Docstoc

Offshore (DOC)

Document Sample
Offshore (DOC) Powered By Docstoc
					Pour Vision Informatique

L'Offshore arrive-t-il vraiment ?


1/ Sociétés spécialisées dans l’offshore :


ODM Tech                                                                         Prestation très
http://www.odm-tech.com/index.htm                                                compléte
                                                                                 Pas de détails
                                                                                 au sujet des
                                                                                 pays
V6 France                                                                        Vente sous
http://www.v6france.com/                                                         licence de
                                                                                 briques
                                                                                 logicielles Java.
                                                                                 Des livres
                                                                                 blancs pas mal.
                                                                                 Russie.
ADAMIL                                                                           Russie Ukraine.
http://www.adamil.fr/accueil/accueil.htm                                         Depuis 10 ans
                                                                                 …

EUTEXIS                                                                          Russie.
http://www.eutexis.com/Presentation.php
DSD                                                                              3 sites !!!
http://www.dsd.fr/societe.htm                                                    Balaise


Offshore Development                                Offshore Development         Inde, offre très
http://www.offshore-developement.com/                                            supermarché
TATA Consultancy Services                        TATA Consultancy Services       Semble énorme
http://www.tcs.com/france/                                                       !!
ARGAZE                                                                           Pologne, Maroc
http://www.argaze.com/

EUROPASIAN                                                                       Chine
http://www.europasian.com/pages/informatique
.htm


http://www.neteconomie.com/perl/navig.pl/neteconomie/infos/article/20020603115939 : article sur V6
France





2/ D’autres sociétés (apparemment moins sérieuses, ou pas spécialisées dans l’offshore) :
    Mediane Inter  Tunisie
http://www.mediane-inter.com/projets_offshore.htm
    Azentis  non spécialisés
http://www.azentis.com/developpement/offshore.htm :
Communiqué Azentis : http://www.press-list.com/Communiques/Azentis.htm
    CIE Signaux  non spécialises (Europe centrale pour leur offre offshore)
http://www.cie-signaux.fr/fr/sct/developoffshore.html
    EUROMEDLOG  Tunisie
http://www.euromedlog.com/
    i2ns
http://www.i2ns.com/demarche1.html
3/ Articles/whitepapers :
    Enquête sur l'offshore : http://solutions.journaldunet.com/0212/021202_enqueteoffshore.shtml :
    Article sur l'offshore : http://solutions.journaldunet.com/0201/020114_delocalisations.shtml
    Whitepaper : http://tubbydev.free.fr/whitepaper.htm :
    Article sur V6 France :
http://www.neteconomie.com/perl/navig.pl/neteconomie/infos/article/20020603115939 :


Ma vision pour des projets offshore sur des projets de d'entreprise

Je travaille actuellement avec une équipe Offshore mais il faut savoir que cela est possible si le
projet en question forme vraiment un tout. En l'occurrence, nous développons un logiciel. Les
besoins peuvent donc être formalisé complètement. Les besoins de développement sont alors
primordiaux. Ceci reste vrai surtout pour tous les éditeurs de logiciel qui conservent un lien très
fort entre le développement et leur activité.

Mais pour la plupart des entreprises, le développement se fait de concert avec des équipes
fonctionnelles qui localement font évoluer les besoins, et surtout pour la société qui demande ces
développements, le gros du travail concerne surtout les parties avales et amonts, définition des
besoins, définitions des tests et des plans de recette, mais surtout INTEGRATION de la solution
avec les systèmes existants, formation des futurs administrateurs et utilisateurs, suivi des
déploiements, interaction avec les autres applications, problématique de sécurité...

Au final le développement en lui même n'est pas ce qui est le plus important. La société en
question attend une prestation d'ensemble.

