The amount can be calculated by using a model developed by the Dutch Research Institute TNO. In
this calculation an overall TNT equivalence of 0.20 has been used for technical ammonium nitrate
(TAN) ( Ref.: “Storage of Technical (Porous) Ammonium Nitrate”, Erik C. Nygaard, Yara International
ASA, Porsgrunn, Norway; http://miningandblasting.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/storage-of-
technical-porous-ammonium-nitrate.pdf).

• In many risk evaluations, an overpressure of 14 kPa (140 mbars) is the maximum acceptable level
at public roads, residential areas etc. Statistically this overpressure will result in a lethality of 1%. The
curve below can be used to calculate the required distance between a stack of TAN and residential
areas. The chart is only intended as guideline and local regulations/ legislation might require
different distances.




• For good stability, one bag should form a “bridge” over the two bags below.

• The floor or ground must be dry and clean. A good advice is to use a fibre cloth between the bags
and the ground in case of storing outside on gravel.

When handling ammonium nitrate (AN) in bags:
• Make sure the operators are well trained and competent in handling the product.
• Never position yourself directly under neath a lifted big bag or pallet.
• When empting the bag ensure the operator stand well back from the load and slash from the
bottom using a knife with a long shaft. However, it is even more safe to install fixed knifes on the top
of the hopper.
• Ensure that the bags are properly emptied. Dispose the empty bags according to local regulations.
In some countries there is a system for recycling bags. Alternatively, the bags can be disposed of by
high temperature incineration.




                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
   E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com; Weblog: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ Page 6
SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects

4. Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by some country’s Legislations on Storage facilities-

A. Department of Justice, Canada has formulated ‘Ammonium Nitrate Storage Facilities
Regulations’, C.R.C., c. 1145 (Ref.: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/PDF/C.R.C.,_c._1145.pdf ) under reg.
12, 13 and 14, (Page 8, 9) distances between a storage facility has been mentioned. Following is
the reproduction of Reg. 12, 13 and 14.

DISTANCES
12. Except as provided in sections 13 and 14, the horizontal distance between a storage facility and
the nearest point of another building, structure or property line, should not be less than
(a) 300 feet from any school, hospital, hotel, motel, church, theatre, auditorium, sports arena, multi-
store shopping centre, apartment or other similar multi-unit residential building, office building or
department store or merchandise building of more than one storey in height or any other similar
structure used for assembly, institutional, residential, business, personal service, or mercantile
purposes, or any building considered by the Commission to belong to this category;
(b) 150 feet from a single family dwelling, railway passenger station, railway station-dwelling, office
building or department store or merchandise building or restaurant of one storey in height, or any
other similar structure used for housing, business, personal service, or mercantile purposes, or any
other building considered by the Commission to belong to this category;
(c) 100 feet from any factory, railway shop or other building used primarily for manufacturing,
processing or for maintenance or repair work, or from an adjoining office building associated with
these buildings, except that this distance should not be less than 50 feet if the capacity of the
storage facility does not exceed 200 tons;

(d) 100 feet from any railway freight station, warehouse, storage tank or any other storage or
transfer facility used for a combustible or dangerous commodity or from an adjoining office building
associated with these buildings, except that this distance should not be less than 50 feet if the
capacity of the storage facility does not exceed 200 tons;

(e) the following distances from the nearest point of the line of an adjoining property which has
been or may be built upon and which is owned or leased by any person or company other than the
owner of the

storage facility:

(i) not less than 25 feet if the capacity of the storage facility does not exceed 200 tons,

(ii) not less than 50 feet if the capacity of the storage facility exceeds 200 tons, unless it is
constructed of non-combustible materials as provided for by subparagraph (iii) or the adjoining
property is occupied by another ammonium nitrate storage facility as provided for by subparagraph
(iv),

(iii) not less than 25 feet if the storage facility referred to in subparagraph (ii) is of non-combustible
construction and has a fire separation of not less than 1 1/2 hours on the exposed side,

(iv) not less than 25 feet if the property adjoining the property referred to in subparagraph (ii) is
occupied by another ammonium nitrate storage facility approved in accordance with these
Regulations and if there are no other buildings between the two storage facilities;

(f) 20 feet from the gauge side of the nearest rail of a main track or any track other than a track
serving the storage facility; and

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SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects



(g) the distances prescribed in Schedule I from the gauge side of the nearest rail of the track serving
the storage facility.

