Poka-Yoke Data Entry System Version 1.19. - University of Nevada

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Poka-Yoke Data Entry System Version 1.19. - University of Nevada Powered By Docstoc
					                                 Welcome to the Poka-Yoke Data Entry System



Why use double-entry?
Data entry errors add random error to our datasets. At the least, they reduce reliability, effect sizes, and power.
At the worst, they introduce outliers that completely invalidate our entire statistical analyses. Catching data entry
errors is therefore critical.
There are two commonly used methods of checking for data entry errors. One method is visual checking:
entering the data once, and then visually checking that the data on the screen matches the data on the piece of
paper. The disadvantage of visual checking is that there is no way to know if it has been done well. If the person
who is doing the visual checking fails to see a mismatch, there is no way you can tell. The other method is to
enter the data twice, and make sure they agree. This is called double-entry, and this is the system used here.
The advantage of double-entry is that it is easy to tell if the data match: there is a record of this in the data entry
file itself. If the data entry person fails to catch a mismatch, their supervisor will see the error and can correct it.
Because you can be sure that data entry errors will be caught, double-entry allows researchers to delegate data
entry to research assistants, saving valuable researcher time. Alternatively, if no research assistants are
available, double-entry allows the researcher to enter data when they themselves are tired or inattentive. They do
not need to enter data during their most productive time of the day; they can rely upon the double-entry system to
A number of different double-entry systems are available. All of them will substantially reduce the likelihood of
data entry errors. There are three advantages of this particular system. First, it has been designed to help the
data entry person identify and correct errors as they make them. Second, it is relatively easy to modify this
template to fit any data set. Third, it is free. This template was written in Microsoft Excel, which is a program that
most researchers (and most research assistants) have easy access to. As later versions of Excel become
available, it will be very easy to save the template in the current version of Excel, and continue using this
program. Other double-entry systems cost money or are stand-alone programs that are platform-specific and will
become obsolete within just a few years. For example, SPSS has a data entry system that you can purchase as
Resources and Reference
This template has been designed to assist researchers in implementing high quality data entry. It incorporates
double-entry, checking for mismatches, and checking for out-of-range values. For most research projects, all you
need to do is follow the instructions given here, and you will be able to use this system for your data entry.
However, if you want to understand how this program works or if you want to have greater flexibility in creating a
data entry system that meets your needs, consult the following paper:
        Barchard, K.A. & Pace, L.A. (2008). Meeting the challenge of high quality data entry: A free double-entry
        system. International Journal of Services and Standards, 4 , 359-376. This paper is also available from
        Kim Barchard, Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway,
        Las Vegas, NV, 89154-5030, barchard@unlv.nevada.edu
If you use this data entry system for work that is later published, we would appreciate it if you would cite this file.
The citation is:
        Barchard, K.A. & Pace, LA. (2010, April). Poka-Yoke Data Entry System Version 1.19. Unpublished file
        for Excel 2007 that shows how to set up a double-entry data entry system for any number of measures
        and items. Available from Kim Barchard, Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas,
        barchard@unlv.nevada.edu.
This template was last modified on April 13, 2010. Contact Kim Barchard at barchard@unlv.nevada.edu to ask if
there is a more recent version of this template available.


Distribution
This template is freely available to all researchers, instructors, and students. Email Kim Barchard at
barchard@unlv.nevada.edu for the latest version of this template.
You may distribute this template to other researchers, instructors, and students as long as you do not charge
them any money. If you modify this template, you must cite this original file and also indicate how you modified it.


Instructions
Step 1: Modify the template to fit your dataset
The first step is to modify this template to fit your dataset. Start by saving a copy of this file in the folder where
you want to enter the data, using a file name that is related to your data entry project.