A cela s'ajoutent des détails qui mis bout à bout peuvent réellement faire pencher la balance,
problèmes de langues (traduction des besoins), problématiques de COMPREHENSION des
besoins fonctionnelles (nous avons du former nos équipes aux métiers de la gestion de trésorerie,
sans cela nos équipes n'auraient pas du tout compris nos problématiques et il faut que la
formation des développeurs ne durent pas autant que la durée du projet lui même !!), des cultures
de travail spécifiques à chaque entreprises, problématiques des décalages horaires qui empêchent
souvent de pouvoir travailler de manière synchrone, etc...

Le projet Offshore s'il doit avoir une chance de réussir doit être un projet de longue durée dans
lequel un investissement peut être fait sur le moyen terme au minimum. Notre projet avance très
bien, et l'offshore est donc un succès mais nous arrivons déjà aux limites avec justement des
problématiques d'hébergement et d'intégration qui ne peuvent se manager à distance. Il faudrait
finalement que l'application et leurs utilisateurs soient eux même hébergés là bas !!!

Finalement il semblerait que seul le coût est moteur sur ce type d'attitude de délocalisation. Si les
compétences le sont aussi, le problème est alors différent.
Pour ce qui concerne les coûts, ceux-ci deviendront très vite moins compétitifs. Cela commence
déjà, les entreprises qui travaille en offshore renchérissent pour obtenir les meilleurs profils et les
meilleurs profils comprennent aussi qu'il peut être intéressant de changer de structure pour faire
évoluer leurs salaires.
En ce qui concerne les compétences, cela dépend du pays cible. Mais de toute manière, il y aura
toujours des bons et des mauvais profils. Si l'on considère que les compétences européennes ne
sont pas à la hauteur cela pose alors un grave problème. Car plus cher et moins bon, cela conduit
à une perte inévitable.

Il s'agit donc de savoir si les compétences sont oui ou non, à la hauteur des tâches demandées.
Mais bien souvent les problèmes, dit de compétences, se retrouvent aussi en offshore, les
dernières technologies arrivent là bas en même temps...

Pour finir, le problème posé serait plutôt de savoir comment est-ce encore possible que des
sociétés veuillent toujours développer des logiciels spécifiques !! Encore une fois, mon point de
vue se place du coté des projets d'entreprises, de développements de solutions de gestion. Ceci
n'est pas vrai pour les éditeurs de logiciel dont l'"informatique" [les développements
informatiques] sont le coeur de métier et dont les possibles réduction de coût sont très
importantes.


Article de 01 Informatique, beaucoup d'optimisme !!! http://www.01net.com/article/202590.html

Qu'est-ce qui peut freiner l'essor de la délocalisation des cols blancs, notamment ceux de
l'informatique ?

Réponse : rien. Un ingénieur indien coûte 150 dollars par jour « tout mouillé », comme le
rappelait récemment le patron d'un gros éditeur. C'est-à-dire installé, équipé, climatisé, connecté...

Toujours selon ce même patron, la seule ville indienne de Bangalore - certes, le creuset high-tech
du pays - diplôme plus d'ingénieurs informaticiens par an que toutes les écoles de France réunies.
Une « petite » société (un chiffre d'affaires de 100 millions d'euros) comme Valtech songe
sérieusement à avoir « mille personnes en Inde d'ici à 2004 » ( Les Echos du 18 février).

Les Français, les Européens, tous les pays développés et à charges sociales élevées (par rapport à
ces autres pays) semblent définitivement perdants dans cette affaire. Les prestataires des
continents indiens et asiatiques, notamment, installent partout dans le monde leurs antennes
commerciales, qui ratissent tous les jours de nouveaux clients.

Les coûts - réels - de l'éloignement physique et géographique, de la différence culturelle et
linguistique, et des communications ne pèsent pas lourd face au rapport qualité/prix de la main-
d'oeuvre. Bref, il est temps d'arrêter de se voiler la face : il faut désormais imaginer un monde
différent, où globalisation rimera avec délocalisation.

