Annual report 2004-5.indd

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					Annual report for
          2004-5



    Against all odds




         Naz Foundation International   1
Our contact details
Naz Foundation International headquarters
Palingswick House
241 King Street
London W6 9LP, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 20 8563 0191
Fax: +44 (0) 20 8741 9841
Email: london@nfi.net

Website: www.nfi.net

NFI Regional Liaison Office
9 Gulzar Colony
New Berry Lane
Lucknow 226 001, India
Tel: +91 (0) 522 2205781/2
Fax: +91 (0) 522 2205783
E-mail: lucknow@nfi.net

Naz Foundation International is a not-for-profit company limited by guarantee. registered in England
and Wales (company number: 3236205). It is also a registered charity (in England & Wales), registration
number:1057778. Its registered office is the UK office above.




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Acronyms
    AIDS   Aquired immune deficiency virus
   ARPF    Asia Regional Poverty Fund (DFID)
    ARVs   Antiretrovirals
  AusAID   Australian Agency for International Development
    CBO    Community based organisation
    CIDA   Canadian International Development Agency
    DFID   Department for International Development (UK)
     FHI   Family Health International
    HIV    Immunodeficiency Virus
  HIVOS    Humanist Institute for Cooperation with Developing Countries (Netherlands)
   INGO    International Non-Government Organisation
    INN    Indian Network of NGOs on HIV/AIDS
    INP+   Indian Network for People living with HIV /AIDS
   MSM     Males who have sex with males
     NFI   Naz Foundation International
    NGO    Non-governmental organisation
NIPASHA+   Network of Indian People with Alternate Sexualities with HIV/AIDS
 OHCHR     Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
    SIDA   Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
     STI   Sexually transmitted infection
     UN    United Nations
 UNAIDS    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
   UNDP    United Nations Development Programme
   USAID   United States Agency for International Development




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Contents
Page
  1    What is the Naz Foundation International?
  3    Forward from the chair
  5    Messages from our patrons
  7    Executive director’s statement
  9    Summary of key activities: 2004-2005
 21    Eyes wide shut
 25    Our supporters
 27    Financial summary: 2004-2005
 29    Our ethical policy




                                                   Naz Foundation International   v
vi   Naz Foundation International
What is the Naz Foundation
International?
The Naz Foundation International (NFI) is an international non-governmental organi-
sation that exists to improve sexual health, welfare and human rights for males who
have sex with males (MSM) and their partners. It does this by advocating for sexual,
welfare and human rights, developing policies on these issues, and providing techni-
cal, financial and institutional support to MSM networks, groups and organisations in
developing countries.

NFI works in developing countries to ensure that issues of male sexualities and sexual
practices, and the health, welfare and human rights issues that arise from these, are
appropriately and adequately addressed in the provision of HIV, AIDS, sexual health
and other services.

Wherever possible NFI will provide technical assistance, capacity building and support
to local self-help sexual networks, groups and organisations for the development of
community-based and beneficiary-led HIV/AIDS and sexual health services and advo-
cate on their behalf.


Belief
NFI believes in the innate capacity of local peoples to develop their own appropriate
sexual health services, where the beneficiaries of a service are also the providers of that
service.


Vision
NFI enivsages a world where all people can live with dignity, social justice and well-
being.


Mission
With a primary focus on MSM, NFI’s mission is to empower socially excluded and
disadvantaged males to secure for themselves, social justice, equity, health and well-
being through technical, institutional and financial support, with a primary focus on
marginalised MSM.


Goal
To reduce the risks of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and
improve the reproductive and sexual health of MSM in developing countries.


Objectives
• To empower low-income MSM collectivities, groups and networks, through techni-
  cal, financial and institutional support, and to develop and deliver self-help sexual
  health programmes addressing their needs.

• To work with other organisations, institutions, and agencies to improve the lives
  and well being of MSM.

• To advocate for social justice and human rights concerns of low-income MSM.

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                   • To foster cooperation, understanding and support between organisations developing
                     responses to STIs/HIV/AIDS and sexual health needs of MSM and those with other
                     constituencies.

                   • To undertake research to highlight the issues and problems that marginalised and
                     socially excluded MSM face, identify solutions, and pro-actively promote these
                     findings, as well as understand the context of masculinities and sexualities, to con-
                     tribute towards more effective and sustainable sexual health promotion strategies
                     for MSM.

                   • To identify and leverage appropriate funds, resources and technical assistance to
                     support the above activities.


                   Key Personnel
                   • Managing Board : Ali Firat (Chair), Tapesh Majumdar (Treasurer) , Amish Amin,
                     Gregory Pappas, and Fatima Koumbarji (appointed 19.2.2005)

                   • Chief Executive: Shivananda Khan

                   • Executive Directors: Kim Mulji and Arif Jafar




2   Naz Foundation International
Forward from the chair
As the chair of the Naz Foundation International, I am pleased to present this report to
you. This report is a record of the work that we, and our partners have undertaken to
address male to male sexual health, welfare and human rights concerns both in South
Asia and elsewhere.

It is clear that the HIV pandemic continues to expand in Asia, and at this time, more
than ever, strategic partnerships between all key stakeholders are needed, to tackle the
policy, technical and financial requirements to turn back this tide. One major issue
though, is that in richer economies, with the advent of effective prevention campaigns
- stopping people acquiring new HIV infections, and the wide scale provision of effec-
tive HIV-antiretrovirals – which means many people survive living with HIV for longer,
that there has been a tendency in these area to think that HIV/AIDS is no longer an
emergency issue. The reality though, is that prevention, treatment and care services for
the majority of people in Asia are far from adequate, and without sustained activity in
prevention, support and care, the impact of HIV/AIDS will be enourmous. Part of NFI’s
job is to ensure that those in Asia, and outside, understand the complex dynamics of
HIV infection in the region, with particular reference to MSM, and NFI is, and wants
to continue being a link between the key stakeholders in this respect.

