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BRUCELLA INTRODUCTION Brucella Sir David Bruce isolated Micrococcus melitensis from a British soldier who died from Maltese fever in Malta. The Micrococcus of Malta Fever. Practitioner, 1888, 40: 241-249. Sir David Bruce (1855 - 1931) Classification of Brucella Bacteria, Proteobacteria, a-Proteobacteria, Rhizobiales, Brucellaceae Species Host B. abortus cattle, human B. canis dogs, foxes, coyotes, human B. melitensis sheep, goats, human B. neotomae desert wood rats B. ovis rams B. suis pigs, human Gram negative, cocco-bacillus; facultative intracellular bacterium Brucella listed as CDC and NIH priority category B pathogen Acquisition of Brucella Infection Infects Regional Entry Systemic Lymph Spread phagocytic Nodes cells Liver, spleen, other lymph Abortion Infection nodes; uterus in ungulates Secretions, tissues, Milk, cheese fetus & secretions Transmission to other vertebrates = Zoonosis Brucellosis in Vertebrates Animals: • Chronic infection leading to abortion and infertility • Clinical signs & symptoms vary with species - metritis, spondylitis, lameness, paralysis - testicular swelling, lympadenitis, splenitis Humans: • Clinical signs & symptoms: fever (Undulant Fever) anorexia, back pain, fatigue, malaise, myalgia, sweats, weight loss. • Mortality rate is low; abortions NOT common • Clinical manifestations - a lot, including reactive arthritis (a type of spondylitis) Brucellosis in livestock Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas, Animal Production and Health Division, 2006, FAO Brucella Genomes Highly similar Large - B. melitensis, B. abortus & B. suis chromosome I genomes are completely ~ 2.1 Mb sequenced; B. ovis is pending - have 2 chromosomes - contain about 3200 ORFs - more than 90% of annotated Small genes share 95-100% homology chromosome II ~ 1.2 Mb - most of the differentiating genes are located in 6 large islands Brucella can be intentionally released for bioterrorism Brucella organisms could be released in aerosol form, by accidental spills of culture suspensions or live vaccines, or in liquids such as dairy products or water. Brucellosis has fairly low fatality rate, but could be used as an incapacitating agent, as the disease tends to be chronic, requiring prolonged treatment 2. Emergency Contact: Local health departments and local law enforcement agencies should be contacted in the event of accidental or intentional release of Brucella species(Website 3). 3. Delivery Mechanism: Brucella organisms could be aerosolized and released at infectious doses. 10-500 organisms in aerosol form constitute an infectious dose. 4. Containment: Most commercial disinfectants are effective at killing or neutralizing Brucella organisms. http://www.nigms.nih.gov/News/Reports/biodefense.htm Brucella intentional release modeling Goal: See how is used, and how to possibly prevent and contain it. Create new terms: Planned process: Brucella intentional release; Brucella aerosolization; Brucella infectious dose (means: a dose that can induce brucellosis in a host.) Input: aerosolized Brucella Output: Planned objective: Term: Brucella containment Term: Brucella intentional release route ?? 2. Emergency Contact: Local health departments and local law enforcement agencies should be contacted in the event of accidental or intentional release of Brucella species(Website 3). 3. Delivery Mechanism: Brucella organisms could be aerosolized and released at infectious doses. 10-500 organisms in aerosol form constitute an infectious dose. 4. Containment: Most commercial disinfectants are effective at killing or neutralizing Brucella organisms. http://www.nigms.nih.gov/News/Reports/biodefense.htm bearer_of has_part is_realized_by abortion B.abortus cattle brucellosis pathogen role cattle brucellosis process disease course is_realized_by brucellosis patient Brucella-contaminated milk bearer_of is_a resides_in Drink… cattle brucellosis disposition milk producing function Brucella-infected cow bearer_of is_a B. abortus infection Brucella infection is_realized_by bearer_of bearer_of human Brucellosis host Cow Brucella-contaminated milk NOTES: • We don’t have ‘resides_in’ relation. • Focus: brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, it can infect both human and animals.
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