Alors, positivons : l'informatique est un outil appliqué à des idées, et les idées restent,
théoriquement, la propriété de leurs émetteurs. Il ne reste donc plus qu'à valoriser nos idées -
individuelles et collectives - pour qu'elles deviennent notre véritable matière première, celle que
personne ne pourra concurrencer.

Et là, l'expérience de nos entreprises peut payer. A condition, toutefois, que l'on sache la partager
et la faire fructifier, à travers une meilleure gestion de la connaissance. On ne remplace pas d'un
coup de baguette magique des années d'expertise industrielle et de service. Le KM (knowledge
management), voilà LA solution. Au travail !




V6France une étude de l'offshore russe


Being the result of IT revolution and the globalization of economy, the rush in offshore programming
confirms the well-known thesis that the key of any business is cost effectiveness or, in other words,
maximizing profits while keeping expenses low. The clients, major companies active in the "new economy" in
leading high-tech countries, are in process of transferring software development abroad to cut on production
costs, escape the deficit in qualified labor force and broaden the scope of marketed products by sales of
localized software. The contractors, companies in countries of developing and transitional economy, are able
to sell their products internationally at much more favorable prices compared to their local market and offer
more employment options to highly qualified local specialists.

The paper focuses on a 3D business model of a company operating on a number of regional markets and
delivering multifunctional Web applications and online consulting services. The 1D ('flat') model where
business process is considered a solid entity is appropriate only in the scenarios of servicing clients in one or
two localities. As the number of serviced regions increases the operation becomes more complicated, slows
down considerably and becomes more expensive.

The business process must be subdivided into separate entities and their interconnecting ties identified, thus
building a multi-dimension matrix where dimensions are unique relations between every two specific
elements. The first dimension here is Project (custom software development) which falls into several phases
(Client - Developer dimension). The concurrent realization of several different projects brings the second
dimension (Project - Company dimension), the third dimension is multiple projects in different regions
(Company - Region dimension). One can imagine the fourth dimension - increase in production effectiveness
(Company - Process dimension) or the fifth - accumulation of technology expertise (Company - Technology
dimension) and so on.

Brief Overview of Global Custom Software Development Market

The software development companies employ today about 7 million programmers [see 13]. The yearly
turnover of the industry adds up to more than $600 billion with its year-to-year growth rate constantly
exceeding 25 percent for the last 3 years. The packaged (either sold or licensed), or 'box', software accounts
for almost a half of the revenues, the rest comes from custom software development - the segment
considered today to be one of the most promising.
The Indian "software factories" (InfoSys, Wipro, Aptech) are considered a reference point for the Russian
companies entering the market in the past 5-7 years. India is the world leader in the industry with the
software development accounting for 10 percent of the country\'s export earnings. The software industry
turnover in India is expected to exceed $6 billion by 2001.

The situation in Russia today is far more modest. Different sources report the Russian software development
companies employ 5 to 8 thousand specialists. The total yearly revenues estimation for companies producing
custom software for foreign clients falls in range $60 to $100 million. But to our experience those figures are
overoptimistic and Russia's turnover in the branch is $40 million at best. (More accurate data may be
obtained by close study of audit results for one of those companies).
According to numerous studies [see 4, 7, 17, 20], the outstanding annual demand for the services adds up to
an impressive figure of $2 billion. The major sources of the demand are the USA and Western Europe [see
18, 19] with their substantial shortage of specialists. (According to Department of Commerce estimates, the
shortage of professional programmers in the USA will total some 1.5 million by 2003).

The trends analysis [see 2, 3, 7, 16, 17] has revealed three competing groups in the software industry.
Every group has its weak points:


       local software developers (operating in the resident country of the client) are in general too
        expensive and limited in labor force;
       IT departments of prospective clients normally lack expertise in implementing new cutting edge
        technologies;
       foreign companies (including Russian) are often considered less trustworthy compared to the local
        ones and difficult to deal with due to communication problems (language barrier, large distance,
        time gap, different corporate culture, etc.)