We were greatly honoured that Shivananda Khan, our Chief Executive’s work with
marginalised communities was recognised by him being made an Officer of the Brit-
ish Empire in the British Queen’s new year honours list. We hope this award brings
a much-needed focus to working on marginalised issues, such as males to males sex,
and the added vulnerability to HIV infection that their marginalisation around this
behaviour brings.

The issue of human rights for males who have sex with males (MSM), is becoming
an increasingly large part of our work. Vulnerability to HIV infection, and access to
treatment and care, are intrinsically linked to human rights and social justice, especially
so for the marginalised communities that NFI works with. A human rights project on
MSM issues we are managing in India and Bangladesh (funded by the British Foreign
and Commonwealth Office), has highlighted the link between human rights abuses
and vulnerability to HIV. For example, we have found reports of high levels of non-
consensual (and unsafe) anal sex, especially for young males. Addressing human rights
and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases is an area we
wish to focus on in the coming years.

NFI would be nothing without its partner organisations and friends; the list is getting
longer and longer each year, and we are increasingly focusing on HIV/AIDS treatment
care and support issues together with them. Access to appropriate care and support
across Asia is currently very limited, and we have started to, with others, to push for
appropriate levels of response to the increasing number of MSM infected with HIV, and
their treatment and care needs. As more and more MSM become infected, the challenge
to meet their needs is likely to increase.

I would like to thank all our staff, other trustees, partner organisations and supporters
for their help in the last year, and their determination that the most vulnerable mem-
bers of society are protected from HIV and human rights abuses, often doing this in
extremely difficult political, social and economic conditions. This report is dedicated
to all those who have helped us in our work.

Ali Firat




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Messages from our patrons
I am very impressed with the work that the Naz Foundation International, particularly
in promoting the importance to those in power and influence, of working with mar-
ginalised males in South Asia, and elsewhere, so that their (and their families) rights
to health, welfare and security can be improved and maintained. NFI’s inspiration and
leadership on these issues continues to be vital, in ensuring those with often the least
rights, can gain the justice they deserve.

Yasmin Alibhai-Brown




I am very please to continue to be a patron of the Naz Foundation International. I
am impressed with both the level and breadth of the organisation’s work, and hope
that it continues to receive the support that is so needs, so that some of the most
marginalised people in our society can have their HIV/AIDS prevention, care and
support needs met. So often the detail (sometimes often complex) gets ignored in
global emergencies, such as the current HIV pandemic, and I am proud that the Naz
Foundation International helps us understand this detail, including how human rights
and health are so intrinsically linked, and how we need to tackle the former to deal
with the later effectively.

Lord Dholakia




I am pleased that the British government’s support, both through the Department for
International Development, and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, has enabled
the Naz Foundation International to link programming around HIV/AIDS prevention
with males-who-have-sex-with-males, to human rights research and promotion for this
group, work which should help identify some of the root causes of HIV vulnerability,
inform how we address then, and enable appropriate interventions to be implemented.
I believe that such cross-disciplinary work is vital when dealing with the complex medi-
cal, social, and political issues that HIV raises.

David Borrow MP




The work of the Naz Foundation International is one of the great beacons of hope as this
HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to grow, and I hope that the honouring of Shivananda
Khan, the Chief Executive of the Naz Foundation International, by his being made an
Officer Member of the British Empire (OBE) in the Queen’s new year’s honours list,
for services to marginalised communities, will better enable the Naz Foundation Inter-
national to receive the support it deserves, in campaigning for the health, rights and
welfare of some of some of the most vulnerable people in society.

Lord Alli




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6   Naz Foundation International
Chief Executive’s statement
Against the odds




Young Nepali meti (feminised male) following an attack by a group of
men in Kathmandu on 8th July 2004. Image from Blue Diamond Society,
Kathmandu, Nepal.

I have selected a key image from this past year to symbolise the struggle against social
exclusion, violence, and discrimination against those already vulnerable in a patriar-
chal society. In the early hours of a morning in August 2004, a field worker from Blue
Diamond Society (BDS) in Nepal, had his throat slit in a public area of Jamal. He was
doing his work, educating his peers around HIV/AIDS and promoting condom use. It
is his image on the front cover of this report.

This was not the only incident that staff and members of BDS have experienced. Some
have been attacked, raped, abused, and their lives endangered, by military and police
personnel as well as others over the months and years.

But this does not only happen in Nepal. Reports from Bangladesh, India and Pakistan
bear witness to an onslaught against people who are different. What motivates such forces
of hatred and violence? What drives so called normative men to hate such people and
display their hatred with knives, fists and boots, and in a final insult, their phallus?

Such violence is not uncommon. It does not have to be physically manifested either.
Many of the males we work with, cannot receive the services they urgently need to
prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. How many times have we heard “they don’t exist”,
“it is a western disease”, or “they are not many, so why invest money”, and even “they
deserve to die”.

Regrettably, too many times, policy and decision makers, along with some funders,
signify this violence against human beings by their silence, inaction, or unwillingness
to recognise the seriousness of the issues, arguing over size estimations, risks and vul-
nerabilities.



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                   So what are the odds, that a range of self-identified MSM and others experience each
                   day of their lives, that they can hear, speak, take notice, make a difference to these mes-
                   sages of HIV/AIDS? Why should they? When society does not care about them, why
                   should they care about society?

                   For many, HIV is low on their list of priorities, faced with a struggle to survive, for
                   water, food, shelter, human kindness and warmth, and self-respect.

                   But against all odds, many do listen. Many do care. Many try to make a difference. The
                   dedication of the staff of all the projects we work with, providing support, assistance,
                   and advocacy, is absolutely amazing.

                   As you read this report, remember the struggles that so many have to go through to
                   achieve what is being reported.

                   We have experienced funder resistance, government apathy, demand for information on
                   “how many?”, arguments on the merits of self-identified MSM versus non-identified
                   MSM, on a whole range of, what seems to me, extraneous arguments, on why there
                   shouldn’t be support for services for MSM, of whatever description and identity, to
                   recognise their humanity, their citizenship of whatever country, their rights as human
                   beings.