13. Notwithstanding section 12, greater safety distances may be imposed on storage facilities
located within densely populated areas or other areas considered by the Commission to be of
special hazard.

14. (1) Notwithstanding section 12, and except as provided in subsection (2), the horizontal distance
between a storage facility not exceeding a capacity of 200 tons and another on-site structure which
is used only for storage purposes and which does not contain a dangerous commodity should not be
less than 10 feet.

(2) Notwithstanding section 12 and subsection (1), lesser distances may be authorized at the
discretion of the Commission between a storage facility and other onsite structures.

B. Department of Consumer and Employment Protection, Government of Western Australia.
Department of Consumer and Employment Protection, 2008, ‘Safe storage of solid ammonium
nitrate — code of practice’:
(Ref:http://www.dmp.wa.gov.au/documents/Code_of_Practice/DGS_COP_StorageSolidAmmoniu
mNitrate.pdf). This code of practice has been produced to assist people storing solid ammonium
nitrate (AN) to comply with important AN safety requirements. Under code of practice 4.2
Separation distances has been mentioned; which are reproduced below:

4.2 Separation distances
Minimum separation distances to on-site and off-site protected works as well as vulnerable facilities
and critical infrastructure are detailed here. The intention of these separation distances is not to
ensure that people, property and the environment are completely protected in the highly unlikely
event of an AN detonation.

When considering the location of an AN storage, it is essential to maximise separation distances as
far as is reasonably practicable and consider how all on-site and off-site people can be promptly
alerted and evacuated to a safe distance in the event of a fire involving the AN.

AN stores of 10 t or less
Stores of AN of 10 t or less are required to be separated from the site boundary and on-site
protected works by a distance of at least 5 m. The separation distance must be at least 15 m for off-
site protected works, and at least 50 m for vulnerable facilities.

AN stores of more than 10 t
Where AN is stored in quantities exceeding 10 t, it must be separated from the boundary of the site
and from on-site protected works by a distance of at least 15 m. For off-site protected works,
vulnerable facilities and critical infrastructure, separation distances are determined using the
flowchart in Figure 4.1 and Table 4.1.

Where AN is stored in a manner that would prevent sympathetic detonation of the total storage,
reduced separation distances may be acceptable.

High explosive and detonator storage
A store of AN must be separated from high explosives and detonators by the minimum distances
given in Australian Standard 2187.1. Where mounding is to be used, it must comply with the

                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
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SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects

requirements of Australian Standard 2187.1. If AN is stored together with high explosives, it is to be
treated as being an explosive [with 50% of the quantity of AN being added to the explosives quantity
to obtain the resultant net explosives quantity (NEQ) – as indicated in AS 2187.1] and requires
separation and licensing as such.




                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
   E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com; Weblog: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ Page 9
SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects




C. Government of India, Ministry of Commerce and Industry - Draft Ammonium Nitrate Rules
published through Extraordinary Gazette Notification, Part – II, Section 3, Subsection (I), No. 5131,
dated 17th September 2011
(http://dipp.nic.in/English/acts_rules/rules/AmoniumNitrate_Rules_2011.pdf)
Under Schedule – III of the above draft rule, Ministry has prescribed Safety Distances for
Ammonium Nitrate storages (Concept - Half of ZZ category). It is reproduced below:




                  Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
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SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects




                  Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
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SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects




5. Conclusion – Stringent Restrictions and Regulations imposed on storage, handling and movement
of Ammonium Nitrate by many Governments may check misuse of this chemical to some extent; but
it adversely affect another very important item, upon which growth of humanity depends,
EXPLOSIVES. It is a well known fact that, without the growth of Explosives industry no economy can
grow.