What Are the Stumble Bricks for Offshore Programming in Russia

While working out a business model for an offshore programming company you must take into account the
existing market situation and observe certain rules. Listed below are the key aspects acting as breaks for
offshore programming boom in Russia.


       Lack of top and medium level managers is a major problem in building software development
        procedures, since only those managers set the quality standards and propel the company's capability
        to complete project within the set time limits. The key for success is solid background and
        continuous training of senior managers.
       Excessively cautious attitude of foreign clients to Russian companies, which comes from
        distortion and incompleteness of information from Russia and its programming industry in particular.
        Occasionally, the Western mass media turns to the Russian offshore business, although the
        information often is far from the reality. Most Russian programming companies cannot boast a
        success record of a considerable length - the fact adding little to the confidence of prospective
        Western clients.
       Lack of certification. The number of Russian companies certified to ISO standards is extremely
        low. There is no Russian company in the list of 160 firms officially certified to comply with the CMM
        standard. Moreover, in Russia there is no center specializing in consulting, training and certifying
        services for companies applying for CMM certificate.
       Language barrier. Language barrier hampers cooperation with foreign clients and often results in
        failures, delays and mutual claims.
       Geographical remoteness. Remoteness has a negative psychological impact on a foreign client
        and requires additional efforts to cover the time gap, provide reliable communications, etc.
       Insufficient marketing efforts is a serious shortcoming of most Russian businesses. To develop a
        perfect product, an advanced technique or a reliable company is equally (or even less) important
        than to market it in the most effective way to attract prospective clients.

Business Model for Software Developer Operating in Several Locations

There are two basic models for business - one (1D) and three (3D) dimensional. The first one perfectly
serves management of software development and maintenance, customers relationships, maintaining a high
technical expertise of the personnel, but fails to account for regional distinctions. Thus the 1D model is
adequate as long as the clients are located in a single (or two) region. The model fails outside this limitation,
i.e. when the company operates in multiple localities. Every geographic region has its specific features
(language, cultural background, time zone, technological biases, psychological reaction to marketing
methods, etc.) that affect almost all the components of the existing business process. To tailor the process to
comply with the needs and expectations of new clients is too troublesome - the company must migrate to the
3D model (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. The Structure of a Custom Software Development Company

Proximity Centers

The 3D model is based on proximity centers deployed (physically, not virtually) in locations,
where the company plans to find its clients. This universal approach allows the company to tailor
operation patterns of centers to the peculiarities of specific regions.

In general, a proximity center acts as intermediary, i.e. the sales manager lives near the clients, speaks their
language, faces the same community and social problems, practices the same business ethics and even
makes the same mistakes as his clients. Sales manager cultivates (and should do so) the impression that the
client has complete control over the software development process and manages it disregarding time zones,
national holidays and language barriers.

The sales manager forwards client requests and suggestions to the project manager in the parent company,
the leader of a team in the software development department. The sales manager must be able to provide
the client with the most adequate requested information on project realization and convey all the necessary
questions and comments. Therefore, the developing staff must achieve complete mutual understanding with
the sales manager disregarding the language barrier, discuss all the nascent problems no matter how much
time it takes. The resulting extra overheads and time delays turn into more precise and valuable information.
The client gets only the final result, which is distinct and clear.

The proximity center is a small company or department consisting of a head manager, several (1 to 5) sales
managers, accountant (accountant operations may be outsourced to a third company specializing in this
area), one or two secretaries handling telephone calls and acting as clerks, and one or two marketing experts
(see Figure 2). Ordinarily, the personnel is hired locally.