This Excel workbook contains four worksheets: this worksheet (called "Read me") with instructions on how to use
this template; two data entry worksheets ("Questionnaire 1" and "Questionnaire 2"); and a worksheet that
provides instructions in case you have more than two questionnaires ("Subsequent Questionnaires"). You can
move between these worksheets by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the screen.
If your participants completed multiple questionnaires and tests, then each questionnaire or test will be entered in
a separate data entry worksheet. Imagine you have data for three questionnaires (Emotion Management, Test
Anxiety, and Math Text): you will enter Emotion Management on Questionnaire 1, Test Anxiety on Questionnaire
2, and you will need to create a new worksheet for the Math Test.
In these data entry worksheets, each row represents a different participant, and each column is a different
variable. If each participant completed two questionnaires, then each participant will take up one row in each of
the two worksheets.
Unprotect Sheets
To modify the data entry worksheets, you will need to go to that worksheet and then unprotect the sheet. Under
the Review tab, select Unprotect Sheet. The password is the word “password.” Repeat this for every data entry
worksheet. for Each Questionnaire
Worksheets
If you have only 1 or 2 questionnaires, you need to delete the extra worksheets. Thus, if you only have 1
questionnaire, delete the worksheets for the second questionnaire and subsequent questionnaires. If you have 2
questionnaires, delete the worksheet for the subsequent questionnaires.
If you have more than 2 questionnaires, you will need to create new worksheets for them. First, select the
worksheet for the first questionnaire template, by clicking on the worksheet name at the bottom of the screen.
Second, on the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format, and then click Move or Copy Sheet. A box will open.
In the "Before sheet" box, select (move to end), and then select "Create a copy". If you have already entered data
into the first questionnaire, delete that data from your new worksheet, so that your new worksheet is entirely
blank. Repeat this process until you have enough worksheets for each of your questionnaires.
If any of your questionnaires have more than 100 items, you will need to split that questionnaire between two or
more worksheets. Put the first 100 items in the first worksheet and put the subsequent items in the other
worksheet(s).
Now that you have the correct number of worksheets for the questionnaires you have, rename your worksheets to
have names relevant to your data. To rename a worksheet, right click on the tab at the bottom of the screen, and
then select rename.
Finally, you need to delete the unnecessary columns in each worksheet. In every worksheet, there is space for
each item to be entered twice. If you have 30 items, you need to delete the columns for items 31-100, for both
the first time the data are entered and the second time the data are entered. Deleting columns can be tricky.
You want to delete the columns themselves, not just the contents of the columns. To delete the columns, first
select the columns. Next, go to the Home tab. In the Cells group, click Delete, and then click Delete Sheet
Column labels
The worksheets have been set up with generic headings for the items. To help ensure that data is entered into
the right worksheet and to make it easy to import your data into SPSS, you should change the column headings.
Moreover, if you have multiple questionnaires and you plan to use SPSS later, you must use different column
headings for the different questionnaires. The only heading that can (and must) be the same in different
In row 2, the column headings currently read item 1, item 2, item 3, etc. You should change these to be
appropriate to your questionnaires. We strongly recommend that you use a short abbreviation for the
questionnaire name, followed by the item number. For example, if the first test was a Vocabulary Test, then the
first set of entries could have the column headings Vocab1_1, Vocab1_2, Vocab1_3, etc. In the item label
"Vocab1_2", the "Vocab1" indicates that this is the first time the Vocabulary Test was entered, and the number "2"
indicates that this is the second item. The second set of entries could use the headings Vocab2_1, Vocab2_2,
Vocab2_3, etc. Be sure to put an underscore character before the item number so that you do not confuse the
second entry of item 1 with the first entry of item 21. Use column headings that are 8 characters or less, and
Method 1: Type each of the labels by hand.
Method 2: Use the mouse to automatically fill in the labels. This method will work well if all the labels have the
scale abbreviation, followed by the item number (e.g., Vocab1_1, Vocab1_2, Vocab1_3, etc). Here's how to set
up labels automatically. Type the first two labels in cells C2 and D2. Then select cells C2 and D2. Notice that
there is a tiny little square box at the bottom right hand corner of cell D2. When you hover the mouse over this
little box, it turns into a black "plus sign". Click and hold the mouse, while pulling right. This will create all of the