                   And yet, against all odds, NFI, its small team, and its partner agencies (along with many
                   other MSM HIV/AIDS agencies) are making a difference in the lives of so many people.
                   Knowledge and awareness if spreading, condom use is increasing, people are accessing
                   treatment, sexual responsibility is developing.

                   This report articulates an enormous amount of work that NFI has achieved this past
                   year with only 5 staff and three consultants. A lean and mean “fighting machine”, as it
                   was once said. And the nineteen or so projects we have been providing support to, they
                   have reached thousands of MSM, providing advice, condoms, referrals, STI treatment,
                   friendship and support.

                   The OBE award that was announced in January 2005 is not only for myself. It is a
                   recognition at highest level of the British Government (who is our primary donors) of
                   the hard and dedicated work of the NFI team and all the partners we work with. It is
                   also a recognition that MSM, whatever their identity maybe, have a right to be recog-
                   nised as fellow human beings, with all the capabilities and needs that all humans have:
                   self-respect, honour, self-esteem, happiness, self-worth, as much as condoms, lubricant
                   and STI/HIV treatment.

                   It is to those we dedicate our lives to. Against all odds we continue, as they will too.




8   Naz Foundation International
Summary of key activities: 2004-2005
Strategic Development
NFI has continued to implement the strategy deatiled in its five-year strategic devel-
opment plan. A number of key milestones in this plan have now been met: 1. NFI’s
regional liaison office in India has been registered as a not-for-profit company in India,
making it now able to received in-country funding, 2. NFI’s management structure has
been reorganised in accordance with its business plan, 3. Memorandum of understand-
ing between NFI and its state or country partners has been developed and signed, and
4. A knowledge management plan has been developed. There has been an increasing
demand for tehcnial support on male-to-male sex issues in southeat Asian, and this is
an area NFI is exploring more.


Advocacy and policy
NFI has now established a small advocacy and policy unit, currently based in our Luc-
know office that coordinates our advocacy and policy activities, as well as work with
other agencies in the field of social justice, equity and human rights.


Bangkok leadership statement

Requested by UNAIDS, NFI co-organised and moderated the MSM Leadership Forum
meeting at the XV International AIDS Conference held in Bangkok, Thailand 11 – 16
July 2004, and drafted its Leadership Statement which was accepted and included in
the UNAIDS Leadership Statement document. This involved networking and direct
discussions with over 180 representatives.

The statement (see Appendix 1 for a copy) is an extremely useful advocacy tool to address
questions of social justice, equity and human rights of MSM, and was an adaptation of
the Charter for Social Justice that had been drafted at the NFI 3rd Regional MSM and
HIV/AIDS consultation meeting held in New Delhi, 5-7 April 2003 (see http://www.
nfi.net/publications.htm for a copy)


Treatment, care and support

NFI has primarily focused on prevention activities in the past, developing a range of
resources and training programmes that empowered local MSM networks and groups
to implement risk reduction strategies.

However, we have increasingly recognised that only focusing on prevention is inadequate
when the numbers of MSM living with HIV/AIDS increase, and where there was an
urgent need to develop resources and support programmes that reflect the needs around
treatment, care and support. This is particularly true for those MSM who are feminised,
and frame their identities within a gender variance framework. Stigmatisation and
harassment for them is exacerbated by their feminisation and gender role.

To this end, NFI has developed a working relationship with an emergent network in
India called Network of Indian People with Alternate Sexualities living with HIV/AIDS
– NIPASHA+, providing it with technical and institutional support.

NIPASHA+ is a national network of MSM positive state networks, which currently
consists of:

Andhra Pradesh: Snehasudha

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                    •   Goa: Nai Zindagi
                    •   Karnataka: Spandana
                    •   New Delhi: Love Life Society
                    •   Tamil Nadu: Allaigal

                    Working with NFI, NIPASHA+ encourages its state networks to work with the NFI
                    partner agencies towards ensuring that a prevention to care continuum is delivered to
                    their constituencies.

                    In furtherance of this, NFI assisted NIPASHA+ to host its first National Consultation
                    Meeting on MSM living with HIV/AIDS, organised by NIPASHA+ and INP+ 12-14
                    December 2004.

                    NIPASHA+ does not see itself isolated from others living with HIV/AIDS and has
                    developed working relationships with the Indian Network of Positive People (INP+)
                    and its networks.

                    Through NFI, NIPASHA+ is also linking with MSM HIV-positive groups in other Asian
                    countries towards developing a regional network.


                    Blue Diamond Society, Nepal

                    Blue Diamond Society, an NFI partner agency which provides prevention, care and sup-
                    port services to MSM in Nepal, has found itself facing a legal challenge to its existence
                    through a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) filed in the Nepal Supreme Court seeking to
                    have BDS closed and homosexuality to be made illegal.

                    NFI took up the case, providing advocacy support, nationally, regionally and interna-
                    tional, as well as providing institutional and technical support to challenge the PIL in
                    the Nepal Supreme Court.

                    Further, members of BDS have faced a series of violence and harassment issues involving
                    local police, soldiers, and local people. NFI has also been involved in publicising these
                    issues and highlighting concerns as these events are seriously hampering the HIV/AIDS
                    work of BDS. We continue to strongly support BDS in the struggle for human and
                    sexual rights for its constituencies.


                    Section 377, India

                    In India, various MSM organisations (including several NFI partners) have reported
                    harassment by local police and government officials, where they have been accused of
                    “promoting homosexuality” and “abetting Section 377.”

                    Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code reads:

                    “Unnatural Offences, - Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of
                    nature, with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life,
                    or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years,
                    and shall also be liable to fine. Explanation, - Penetration is sufficient to constitute the
                    carnal intercourse necessary to the offence described in this section.”

                    NFI itself when through a similar experience in July 2001, when several staff were arrest-
                    ed and imprisoned for 47 days, and its office in Lucknow was closed for 3 months.