The proximity center evolution proceeds in several phases. The market penetration is accomplished using
minimal staff and expenses. One or two managers use their contacts and start pioneer projects or search for
clients. Signing contracts with new clients marks the beginning of the second phase when it is time to hire
new staff including marketing experts. The third stage implies expansion of the local market presence, when
references from the existing clients bring even more clients. Besides the increase in regular staff, the center
would need temporary personnel - technicians and consultants. They may be invited from the software
development department of the parent company. The proximity centers providing consulting, implementation
and other services and securing the constant flow of orders seems to be an optimal solution in the long run.
A short term alternative may be establishing partner relations with local providers of similar services
(Russian companies can act as co-providers) or turning to local agents (private or corporate) for client
orders.
Figure2. Structure of Proximity Center

Chief Technologist Office
The success of a custom software developer relies to a large extent on the technologies it supports. The
name of programming tool used is virtually of no importance - what really matters is to write the code
strictly meeting the client requirements with minimal (or at least predictable) bug count and adequately
documented, and within the time limits. The work is planned and coordinated by Chief Technologist Office. It
incorporates R&D Department, Reusable Components Pool and Corporate Knowledgebase. Head Technologist
Office defines the technology policy of the company, tools to be used and directions on improving expertise
of employees.

Development Center
The principal component of the business model is Software Development Department (see Figure 1). Similar
structures are widely used in practice. We will have a closer look at specific sections and start with project
managers.

Project manager is a key figure in the model and has complete control over the resources allocated for
project development and maintenance and is responsible to report on development progress to both the
company and the client. It is project manager who is responsible for meeting the production deadlines as
well as allocation and redistribution of resources within the project - technical and human. Project manager
also takes care and resolve disputes occasionally arising between different parties of development process.
The project plans may be changed only with his approval.

Project manager must be a brilliant manager (it is a must, not just exaggeration), have a profound
experience in resource management and possess a certain knowledge of software development. One of the
main prerequisites for success of project manager is the availability of the sufficient intellectual resources (in
other words, creative staff), or, in practice, the resources he is able to get (or to ask for, take hold of, to
snatch, to seize, to grab - choose the appropriate word yourself) from the software development department
on request.

Software Development Department
Software Development Department cannot be considered just as a 'resources storage'. It lays the foundation
for company's intellectual stock, carries out prospective planning of personnel in terms of number, structure
and expertise, as well as maintains quality assurance procedures. The department incorporates design unit,
user interface programming and testing units, and technical documentation section. The matrix model for
development management provides the most effective way to use available resources. While setting up
Software Development Department you have to allocate for production processes only to 65-75 percent of
total working time. The remaining 25 percent are spent on training personnel and improving its expertise.

Human Resources Department
The staff recruitment is given special attention in the model. In general, the educational and intellectual level
of Russian programmers is rather high - the fact widely accepted on Western labor markets [see 1-3].
Although, the recruitment of qualified personnel proves to be tough issue due to the competition and must
be reinforced by adequate compensation package. Thus, a custom software producer must not only be able
to effectively recruit highly qualified staff, but also constantly motivate its personnel. Due to the constant
advances in technology, the employer must also provide its personnel with regular training courses
(preferably twice a year). The shortage of experts often forces the company to establish its own training
center.

Maintenance and Support Dept
While establishing the custom software development company do not forget about Maintenance and Support
Department. The department may not only maintain completed projects, but is also capable to provide
ongoing support to the projects completed by third parties, when, for instance, the client refrained from
services from those parties. There is a considerable market for such projects and it also may be a subject for
consideration. The skeleton staff of Maintenance and Support Department is composed of project managers
and a few programmers responsible for the 'on the fly' processing of client requests. To solve a major
problems in maintenance procedures, a standard project is established and transferred to Software
Development Department. All modifications to the completed project or projects where the company acts as
maintenance agent should be treated using a unified technological processes and procedures.

Quality Assurance Department
The model is based on the process oriented approach. The "maturity level" of processes is the key to distinct
definition, ability to reproduce, manageability and, in effect, in effectiveness of any future projects. All the
processes - project management, quality assurance, prospective planning, development and testing
procedures, documenting, etc. - must be formalized and well documented. This guarantees upholding the
quality standards regardless of the changes in personnel or technology and makes all the corporate
processes transparent for both management and employees.