Now you are ready to create the labels for the second set of entries. Use the same technique as before, but when
you create the label, indicate that this is the second time the data was entered. For example, if the first set of
entries was Vocab1_1 Vocab1_2 Vocab1_3, then the second set of entries could be Vocab2_1, Vocab2_2,
Vocab2_3. Be sure to put an underscore character before the number to, so that you do not get confused.
Minimum and Maximum Values
This template has been set up for items whose values can vary from 1 to 5. The out-of-range counter will count
the number of entries that fall outside this range. If the lowest acceptable number for your data is not 1, or the
highest acceptable number is not 5, you will need to change the minimum and maximum values in cells GY1 and
GY2. For example, if you have an agreement scale that ranges from -10 to 10 then you will need to set the
minimum value to -10 and the maximum value to 10. Or if you have a math test where participants could
plausibly give any number as their answer, set the minimum and maximum values to be large negative and large
positive values. If you are entering letters, the minimum and maximum values are irrelevant and you do not need
Participants
Each worksheet has been set up for a maximum of 500 participants, who complete only one or two
questionnaires, which each have no more than 100 items. You will notice that there are more than 500 rows, but
the formulas are only entered up to the 500th row.
If you have more than 500 participants, you will need to create space for them. Copy row 500 of the
spreadsheet, and then paste it in the rows below, until you have enough rows for every participant. Repeat this
for every worksheet.
Protect Sheets
Now that you have finished modifying the template, you need to password-protect all the data entry spreadsheets
again. Password protection is important because it prevents the data checking formulas from being accidentally
destroyed when the data are being entered. Under the Tools tab, select Protection, Protect Sheet. Use the word
"password" as the password. Repeat this for every data entry worksheet. Then save the workbook.
Step 2: Enter data
The second step is to enter the data. If you are entering numerical data, then we recommend that you hold the
questionnaire in your left hand, and enter numbers on the numeric keypad using your right hand. You can use
your thumb to hit the right arrow key to advance to the next cell. You might enter the data for all participants for
one questionnaire before going on to the next questionnaire, or you might enter all the data for each participant
before going on to the next participant, depending upon how your files have been organized.
Whichever way you do it, when you are entering a particular questionnaire for a particular participant, you will use
three steps. First, enter your initials in the first column that says "RA Name", and enter the ID number of the
participant in the column that says "ID". It is essential that you enter your initials and the ID number on every
worksheet for every participant. Remember, each row is a different participant, and so you'll be entering your
initials in every row you enter. Second, enter the questionnaire data twice. Third, look at the Mismatch and Out-
of-Range counters. If either of these is not 0, then you should re-enter the data for that participant. We have
As you scroll down in the worksheets, you will notice that they have been divided into two parts. The top part has
the column headings (which tell you which column you are in), and the bottom part has the data itself. We used
the Freeze Pane function to do this. The reason we set up the sheets this way is so that you will still be able to
see the column headings, even when you have entered hundreds of rows of data.
We recommend that you ask research assistants to do your data entry. Although it is certainly possible to do the
data entry yourself, it is more efficient to ask a research assistant to do it instead, and it is easy for you to check
the work your research assistants are doing. You may want to try entering two or three participants yourself, first,
to make sure that the file is set up correctly, and so that you can answer any questions that your research
If you have already started data entry in another file (in either Excel or SPSS), you can copy and paste that data
into this file. Make sure that the items in the previous data entry file are in order (item 1 is before item 2). Then
just copy and paste the data from each questionnaire into one of the spreadsheets in this file. Paste the data
under the section that says "First Entry". Then you can ask your research assistants to do the "Second Entry" for
each participant, and you will know that it was entered correctly. If you prefer, you can copy several
questionnaires from that file into a single worksheet in this file. The disadvantage of putting several
questionnaires in a single worksheet is that it makes it more difficult to set up the out-of-range-counter, if the
Step 3: Checking
The third step is to check for errors. Although research assistants will catch the vast majority of errors at the