Thus, acknowledging this fact, in many countries’ Regulators have discretion to exempt from these
Regulations persons and facilities producing, selling, transferring, or purchasing ammonium nitrate
exclusively for use in the production of explosives under a license or permit issued under the
Governments’ explosives laws; ref:
(http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/chemsec_summit09_ammoniumnitrateregulations.pdf :Page
14 and DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, US | Ammonium Nitrate Security Statutes and
Regulations, ( Proposed Rule: Ammonium Nitrate Security Program (PDF), 50 pages), Published
August 3, 2011.) http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-03/pdf/2011-19313.pdf, Federal
Register /Vol. 76, No. 149 /Wednesday, August 3, 2011 / Proposed Rules, 46917-(3),Page 10).


References:

* COAG Principles for the Regulation of Ammonium nitrate 17 May 04,
http://mines.industry.qld.gov.au/assets/explosives-pdf/principles_regulation_an.pdf

* Department of Justice, Canada, ‘Ammonium Nitrate Storage Facilities Regulations , C.R.C., c. 1145 (
http://laws.justice.gc.ca/PDF/C.R.C.,_c._1145.pdf , Page 8, 9)

* Department of Consumer and Employment Protection, 2008, ‘Safe storage of solid ammonium
nitrate — code of practice’:
(http://www.dmp.wa.gov.au/documents/Code_of_Practice/DGS_COP_StorageSolidAmmoniumNitra
te.pdf)

* Govt. Of India, “Draft - Ammonium Nitrate Rule, 2011”
(http://dipp.nic.in/English/acts_rules/rules/AmoniumNitrate_Rules_2011.pdf )

* Government of Western Australia, Department of Mines and Petroleum, ‘Application for an
explosives storage licence’
(http://www.dmp.wa.gov.au/documents/Forms/DG_F_ExplosivesStorageLicence_Application.pdf )

                  Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
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SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects



* Queensland Govt., Department of Mines and Energy, ‘Storage requirements for security sensitive
ammonium nitrate (SSAN)’ Information bulletin No. 53 (Version 3), 21 Nov 2008:
(http://mines.industry.qld.gov.au/assets/explosives-info-
bulletins/ib_53_v3_approved_21_nov_08.pdf)

* FAQs DANGEROUS GOODS, GOODS AND EXPLOSIVES, issued by WorkCover, New South wales,
Australia,
(http://www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/formspublications/publications/Documents/dangerous_goods_
explosives_faq_5225.pdf )

* National security: regulation of ammonium nitrate (Australia)
(http://www.pc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/82345/16-chapter10.pdf )

* SSAN, (http://www.oricaminingservices.com/au/en/page/about/ssan )

* Washington State Department of Labor & Industries, ‘Safety Standards for the Possession and
Handling of Explosives’ ( http://www.lni.wa.gov/wisha/rules/explosives/HTML/52-e.htm )

* Storage or Mixing of Incompatible Chemicals
http://www.aristatek.com/newsletter/0709september/TechSpeak.pdf

* “Secure Handling of Ammonium Nitrate: Regulating the Sale & Transfer”, US Home Land Security;
( http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/chemsec_summit09_ammoniumnitrateregulations.pdf)

* Govt. Of South Australia, TECHNICAL NOTE 60, “SAFE STORAGE AND HANDLING OF AMMONIUM
NITRATE (AN)” (http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/SSAN_Storage.T60.pdf )

* South Australian licence conditions for security sensitive ammonium nitrate (SSAN)
(http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/SSAN_LicCondsT57.pdf )

* Chemical storage Guidelines from The CDC, “Guidelines for Safe Chemical Storage”
(http://www.ehso.com/ChemicalStorageGuidelines.htm )

* “Ammonium Nitrate, a double-edged sword”, The News,
(http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=69138&Cat=6 )