The goal is to make any type of activity inside the company to follow the strict and clear regulations and to
be easily reproducible and predictable. Special procedures for analysis, discussing and correction of
processes must be in place. There are multiple generally recognized models defined in specialized standards,
including CMU SEI CMM, CMMI, P-CMM, ISO 9000, TickIT, Spice [see 10, 11, 15, 20, 23, 24, 26-29], for
establishing an effective production scheme. It is very important for the company striving to enter the global
custom software market to support its efforts by compliance with at least one of those standards.

Prior to certification the company must analyze its production processes and make a profound modernization
of its organizational, technical and management structure. This allows the company to considerably enhance
manageability of the company and each department. Moreover, the certification procedures are also a perfect
marketing tool and an important competitive advantage. A serious client would not sign a contract without
appropriate guarantees, and the certificates are often considered to be some kind of a serious warranty.

To implement the process oriented approach, the model incorporates Quality Assurance Department, which is
responsible for drawing the certification plan, introducing novel management processes, personnel training,
audit and preparation of regulative documents.

The Advantages of Establishing Development Center in Russia

Listed below are the key advantages of establishing the development center in Russia.


       Despite the hard times the Russian higher education faces nowadays, the reproduction of labor force
        within programming industry is still under way and the quality of education and intellectual level
        remain consistently high.
       Russian programmers are known for their widely accepted high education level. Many Russian work
        for the world leading high tech companies, such as SUN, Intel, Motorola and IBM.
       Russian specialist are highly adaptive and easy to learn and are known for the ability not only to
        master new information, but to think creatively suggesting compact and elegant solutions.
       Mastering all the cutting edge technologies as soon as they are released. Most Russian programmers
        are eager for new ideas on the market and proactively participate in beta-testing of new leading
        systems and products under development.
       The relatively low prime cost usually does not impress the client but gives the Russian companies an
        edge on the initial phase.
      Unfortunately, not all the firms have experience with major projects, but the number of
       programmers with relevant practice in sophisticated, lengthy and expensive projects is constantly
       growing.

The Vital Prerequisites for Success of Offshore Programming Company

      Providing a wide range of services is a key for the company to achieve market success. The
       minimum set of 'must-be' services is listed below.
           1. Task definition and suggestions on possible solutions, collecting client requirements and
              discussions with the client, drawing the implementation specification. These are consulting
              services that does not require constant direct communication with the client personnel. The
              quality of service depends on availability of proximity centers and the maturity of
              coordination routines within geographically separated subdivisions (Figure 3).




                     Figure 3. The Outline of Remote Internet Programming Services

           2.   System analysis, technical design of the software system (design of its technical
                architecture, if appropriate), development of programming specifications.
           3.   Software programming and debugging. The system analysis, engineering design,
                specifications definition, programming and debugging procedures are based on the basic
                development processes of the company [see 3, 5, 6, 8, 9] operating in the custom software
                market. The central requirement of the client is the delivery of the high quality software
                within the set time limits [see 5, 6, 8, 14], therefore the development process must
                incorporate quality assurance procedures as defined by the standards - both ISO [see 12]
                and SEI CMM [see 16, 22, 25, 27]. The conceptual outline of the integrated quality
                assurance system based on the recursive procedure of software development is shown in
                Figure 4.
                               Figure 4. Integrated Quality Assurance System