                    It is clear that such retrograde laws, policies and actions are greatly impeding effec-
                    tive and sustainable HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support work, particularly those

10   Naz Foundation International
based on community-organising and self-help, despite National AIDS Programmes in
the region clearly identifying MSM as a vulnerable population and requiring HIV/AIDS
services urgently. Clearly, there is a lack of dialogue between Health Ministry and the
Ministry of Home Affairs.
Through our Advocacy Unit, NFI has been providing technical and institutional support
to a range of meetings, conferences, discussions, and campaigns in regard to a consti-
tutional repeal of this Section that greatly harms many people and enables harassment,
violence and abuse to flourish, particularly against those MSM most stigmatised and
vulnerable, particularly hijras and kothis. This support includes Naz Foundation (India)
                                    kothis.
Trust’s Public Interest Litigation filed in the Delhi High Court seeking repeal of this
Section as an impediment to the sexual health rights of MSM.


National AIDS Control Organisations (NACO), India

While NACO’s clear policy commitment to ensure that HIV/AIDS services exist for all
vulnerable populations including MSM has been produced in their policy document,
and is clearly mentioned in the National AIDS Control Programme II documents, often
there has not been a clear articulation of this goal in the public arena, nor has there
been enough advocacy by NACO at the state level in encouraging State AIDS Control
Societies to support and promote MSM community-based organising.

In its AIDS Prevention and Control Policy document, under Section 7 Implementation
Strategy, point 7.5 reads:

“As socially marginalised sections like commercial sex workers, injecting drug users,
street children, men having sex with men, etc. are not normally accessible through
traditional government machinery, involvement of non-government organisations and
community-based organisations should be secured to effectively reach these populations
through a holistic approach of targeted intervention programmes. These programmes
should aim at prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases, deliver relevant
IEC messages which are in the local idiom and are interactive in nature, promote con-
dom use for effective prevention of the spread of HIV/AIDS and create an enabling
environment that reduces vulnerability of these groups...”

And yet, there are still very few interventions working with MSM in the country com-
pared to the level required.

In September 2004, NFI conducted a major presentation on MSM, HIV/AIDS, vulner-
ability and risk to the Director General of NACO, looking at constructions of male-to-
male sex in India, risks and vulnerabilities and good practice for developing appropriate
HIV/AIDS services.

Following this, NFI has maintained close relationships with NACO, as well as providing
access to training and resources for State AIDS Control Societies.

This led to a half-day seminar and presentation on these issues to a range of donor
representatives, international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and NACO
representatives, from which a paper has been developed on implementing a national
strategy for scaling up MSM and HIV/AIDS interventions in India.


NFI human rights project in Bangladesh and India

In July 2003, NFI began a two-year project to address legal, judicial, and social impedi-
ments to sexual health promotion amongst MSM in India and Bangladesh, funded by
the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, under its Global Opportunities Fund
(which addresses human rights, rule of law, and democracy and good governance).


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                    Both field workers of MSM sexual health projects, as well as the intended beneficiaries of
                    these projects, have experienced significant levels of harassment, violence and abuse. As
                    a consequence, significant impediments to sexual health promotion amongst MSM
                    are experienced, leading to poor service delivery and access, despite the best inten-
                    tions of the projects themselves. A disempowering environment is created, which
                    reinforces stigma, discrimination and abuse.

                    The NFI project was designed to address these concerns, and develop mechanisms,
                    tools and advocacy, that would reduce such levels of abuse towards creating a more
                    enabling environment in which MSM HIV/AIDS projects can function more effec-
                    tively.

                    Towards this end, the project includes:

                    •   A study on stigma and human rights abuse.
                    •   Capacity building of project partners to facilitate development of local advocacy and
                        sensitisation mechanisms with policy makers and local law enforcement agencies.
                    •   Development of advocacy and training cells within each partner agency to sustain
                        legal literacy among MSM, monitor and document human rights abuses, and conduct
                        regular advocacy work with policy makers and law enforcement agencies.
                    •   Develop a replicable training and advocacy tool on legal literacy and methodolo-
                        gies of addressing legal, social, and judicial impediments to sexual health for MSM
                        with policy makers and local law enforcement agencies which can be replicated in
                        all states.
                    •   Conduct local training and sensitization workshops for lawyers and advocates who
                        will take on sustained interaction with policy makers and local law enforcement
                        agencies to achieve positive policy changes that address MSM sexual health con-
                        cerns.
                    •   Conduct a national seminar with policy makers to disseminate the results of the
                        investigation into the legal, social and judicial impediments to MSM intervention
                        efforts, and involve them in policy advocacy efforts.
                    • Develop a sustainable and independent regional/national coordination body in both
                      India and Bangladesh, which can monitor issues of concern and can take on sus-
                      tained advocacy work with policy makers on MSM sexual health issues at national
                      levels.

                    The NFI partners in this project are:

                    •   Bandhu Social Welfare Society, Dhaka, Bangladesh
                    •   Bharosa, Lucknow, India
                    •   Mithrudu, Hyderabad, India
                    •   Pratyay Gender Trust, Calcutta India
                    •   Sahodaran, Chennai, India
                    •   Udaan, Mumbai, India

                    During 2004-5, a qualitative and quantitative study has been completed, a range of
                    training programmes have been conducted with the partners, not only to conduct the
                    studies, but also on advocacy issues. In the next year the report on the findings will be
                    produced, a national seminar in India and Bangladesh will be conducted, and the local
                    cells along with the national bodies will be established.

                    Some key findings include:

12   Naz Foundation International
•   MSM experience significant levels of sexual violence and harassment by police and
    local people.
•   Violence and harassment are primarily based on the femininity of certain males,
    not on their sexual practices.
•   Boys with feminine trais experience sexual abuse
•   Early sexual harassment and violence affects educational opportunities, forcing
    many MSM to leave poor levels of education. This reduces subsequent employment
    opportunities, and thus income levels of these males, leading many to view sex work
    as a survival strategy.