* “Govt moves to check use of ammonium nitrate in explosives”, Times of India,
(http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-09-30/india/30229535_1_ammonium-nitrate-
draft-rules-govt-moves )

* DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, US | Ammonium Nitrate Security Statutes and
Regulations, ( Proposed Rule: Ammonium Nitrate Security Program (PDF, 50 pages – 379 KB).
Published August 3, 2011.) http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-08-03/pdf/2011-19313.pdf

* Partha Das Sharma, ‘SECURED AND SAFE TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE AND HANDLING OF
AMMONIUM NITRATE’; (http://knol.google.com/k/secured-and-safe-transportation-storage-and-
handling-of-ammonium-nitrate# )




                  Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
  E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com; Weblog: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ Page 13
SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects

* Erik C. Nygaard, Yara International ASA, Porsgrunn, Norway; “Storage of Technical (Porous)
Ammonium Nitrate”,( http://miningandblasting.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/storage-of-technical-
porous-ammonium-nitrate.pdf)

* Martin Braithwaite “A Review of Ammonium Nitrate Safety Issues”,
(http://ukelg.ps.ic.ac.uk/42Brait.pdf )
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Partha Das Sharma’s Bio-data:




Partha Das Sharma (P.D.Sharma) is Graduate (B.Tech – Hons.) in Mining Engineering from IIT,
Kharagpur, India (1979)

He has very rich experience both in Mining operation and Marketing / Export / offering of Technical
Services of Explosives, ANFO, Bulk explosives, Blast designing etc. Visited number of countries in
Africa, South East Asia etc.

He was associated with number of mining PSUs and explosives organizations, namely MOIL, BALCO,
Century Cement, Anil Chemicals, VBC Industries, Mah. Explosives, Solar Explosives before being a
Consultant.

He has presented number of technical papers in many of the seminars and journals on varied topics
like Overburden side casting by blasting, Blast induced Ground Vibration and its control, Tunnel
blasting, Drilling & blasting in metal underground mines, Controlled blasting techniques,
Development of Non-primary explosive detonators (NPED), Hot hole blasting, Signature hole blast
analysis with Electronic detonator, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD),Mining and Industrial dust etc.

TECHNICAL PAPERS PRESENTED IN SEMINARS/JOURNALS:
* Overburden Blast Casting with SMS Explosives – A case Study, Special Issue on Explosives &
Blasting, Indian Mining & Engineering Journal, November 1998.

* Blast Casting with SMS – A case study at Sasti Opencast mine, “Visfotak” ‘98, National Seminar
on Explosives, Nagpur (India)

* Control of adverse effects of Explosives Blasting in mines by using Shock tubes (Non-electric)
Initiation system and its Future challenges; Advances in drilling and blasting techniques- Procc. of
DRILL BLAST ’99 – National Seminar on drilling and blasting, Bhubaneswar, (India) January 2000.

* Overburden side-casting by blasting – An effective way of reducing operating cost in large
opencast mines; Journal of Mines Metals and Fuel, November 2004 (Sp., issue on development in
surface mining technology – Calcutta, India).




                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
   E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com; Weblog: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ Page 14
SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects

* Overburden side-casting by blasting – Operating Large Opencast Coal Mines in a cost effective
way; Procc. of 1st Asian Mining Congress - Asian Mining: Towards a new resurgence (Vol. I),
Seminar organised by MGMI at KOLKATA (India) from 16th – 18th January 2006 (pp. 307 – 315).

* Non-Primary explosive detonator (NPED) – An eco-friendly initiating system for commercial
blasting is the need-of-the-hour for Indian mines; Journal of Mines Metals and Fuel, March 2006.

* Open pit blasting with in-hole delays and / or pre-splitting of production blast – Measures to
control adverse impact of complex vibration arising due to presence of underground workings in
the vicinity or in otherwise sensitive areas; Mining Engineers’ Journal, August 2006.

* Tunnel blasting – emulsion explosives and proper blast design are the pre- requisite for better
efficiency; Journal of Mines Metals and Fuel, September 2005.