            4.   Maintenance and post-implementation extension and enhancement of the software.
            5.   Reengineering of projects implemented by the third companies already in use with the
                 client.
       Establishing the regional proximity centers is a must. The centers should be strategically
        placed in all the regions where contacts with clients are planned or already under way.
       Continuous accumulation of experience in custom software development. The specialists
        should be constantly trained to keep abreast with technology advances, they also may master and
        improve foreign languages skills.
       Acquiring of one or more internationally accepted quality certificates in project
        management is a must. The company must make all the possible efforts to build a perfect project
        development procedures. Without an ISO or CMM certificate all the efforts may be useless.
       A success story is highly desirable. The story of successful project completion for an
        international client may be presented in the most effective way to the prospective clients. The
        success stories must be vivid and realistic. The goal is to make new clients feel an air of confidence
        of respectable and reliable clients satisfied by the services provided by the company.
       Extensive marketing efforts are vital for successful penetration of the market. Every product,
        including software, must be well packaged. The high professional programming standards or unique
        features and advantages of the product should be adequately described and made clear for clients.
        The company must follow the Western quality standards and take into account the accepted
        practices and habits of prospective client. Substantial (by Russian standards) funds must be
        allocated to the creation of a favorable corporate image. At the same time, just spending money is
        not enough. One should study prospective market demands and thoroughly plan the introduction
        strategy according to the preferences of the target auditory. To make the marketing program a
        success, the company must realize and adopt the widely accepted practices of marketing and
        understand the difference in the way marketing is made in Russia. By inventive combination of both
        principles the Russian company can successfully avoid the traps of misunderstanding and prejudice
        and make its way to success in the West.

The establishment and launch of a successful offshore programming company is really a tough job requiring
shrewd planning, substantial investments, profound knowledge of modern technologies and methods of
making business. The success of the venture to very large extent depends on the teamwork of the top
management. The experience of foreign (Wipro, InfoSys, Aptech, etc.) and Russian (ACTIS, Auriga, V6, X-
project, Argussoft, Novosoft, etc.) companies demonstrated that it takes years and millions invested to
establish and deploy the company. Prior to starting direct investments one must make extensive business
planning, recruit specialists with the relevant experience, provide for alternative financing sources, etc.

It would be much easier if the state provided support for the new companies. The pivot example of India,
where the government secured the favorable legal and fiscal conditions for offshore programming,
demonstrated that the time lag between the easement and the positive economic effect may be as long as 5
years. Stimulating the breakthrough of the national high-tech business to the international markets should
become one of the top priorities in the Russian official policy. The state should provide for favorable
conditions to the promising industry that has brilliant prospects in the new millennium.

It would be great if the energy and talent of successful Russian businessmen helped our country to reach a
new global dimension. The positive changes in the industry would become evident within two years and in
three to four years could change Russia's standing in the world. The success in software development could
turn the country from the raw materials and labor force exporter into a leader in the most promising area of
IT revolution. The exemplary cases of Israel, India and Ireland provide evidence that the goal is realistic.

Establishment an independent national industry association would considerably facilitate and propel offshore
programming in Russia. One of the speakers at an IT symposium in December 2000 suggested the name -
"Russian Association for Offshore Programming" (RAOP). There is an opinion that founding such an
organization is a protectionist measure with a ghost of "external adversary" in mind. The belief is wrong -
there is no rivals, but we do have our common goal - to gain a position in the custom software market. V6
company is ready to participate in founding the association. By replacing "common adversary" with "common
goal" the national companies will not "unite against some evil" but "unite for something praiseworthy". We
will support any efforts to establish RAOP or other industrial partnership and we stand ready for constructive
cooperation.


Sondage et chiffres

     Bien loin devant la recherche de compétences plus pointues,                      En savoir plus
     l'externalisation à l'étranger des développements obéit très                Externalisation /
     majoritairement, parmi nos lecteurs-sondés, à une logique purement          Infogérance
     économique de réduction de coûts. Revers de la médaille, d'après les
     résultats de notre enquête: le pilotage à distance des équipes constitue le principal frein à
     "l'offshore" pour les entreprises répondantes. Parmi celles-ci (voir leur composition), plus des
     deux tiers ont fait appel à ce type d'externalisation.

                 Votre entreprise fait-elle appel à des prestataires offshore pour développer
                 ou pour maintenir ses applications ?