The final report, with the development of local advocacy cells and the national bod-
ies, along with the replicable tool-kit for training other MSM HIV/AIDS projects, will
provide an excellent platform for scaling up such an intervention.


Microbicides as an HIV prevention tool
The potential development of a microbicide as an HIV prevention tool has caught the
imagination of many stakeholders in the field of HIV/AIDS. Funds are being provided
for microbicide research and development, but the general focus has been on vaginal
microbicides. Although the development of appropriate vaginal microbicide appears to
be several years away, NFI has taken up the issue of a rectal microbicide as a significant
issue in regard not only to anal sex behaviours among males who have sex with males,
but also in regard to male-to-female sex as well. We have been advocating for this
potential sexual health product in a number of settings, nationally and internationally,
partnering with concerned institutions, individuals and organisations to ensure that
rectal microbicides are on the microbicide research agenda.


Driven – a photo exhibition

Advocacy can take many different routes and use many different tools and opportuni-
ties to provide knowledge and understanding.

Jason Taylor is a young British photographer, who lived and travelled with many truck
drivers in India for six months, visually recording their lives and experiences.

Taking the potential for exploring Indian masculinities and HIV/AIDS through the
lives of these truck-drivers, NFI sponsored an exhibition of this imagery and the visual
stories of these truck drivers at the Spitz Gallery in London, UK. The opportunity was
used to explore differing masculinities, male-to-male sex work on the highways of India,
and risk and vulnerabilities to HIV/AIDS, as well as promoting NFI’s work amongst
MSM in South Asia.


OBE for NFI Chief Executive

Shivananda Khan, founder and Chief Executive of the Naz Foundation International
was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the British Queen’s
New Year’s honours list for his long-running services to marginalised communities.

Awarded for his work with “marginalised communities” in South Asia and in the UK,
particularly his work with males who have sex with males, Shivananda recognises that
this award is as much for NFI and its work in South Asia, all its partner agencies and
staff, and all those struggling for their human rights.



                                                                         Naz Foundation International   13
                    Partners, collaborators and friends

                    Over the course of this financial year, NFI has worked with an increasing number of
                    institutions, including non-governmental organisations, both locally and internation-
                    ally, including donors, advocating for effective policy development to meet the needs of
                    MSM not only in terms of reducing risk and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and ensuring
                    that appropriate prevention, care and support services are available and accessible to
                    all, but also in the field of sexual rights and the reduction of stigma, discrimination,
                    harassment and violence. Such organisations include:

                    •   National AIDS Control Organisation, India
                    •   State AIDS Control Societies, India
                    •   Sexual Health Resource Centre, India
                    •   Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India
                    •   Family Health International
                    •   Policy Project
                    •   Population Service International
                    •   PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health)
                    •   Pact
                    •   International HIV/AIDS Alliance
                    •   International Planned Parenthood Foundation
                    •   The UK Department for International Development
                    •   United States Agency for International Development
                    •   Swedish International Development Agency
                    •   The Dutch Humanist Institute for Cooperation with Developing Countrie
                        (HIVOS)
                    •   European Union
                    •   United Nations Commission on Human Rights
                    •   United Nations Development Programme
                    •   United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS)
                    •   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
                        United Nations Children’s Fund


                    Knowledge management

                    To support our advocacy and policy development work, as well as develop more ef-
                    fective knowledge management in the field of sexualities, masculinities, HIV/AIDS and
                    sexual health, as well as to ensure as broad a dissemination of knowledge as possible,
                    NFI has developed a range of knowledge management tools, and hosts an Knowledge
                    Centre in its Lucknow office.

                    These tools include:

                    •   Pukaar – NFI’s international HIV/AIDS and sexual health journal focusing on
                        masculinities and sexualities. This is produced quarterly, and is now distributed to
                        readers from 66 countries.
                    •   NFI Website – Accessing http://www.nfi.net enables the user to access all information

14   Naz Foundation International
    about NFI, a range of NFI tool-kits, reports, editions of Pukaar, a listing of books
    and documents held by the NFI knowledge centre, situational assessments, essays,
    and presentations.d.
•   Regular postings on the internet of new NFI reports and documents.
•   Research and study facilities (including internet access) in the NFI Knowledge Cen-
    tre.

Knowledge centre

Along with NFI reports and other documents, the Knowledge Centre regularly acquires
new books and documents to add to its growing collection, which now hosts some
1500 books and 2500 documents related to sexualities, genders, masculinities, and
sexual health.

The Centre is open for inquires, visitors and researchers, and during the past year it has
had over 250 users, including researchers and students along with representations from
NGOs and CBOs, with a further 342 email requests for information and resources.

The NFI website was also upgraded this year, becoming a more attractive and user-
friendly site with regular updates. Between October 2004-March 2005, there has been
11,972 hits with 23,999 pages viewed.


NFI produced documents
Pukaar

NFI’s quarterly journal is now distributed to readers in 66 countries, providing news,
articles, and stories reflecting HIV/AIDS, sexual health, sexualities and masculinities
with a focus on South Asia.

Pukaar is now available online at http://www.nfi.net


Faith, cultures and sexualities

The International HIV/AIDS Alliance funded NFI to conduct a small pilot study on
the impact of Islamic belief, traditions and customs on Muslim males who have sex
with males

Two reports have been produced. These are:

•   A Glimpse of the Beloved – a comprehensive literature review.
•   Jihad of the Heart – a report on interviews conducted amongst Muslim identified
    MSM in Dhaka, Bangladesh, along with Hyderabad, Lucknow and New Delhi in
    India.

With a total number of 61 respondents, the study was conducted through focus group
discussions, semi-structured one-on-one interviews, and a questionnaire, exploring a
range of issues that included:

•   Self-identity
•   Behaviour
•   Socio-economic status
•   Knowledge and practice of Islam

                                                                          Naz Foundation International   15
                    Against the odds
                    In 2002-2003, a study was conducted in Bangladesh, funded by UNDP India, on the
                    impact of legal, socio-cultural, legislative and socio-economic impediments to effective
                    HIIV/AIDS interventions with males who have sex with males in Bangladesh. A report
                    was produced. This report has been updated and upgraded and re-launched on the
                    NFI website.