* Improved Blasting technique is the key to achieve Techno-Economics of high production
Underground Metalliferous mines; Indian Mining & Engineering Journal, December 2006.

* Enhancement of drilling & blasting efficiency in O/C & U/G mines – Use of modern precision
drilling, electronic delay detonator system and other sophisticated equipments with new
generation emulsion explosives are the need-of-the-hour; Mining Engineers’ Journal, February
2007.

* Improved Blasting with precision drilling patterns in Underground Metalliferous mines; Procc.
‘Golden Jubilee Seminar’ on Present status of Mining and future Prospects, organized by MEAI (6th
to 8th April 2007) at Hyderabad, India.

* Reduction of Ore dilution/Ore loss in underground metalliferous mines, lies on mitigation of
blast induced vibration to a great extent; Mining Engineers’ Journal, August 2007.

* Controlled Blasting Techniques – Means to mitigate adverse impact of blasting in Open pits,
Quarry, Tunnel, UG metal mines and construction workings; Mining Engineers’ Journal, January
2008.

* Controlled Blasting Techniques – Means to mitigate adverse impact of blasting; Asian mining:
Solutions for development and expansion (Vol. II), Procc. of 2nd Asian Mining Congress, organized
by MGMI at Kolkata (India) dt. 17th – 19th January 2008 (pp. 287 – 295).

* ‘Electronic detonators – An efficient blast initiation system, Mining Engineers’ Journal, India,
October 2008.

* ‘Electronic detonators – Results in substantial techno-economic benefits for large mining
operations’, Mining Engineers’ Journal, India, February 2009.

* Innovative “Signature-Hole Blast Analysis” Technique to predict and control ground vibration in
mines; Asian mining – Resurgence of mining in Asia: Prospect and challenges, Vol. II (pp. 211 –
223), Proceedings of 3rd Asian Mining Congress (22nd – 25th January 2010, at Kolkata, India),
Organised by MGMI, Kolkata.

* Charging and blasting in hot strata condition in opencast coal mines: identifying crucial aspects
for effective safety management; Journal of Mines, Metals & Fuels; India; January – February
2010; (pp. 21).

                  Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
  E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com; Weblog: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ Page 15
SAFE STORAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE : Discussion on Safety/ Separation Distances prescribed by
         Governments of some Country / State’s Regulations and other related aspects



* Techniques of controlled blasting for mines, tunnels and construction workings – to mitigate
various blast induced adverse effects; Journal of Mines, Metals & Fuels; June 2010 (pp. 152-161).

* Factors in designing of blasts, flyrock, industrial explosives used and safe operation of bulk
explosives in opencast mines; Journal of Mines, Metals & Fuels; September 2010 (pp. 255 - 261).

* Acid Drainage in Mines, African Mining Brief Online Jan - Feb 2011,
(http://www.ambriefonline.com/jan-feb11%20guest.html), Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)

Author’s Published Books:
1. "Acid mine drainage (AMD) and It's control", Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (ISBN 978-3-
8383-5522-1).
2. “Mining and Blasting Techniques”, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany,
(ISBN 978-3-8383-7439-0).
3. “Mining Operations”, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany,
(ISBN: 978-3-8383-8172-5).
4. “Keeping World Environment Safer and Greener”, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany.
ISBN: 978-3-8383-8149-7.
5. “Man And Environment”, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany. ISBN: 978-3-8383-8338-5.
6. “ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION”, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany. ISBN: 978-3-
8383-8651-5

Currently, author has following useful blogs on Web:
    • http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/
    • http://saferenvironment.wordpress.com
    • http://www.environmentengineering.blogspot.com
    • www.coalandfuel.blogspot.com

Author can be contacted at E-mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com, sharmapd1@rediffmail.com,
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Disclaimer: Views expressed in the article are solely of the author’s own and do not necessarily
belong to any of the Company.

                                                          ***




                   Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering;
   E.mail: sharmapd1@gmail.com; Weblog: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ Page 16

				
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