moment that they make them, you also need to check for errors at the end, before you start doing your data
analyses. Scroll through each worksheet, looking at the Mismatch and Out-of-Range counters. If any of these
are non-zero, you or a research assistant needs to check the original data, to determine which value should be
Step 4: Importing Data Into SPSS
To import your data into SPSS, you will need to reformat the data. Therefore, save a backup of your data file
before you start this reformatting.
Unprotect all of the data entry worksheets. The password should still be "password", unless you changed it
previously.
Check that you have appropriate column headings for each item in row 2. For all worksheets, the second
heading (in column B) should be ID. All other columns should have unique column headings: you cannot use the
same column headings in multiple questionnaires. If you have not already set up, follow the instructions above to
do so.
To provide an extra check that data entry was done correctly, it is helpful to have the mismatch column and out-of-
range column from each data entry worksheet. If you have multiple questionnaires, then you need to re-label
these columns, because they need to have different labels in each of your worksheets in order to be imported into
SPSS. We therefore recommend that you re-label each of those columns, so that you can tell which
questionnaire or test they were associated with. For example, for the Vocab test, you could label these
Finally, if different people entered the data for different questionnaires, then you need to rename the column "RA
Name". On each worksheet, re-label this column, based upon the questionnaire that was being entered. For
example, for a Vocabulary test, you might use the name RA_Vocab. Put this label in row 2.
Next, you need to delete the extra row at the top of each data entry worksheet. You have good variable labels in
row 2, but SPSS will be looking for variable labels in row 1. Note that you cannot delete the row by hitting the
delete key: that will delete the contents of the first row, but will leave the row itself. Instead, in the Home tab, in
the Cells group, click Delete, and then click Delete Sheet Rows. This will delete the entire first row. The second
row will become the first row, and your variable labels will now be in the first row. Scroll through each worksheet
If you had fewer than 500 participants, there are blank rows at the end of the sheet. You should delete those
extra rows. If you do not, your SPSS dataset will begin with a large number of blank rows, which will make your
data hard to find. Therefore, in each sheet, select all the rows at the bottom where you have no data. In the
Home section, under the Cells group, click Delete, and then click Delete Cells.
There are two extra columns, at the end of each worksheet. These columns do not contain any data. The first of
these contains the word "Max". The second of these contains the maximum allowable value, and instructions on
how to add more items and how to set the minimum and maximum values. Delete these columns. In the Home
tab, under the Cells group, click Delete, and then click Delete Sheet Columns.
You are now ready to import your data into SPSS. Importing your data into SPSS takes three steps. In the first
step, you will move each of the data sheets into SPSS. To start, save your Excel file. Be sure to use a different
file name than before, to avoid over-writing the file where you originally entered the data. Then close the Excel
file. If you do not close the Excel file, then SPSS will not be willing to open that file. Before you close this file, you
may want to print the rest of these instructions or copy them into another location. Next, open SPSS. In SPSS,
click on File, Open, Data. Under "Files of type:", select "Excel (*.xls)". Browse to the location of your Excel data
entry file and select the file. Click Open. Make sure that the box that says "Read variable names from the first
row of data" is checked. Select the first data entry worksheet, and click OK. Save the SPSS data file with the
In the second step, you will prepare the files to be merged. Prepare each file separately. For each file, do four
steps. First, open the file if it is not already open. Second, sort the file by ID. To do this, click on the Data tab,
then click Sort Cases, then select ID from the list of variables, select ascending order, and then click OK. Third, if
you have any extra variables that have no data at all, delete them. These empty variables are on the far right
hand side of the Data View window. Fourth, delete any rows at the bottom of the worksheet that have no ID and
which show missing values for all variables. You may have several hundred of these. If you do not delete these
blank lines, your merge will fail. You can see these empty rows at the very bottom of the screen, on the Data View
Now you are finally ready to merge the files together. To do this, go to your first SPSS file. Click on the Data
menu, and select Merge Files. Click Add Variables. On the Add Variables dialog box, select the option to open
“An external data file” and click Browse. Navigate to your next SPSS file, click Open, and then click Continue.