                    Tool-kit for developing an MSM community-based organisation
                    providing HV/AIDS, sexual health and welfare service

                    This manual has been completely re-designed and upgraded. Now consisting of six
                    books which includes two training programmes, a range of management and monitor-
                    ing tools, along with overheads, the tool-kit consists of:

                    Book One:        Introduction
                    Book Two:        Setting the context
                    Book Three:      First Phase – Social and needs and assessment
                    Book Four:       Second Phase – Implementing an MSM sexual health project
                    Book Five:       Tools for management
                    Book Six:        Other resources

                    The whole tool kit will be uploaded onto our website with an announcement dissemi-
                    nated through the internet, along with a CD-Rom version.

                    Currently in English, the tool-kit is now being produced in Hindi, and at a later date
                    will be produced in Bangla and Urdu.

                    MSM literature reviews

                    Rapid literature review of current knowledge of MSM and HIV/AIDS in Lao and
                    Thailand, funded by Pact.

                    Rapid literature reviews of MSM and HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, My-
                    anmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka for the Knowledge Centre.

                    MSM situational assessments

                    With technical support from NFI and write up, MSM situational assessments were
                    conducted in Mysore and Patna, India, and Comilla, Mymensingh, and Rajbari in
                    Bangldesh.

                    Computerised monitoring and evaluation tool-kit

                    Previously NFI partners uses a paper-based system to monito their daily activities,
                    producing monthly and quarterly activities reports for their donors based on manual
                    calculations. After discussions with our partners, and reviewing needed indicators by
                    donors, as well as by the implementing agencies themselves, NFI has develop a simpli-
                    fied computerised monitoring package which can be used across South Asia. With daily
                    data entry, which has been simplified, projects will now be able to gain rapid access to
                    monitoring data over a number of key indicators which would allow more effective
                    evaluation of outputs and an effective aid to explore outcomes. Currently this is being
                    field-tested in a number of sites, after which, with any amendments that may be neces-
                    sary, the software will be distributed to our partners and generally made available.




16   Naz Foundation International
BCC resources

New materials developed for our partners include:
• Safer Sex for MSM booklet
• Answers to psychological concerns of MSM booklet
• “Your legal rights”, in booklet and leaflet format
• Guidelines for counselling booklet
• “Taking the test” – a guide to HIV testing

These have been produced in Hindi, Bangla, Telegu and Tamil. Other language versions
are being developed.

Key essays and presentations produced

These include:

•   The invisible Man – An Invisible Epidemic, a paper for Harvard Asia Quarterly
•   Eyes Wide Shut – masculinities, sexualities and behaviour in South Asia, a power-
    point for the one day symposium in Amsterdam on HIV/AIDS, homosexualities and
    HIVOS involvement
•   MSM and HIV in South Asia, a paper for general distribution
• Masculinities, sexualities and vulnerabilities, a presentation for the XV International
  AIDS Conference in Bangkok
• Against the Odds – male-to-male sex, sexual health, and human rights in South Asia,
  a presentation for the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok
•   MSM and HIV/AIDS in India, a paper and presentation for the National AIDS
    Control Organisation in India
•   The invisible epidemic – male-to-male sex and HIV/AIDS in South Asia, a paper for
    SIDA
•   Making visible the invisible – male-to-male sexualities in India, a presentation for
    Oxfam
•   Under the Blanket – male-to-male sexualities and sexual health in South Asia, a
    presentation for the International Conference on Men as Partners in Sexual and
    Reproductive Health, Mumbai, India
•   A Bridge Under Trouble Waters – male-to-male sex in South Asia and its impact
    upon female sexual and reproductive health, a presentation for the First Asia Pacific
    Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS Best Practices Conference, Islamabad, Pakistan
•   Masculinities, (homo)sexualities and HIV vulnerability – working with males who
    have sex with males in India, a presentation for State AIDS Control Societies in
    India
•   Gender, Sexualities and Masculinities – MSM and HIV/AIDS in South-East Asia, a
    presentation for PSI Asia office in Bangkok


Technical support

Naz Foundation International is a Technical Support Facility (TSF) focusing on males
who have sex with males and their HIV/AIDS risks and vulnerabilities, primarily in
South Asia, but increasingly in South-East Asia as well. Arising from the World Health
Organisation’s definition of sexual health – “The integration of physical, emotional,
intellectual and social aspects of sexuality in a way that positively enriches and promotes

                                                                          Naz Foundation International   17
                    personality, communication and love” - our mission is to empower socially excluded
                    and stigmatised males to secure for themselves social justice, equity, health and well-
                    being through technical, financial and institutional We strongly believe in the innate
                    capacity of local MSM collectivities, groups and networks to develop their own sexual
                    health services through self-help organising and community-building. We will always
                    support such initiatives through our advocacy, technical assistance and capacity build-
                    ing programme.

                    Two of our key objectives are:

                    •   To empower low-income MSM collectivities, groups and networks through techni-
                        cal, financial and institutional support to develop and deliver self-help sexual health
                        programmes addressing their needs.
                    •   To work with other organisations, institutions, and agencies to improve the lives
                        and well being of MSM.