                                       Oui 69%                                Non 31%


     Les pays
     Trois zones géographiques se détachent nettement: l'Inde, l'Europe centrale et le Maghreb
     (principalement la Tunisie puis le Maroc) concentrent l'essentiel des développeurs étrangers
     employés par les sociétés françaises.

                 Votre entreprise fait appel aux ressources des pays suivants : (Réponses
                 multiples autorisées)


                                                       Inde            31%
                                             Europe centrale          29%
                                                   Maghreb          21%
                                                     Russie    7%
                                             Asie du sud-est   5%
                                                   Autres         13%




Les raisons
Dans neuf cas sur dix, le coût moindre est la raison de l'externalisation à l'étranger. Pour 3%
des répondants concernés, toutefois, l'offshore répond à un déficit de compétences (sans doute
assez pointues) sur le marché français.

             Votre entreprise fait appel au développement offshore car :


                                                                   Les développeurs offshore
                                                                       sont plus performants
                                              88%                                      9%

                         Elle veut réduire ses coûts de développement                       3%
                                                                                    Elle n'a pas
                                                                                     trouvé les
                                                                                  compétences
                                                                                  équivalentes
                                                                                           sur le
                                                                                         marché
                                                                                        français




 Les difficultés
 Si la barrière de la langue constitue l'une des difficultés les plus souvent citées par les
répondants (dans 74% des cas), le problème du management à distance des équipes et du
pilotage du projet revient encore plus souvent (94% !).
Viennent ensuite la qualité des télécommunications (difficulté souvent citée mais moyennement
jugée importante, dans l'ensemble), le décalage horaire et la culture technique des prestataires
(critère le moins souvent cité mais, le cas échéant, souvent jugé important: de ce point de vue,
cette difficulté n'est dépassée que par le pilotage à distance).

             Il est difficile de travailler avec un prestataire offshore pour les raisons
             suivantes :


Décalage horaire         15%                   36%                                 49%


Langue                         29%                             45%                             26%


Culture technique des
                              30%                 30%                           40%
prestataires


Pilotage à distance
                                               65%                                     29%                6%
des équipes


Télécom-munications        19%                     35%                               46%


                                       Beaucoup                     Un peu                  Pas du tout




Travail collaboratif
Avec les équipes situées à l'étranger, les entreprises répondantes ont dans leur majorité mis en
place des outils informatiques de travail collobaratif, y compris avancé (un quart utilise la
réunion virtuelle, plus d'un cinquième la vidéo conférence, ce qui est loin d'être négligeable),
tandis que, fort logiquement, des applications comme le partage de documents ou les
gestionnaires du projet sont beaucoup plus répandues.

            Votre entreprise utilise des outils de travail collaboratif avec ses prestataires
            offshore:


                               Oui 57%                                  Non 43%

                                            Si oui, lesquels?
                                   Partage de documents                     88%
                                   Gestionnaire de projets             63%
                                        Web conferencing              50%
                                Salles de réunion virtuelle     25%
                                         Vidéo conférence       21%
*avec visionneur de transparents et messagerie instantanée


Méthodologie
Cette enquête en ligne, de par sa nature, s'appuie sur un échantillon du               En savoir plus
lectorat du JDNet Solutions intéressé par le sujet de l'externatisation à         Externalisation /
l'étranger des ressources de développement. De fait, l'échantillon est            Infogérance
dominé par les entreprises du secteur informatique, même si quelques
entreprises du secteur financier, notamment, y figurent également.
            Secteurs d'activité des répondants (échantillon de 61 entreprises - durée de
            l'enquête: du 22/11 au 29/11)



                                                                       Industrie Presse
                                      69%                              8% 5% 5% 5% 8%
                                  Informatique                        Finances        Autres nc


[Rédaction, JDNet]                                                                Précédent | Haut de page

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:41
posted:11/3/2011
language:French
pages:13