You will see that the variable "ID" is listed in both the Excluded Variables box and the New Active Dataset box.
You need to tell SPSS that you want to use ID to match the cases. To do this, click on ID in the New Active
Dataset. Click on the arrow that points towards the Excluded Variables, to send this variable into the Excluded
Variables box. You will now have two ID variables in the Excluded Variables box. Just below the Excluded
Variables box is a checkbox that says "Match cases on key variables in sorted files". Check this box. Just below
this, you will see that it says that "Both files provide cases". Finally, click on the arrow that faces to the right, to
move the ID variable into the Key Variables box. Click OK. SPSS will warn you that “The keyed variable match
will fail if data are not sorted in ascending order of key variables.” Click OK. Check that your file now has the
data from both the first and second questionnaire, and then save your SPSS file. We recommend that you use a
new file name, which indicates that this is the combined data from all your questionnaires for this study. Repeat
Suggestions
If you have any suggestions for improvements to either the data entry system or these instructions, please send
them to Kim Barchard at barchard@unlv.nevada.edu
          First Entry                              The password for this worksheet is the word password
RA Name           ID    item 1   item 2   item 3      item 4   item 5      item 6     item 7
If you have more than 500 participants, you will need to create space for them.
First, unprotect the sheet. Under the Tools menu, select Protection, Unprotect Sheet. The password is the word password.
Second, copy row 500 of the spreadsheet, and then paste it in the rows below it, until you have enough lines for every subject.
Third, protect the sheet. Under the Tools menu, select Protection, Protect Sheet. For the password, use the word password.
eet is the word password
                 item 8  item 9   item 10   item 11   item 12   item 13   item 14   item 15   item 16
 password is the word password.
 ave enough lines for every subject.
password, use the word password.
-2
item 17   item 18   item 19   item 20   item 21   item 22   item 23   item 24   item 25
item 26   item 27   item 28   item 29   item 30   item 31   item 32   item 33   item 34
item 35   item 36   item 37   item 38   item 39   item 40   item 41   item 42   item 43
item 44   item 45   item 46   item 47   item 48   item 49   item 50   item 51   item 52
item 53   item 54   item 55   item 56   item 57   item 58   item 59   item 60   item 61
item 62   item 63   item 64   item 65   item 66   item 67   item 68   item 69   item 70
item 71   item 72   item 73   item 74   item 75   item 76   item 77   item 78   item 79
item 80   item 81   item 82   item 83   item 84   item 85   item 86   item 87   item 88
item 89   item 90   item 91   item 92   item 93   item 94   item 95   item 96   item 97
                               Second Entry
item 98   item 99   item 100         ID     item 1   item 2   item 3   item 4   item 5
item 6   item 7   item 8   item 9   item 10   item 11   item 12   item 13   item 14
item 15   item 16   item 17   item 18   item 19   item 20   item 21   item 22   item 23
item 24   item 25   item 26   item 27   item 28   item 29   item 30   item 31   item 32
item 33   item 34   item 35   item 36   item 37   item 38   item 39   item 40   item 41
item 42   item 43   item 44   item 45   item 46   item 47   item 48   item 49   item 50
item 51   item 52   item 53   item 54   item 55   item 56   item 57   item 58   item 59
item 60   item 61   item 62   item 63   item 64   item 65   item 66   item 67   item 68
item 69   item 70   item 71   item 72   item 73   item 74   item 75   item 76   item 77
item 78   item 79   item 80   item 81   item 82   item 83   item 84   item 85   item 86
item 87   item 88   item 89   item 90   item 91   item 92   item 93   item 94   item 95
                                                   Mismatch   Out of Range Min
item 96   item 97   item 98   item 99   item 100   Counter      Counter    Max
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1
5
If you have more than 100 items,
put the next 100 items on the next
worksheet.