                    We have provided institutional and financial support to a range of MSM networks and
                    groups in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, towards developing their own self-
                    help organising and HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support services. and continued
                    technical assistance is done through a partnership agreement. During 2004-5, NFI has
                    provided such support to:

                    Bangladesh:       Bandhu Social Welfare Society, delivering services in:
                                      Chittagong, Comilla, Dhaka, Mymensingh, Rajbari and Sylhet

                    India:            AASRA, Patna
                                      Bharosa, Lucknow
                                      Gelaya, Mysore
                                      Humsaya, Mumbai
                                      MANAS Bangla, West Bengal
                                      Maruploi, Imphal
                                      Milan, New Delhi
                                      Mithrudu, Hyderabad
                                      Sahodaran, Chennai and Pondicherry
                                      Snegyitham, Trichy
                                      Suraksha, Andhra Pradesh
                                      Udaan, Mumbai and Pune

                                      NIPASHA – a national network of MSM living with HIV/AIDS
                                      with partners:
                                      Allaigal, Tamil Nadu
                                      Love Life Society, New Delhi
                                      Nai Zindagi, Goa
                                      Spandana, Karnataka
                                      Snehasusdha, Andra Pradesh
                                      Udaan +, Maharashtra

                    Nepal:            Blue Diamond Society, Kathmandu

                    Pakistan:         Vision, Nayyab Health Project, Lahore

                    NFI’s technical support included:

                    •   Responding to 1249 requests for advice, specific technical assistance, and man-
                        agement support which included drafting project proposals, assistance in writing
                        activity reports, drafting presentations for conferences, donors, and others, as well
                        as assistance in conducting situation assessments.

18   Naz Foundation International
•   Specific advocacy work with donors, government, State AIDS Control Organisations,
    INGOs and NGOS to support the above partners.
•   Development of several new projects, including: a state network of MSM CBOs in
    Andhra Pradesh; the national MSM HIV/AIDS network; NIPASHA, along with its
    six partner networks, and Humsaya in north Mumbai.
•   External management support for 4 projects/organisations.
• 12 site visits to review management and monitoring to assist the agencies in enhanc-
  ing their service delivery.
•   36 on-site training programmes for project staff and members: total number of
    participants totals 432.
•   Conducting a special 3-day workshop with project managers from partner projects
    on increasing coverage and scaling up responses to HIV/AIDS and MSM risks and
    vulnerabilities.
    NFI also provided technical assistance and support through documentation reviews,
    papers produced, presentations, and consultancy to:
•   Family Health International, Asia Regional Office
•   Alliance India
•   Family Health International, India
•   National AIDS Control Organisation
•   UK Campaign for Microbicides
•   UNAIDS Partnership Unit
•   Policy Project
•   Family Health International, Bangladesh
•   PSI Asia
•   PSI Thailand
•   International HIV/AIDS Alliance
•   World Bank
•   UNDP India
•   HIVOS
•   Oxfam
•   State AIDS Control Societies in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
•   National AIDS Programmes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan
•   Lawyers Collective, HIV/AIDS Unit, India
•   Pathfinder
•   PATH India
•   European Delegation to India
•   University of Peru
•   Pact
•   Resource Centre for Sexual Health and Sexuality, Hanoi
•   Sexual Health Resource Centre, India
•   WHO, South East Asia Office
•   Office of the UN Commission for Human Rights, South-East Office


                                                                      Naz Foundation International   19
                    •   IPPF, London
                    •   Care India
                    •   Avahan, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, India
                    •   AIDS Ark, UK
                    •   British Council, India
                    •   International Red Cross, Papua New Guinea
                    •   Fiji AIDS Task Force

                    Additionally NFI was a leading partner, or sponsored 42 workshops held at the NFI
                    Knowledge Centre in Lucknow, India.psephologically determinate democracies of the
                    new globe, their numbers are just not significant enough.

                    Simultaneously lesbian and gay activists, along with many human rights activists, see
                    the world in the largely western terminologies of ‘lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgen-
                    der’ without any thought as to how this translates into local languages, practices, sig-
                    nificances, and meanings. One is either this or that. However the many for whom they
                    speak, and who cannot often identify themselves with either this or that, feel alienated
                    by their intellectual activism. Sometimes this alienation leads to actual confrontation.

                    This GLBT (or is it LGBT, or LGBTI?) paradigm, where each person must fit into a
                    box of this or that, and where space for the un self-identified, the unlabelled is denied,
                    if not denigrated (remember the struggle to get a concept of bisexual behaviour/iden-
                    tity accepted by lesbians and gay men who often would state that those with bisexual
                    desires were closet gay men or lesbians), Where do hijras, kothis, waria, bakla, katho-
                                                                                 kothis,
                    ey, fa’fa’fini, or even the ‘two-spirit’ people of North America, ‘fit’? What if they do
                    not wish to be labelled as lesbian, gay bisexual, transgender, or whatever by others?
                    Why bi-polar categories in the first place? The result is a brand of identity politics,
                    often acrimonious, which invisibilises much of male-to- male sex (as well as female-
                    to-female sex) and denies their actors participation in the fight for their human rights,
                    for their sexual rights.

                    Across the world and in every continent, there is an enormous range of same-sex
                    behaviours and lived identities that cannot be reduced to some simplistic framework
                    of heterosexual/homosexual, gay/straight, or even man/woman. Understanding sex/
                    gender systems should be based on what has meaning, significance, and lived experi-
                    ence, not on what others tell us to whom to be and what we should call ourselves and
                    identify with.

                    There are ‘men who have sex with men’ because they desire other men. There are men
                    who have sex with other males because they do not consider these males to be men.
                    There are males who do not think of themselves as men, who have sex with real men.
                    There are men who have sex with men because of fun, discharge, body heat, and so
                    on. There are males who have sex with males and consider it ‘lesbian sex’. The vari-
                    ous possibilities are endless. However the polemics and discourse of these diversities
                    of sexual possibilities are dominated by those who are lesbian or gay identified, but
                    whose real life experience is not the same as the majority of those males for whom they
                    speak. The rights to sexual autonomy, incorporating in its fold the rights to penetrate
                    as much as the rights to be penetrated (or even the right not to have penetrative sex of
                    whatever sort) gets lost in the identity politics that demands rights for gay men. Those
                    who do not define as gay are somehow sidelined or forgotten. And there the moot
                    question again raises its head; does anyone have the right to impose their philosophy,
                    identity, or politics, on others?

                    We do not lose the concepts of rights within such an openness to be different, to ex-
                    plore ourselves in different ways, to experience other human beings in different ways.