This out of range counter assumes that
valid data points are between 1 and 5.
If the lowest acceptable number for your
data is not 1, or the highest acceptable
number is not 5, you will need to change
the minimum and maximum values above.
          First Entry                              The password for this worksheet is the word password
RA Name           ID    item 1   item 2   item 3      item 4   item 5      item 6     item 7
If you have more than 500 participants, you will need to create space for them.
First, unprotect the sheet. Under the Tools menu, select Protection, Unprotect Sheet. The password is the word password.
Second, copy row 500 of the spreadsheet, and then paste it in the rows below it, until you have enough lines for every subject.
Third, protect the sheet. Under the Tools menu, select Protection, Protect Sheet. For the password, use the word password.
eet is the word password
                 item 8  item 9   item 10   item 11   item 12   item 13   item 14   item 15   item 16
 password is the word password.
 ave enough lines for every subject.
password, use the word password.
-2
item 17   item 18   item 19   item 20   item 21   item 22   item 23   item 24   item 25
item 26   item 27   item 28   item 29   item 30   item 31   item 32   item 33   item 34
item 35   item 36   item 37   item 38   item 39   item 40   item 41   item 42   item 43
item 44   item 45   item 46   item 47   item 48   item 49   item 50   item 51   item 52
item 53   item 54   item 55   item 56   item 57   item 58   item 59   item 60   item 61
item 62   item 63   item 64   item 65   item 66   item 67   item 68   item 69   item 70
item 71   item 72   item 73   item 74   item 75   item 76   item 77   item 78   item 79
item 80   item 81   item 82   item 83   item 84   item 85   item 86   item 87   item 88
item 89   item 90   item 91   item 92   item 93   item 94   item 95   item 96   item 97
                               Second Entry
item 98   item 99   item 100         ID     item 1   item 2   item 3   item 4   item 5
item 6   item 7   item 8   item 9   item 10   item 11   item 12   item 13   item 14
item 15   item 16   item 17   item 18   item 19   item 20   item 21   item 22   item 23
item 24   item 25   item 26   item 27   item 28   item 29   item 30   item 31   item 32
item 33   item 34   item 35   item 36   item 37   item 38   item 39   item 40   item 41
item 42   item 43   item 44   item 45   item 46   item 47   item 48   item 49   item 50
item 51   item 52   item 53   item 54   item 55   item 56   item 57   item 58   item 59
item 60   item 61   item 62   item 63   item 64   item 65   item 66   item 67   item 68
item 69   item 70   item 71   item 72   item 73   item 74   item 75   item 76   item 77
item 78   item 79   item 80   item 81   item 82   item 83   item 84   item 85   item 86
item 87   item 88   item 89   item 90   item 91   item 92   item 93   item 94   item 95
                                                   Mismatch   Out of Range Min
item 96   item 97   item 98   item 99   item 100   Counter      Counter    Max
                                                      0             0
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1
5
If you have more than 100 items,
put the next 100 items on the next
worksheet.

This out of range counter assumes that
valid data points are between 1 and 5.
If the lowest acceptable number for your
data is not 1, or the highest acceptable
number is not 5, you will need to change
the minimum and maximum values above.
           What to do if you have more than two questionnaires


If you have more than two questionnaires, insert one new worksheet for each additional questionnaire. Under the
Insert menu, select Worksheet.

Second, copy the first questionnaire. Click on the blank square just above the 1 and just to left of the A, to select
the entire sheet, and then copy it.
Third, switch to one of your new worksheets, and paste the content of the first questionnaire there. If you have
already entered data into the first questionnaire, delete that data from your new worksheet, so that your new
worksheet is entirely blank.
Fourth, on each of your new worksheets, highlight the third row, and then click Window, Freeze Panes. This way,
if you enter data for many participants, the column headings will be visible even though you have scrolled down
many rows.
Fifth, protect your worksheet. Under the Tools menu, select Protect, Protect Sheet. For the password, use the
word password.

				
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