20   Naz Foundation International
Eyes wide shut
A context setting article on violence, stigma and social exclusion of MSM, HIV and
social justice in South Asia by Shivananda Khan(founder and Chief Executive of Naz
Foundation International), Aditya Bondyopadhyay (NFI legal consultant and human
rights activist), and Dr. Carol Jenkins ( an independent consultant on HIV/AIDS).

Torture and sexual assault by police personnel of Nyappanahalli police station
(report from a hijra in Bangalore, India. 19/6/04)

Metis attacked by police coming out of a nightclub in Kathmandu
(report from Blue Diamond Society, Kathmandu, Nepal, 15/5/04)

Outreach workers of local MSM sexual health project, and international NGO staff
arrested for ‘promoting homosexuality’
Report from 8/7/01, Lucknow, India

Kothi field staff sexually assaulted by police
(report from Bandhu Social Welfare Society, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 15/8/03)

(Note: metis and kothis are local terms used by feminised males who have sex with
males in Nepal, and Bangladesh/India respectively for themselve. In Pakistan the term
used is zenana.)

It can go on. People abused, violated, arrested, threatened, blackmailed, beaten because
they happen to be hijras, kothis, or effeminate gay men. The very state agencies that
are meant to protect citizens, actively support, or even directly involve themselves in
targeting males who have sex with males, particularly those who are feminised.

More than just the fact of male to male sex, a central real issue is the abuse, sexual
assault and violence. Males with feminised demeanour or gendered identities are con-
sidered “not men”, and are perceived to be penetrated by “real men”. Such penetration
is considered to degrade the masculine status of such males and therefore give “real
men” the right to target and abuse them.

87% of respondents in a study conducted in Bangladesh stated that they have been
subjected to sexual assault or rape because they were effeminate. The situation is not
much different in other countries of South Asia.

Such violence and terror has a dramatic impact on any focused HIV/AIDS sexual health
intervention that works with male-to-male sex, not to speak of the devastating effect it
has in creating an atmosphere where such males are incapacitated from taking effective
measures to protect themselves from the infection.

HIV/AIDS has exposed the tremendous complexities of male-to-male sex. The simplified
black and white binaries of gay/straight, man/woman, heterosexual/homosexual, can-
not suffice as an explanation for these complexities. Any attempt at such a reductionist
analysis would amount to denying the tremendous diversity of masculinities, sexualities,
and gender identities, and would consequently also be insufficient to engage in effective
HIV/AIDS prevention intervention efforts with male-to-male sex.

Hence the promotion of the term ‘Men who have Sex with Men’ or MSM by UNAIDS
over the last 20 years or so. Originally perceived to denote a homosexual behavioural
category to be targeted with HIV prevention efforts, today even this coinage has run
into problems because of its usage of the term ‘Men’. For socially and culturally, what
is the definition of ‘Man’, given the reality of the complexities mentioned above? In
South Asia, a man is not defined by the genitalia he is born with, but by his adherence
to certain socially specified roles, by his discharge of certain social obligations and du-

                                                                          Naz Foundation International   21
                    ties, by his sexual performance within the confines of certain culturally specified dos
                    and don’ts, as well as by a sense of hegemonic masculinity that moderates the entire
                    spectrum of his behaviour and social performance.

                    Gender and sexuality does not derive solely from biology, but are framed by social
                    constructions specific to culture, language, religion, and geography. In South Asia for
                    example, visible male-to male sex is structured on gendered frameworks, which govern
                    the sex and performative roles. The public performance of the feminised male is to at-
                    tract the so called normative masculine male. The former is clearly a gendered sexual
                    identity; the latter is just a man. Neither see themselves as homosexual, or gay, or even
                    as men who have sex with men. The ‘man’ sees himself a having sex with a ‘not man’,
                    who in turn has the gendered sexual identity of either kothi or hijra and not of ‘man’.
                    Conversely these subaltern ‘masculinities’ like kothis and hijras do not perceive them-
                    selves as men, but have sex with what they call “real men”. Thus neither see themselves
                    as Men Who Have Sex With Men, or homosexuals, or gay.

                    To complicate matters even further, the term MSM itself has begun to signify an identity
                    category and a ‘target group’, often losing any usefulness it may well have had once. As
                    a consequence, these “targeted interventions’ focus on groups of identifiable individuals,
                    supposedly small in numbers, usually effeminised, and not as a behaviour. Of course
                    who these feminised ‘MSM’ have sex with remains an invisible question. Through this
                    crack, the vast majority of males, identifying themselves as real men, but having sex
                    with such so-called MSM, slip off the intervention net.

                    To those who work with male to male sex, these issues are obvious. But many donors,
                    NGOs, lesbian and gay activists, HIV public health specialists, international agencies,
                    human rights activists, consultants, et al, persist with its usage. It is understandable,
                    given that the intellectual pandemic of HIV continues to be mired in a new globalisa-
                    tion, which in a reversal of logic seeks validity in the 19th century Cartesian reduction-
                    ist philosophies, where understanding a phenomenon is possible only if it is named,
                    catalogued, bracketed, and labelled.

                    Another factor that affects HIV programming is the mild and unstated anti-sex attitudes
                    (if it is recreational) that governs the funding structures of much of HIV prevention
                    efforts. Funders, like many others in societies around the world, are often conservative
                    and narrow in vision. Therefore addressing diverse sexualities is deferred to address-
                    ing sexual health, if we are lucky, but usually reproductive health, even in the case of
                    male to male sex. But the two biological organs that are most frequently used in male
                    to male sex, namely the mouth and the anus, are not deemed either as reproductive
                    organs nor sexual organs!

                    A reductionist approach often neatly fits the funders’ mandate, for then he can set
                    aside the little that he has to target the so-called small number of ‘identifiable’ MSM,
                    and carry on with the ‘real’ work of protecting the reproductive health of the so-called
                    ‘mainstream’ population. However the fact that the sexual partners of these ‘identified’
                    MSM are the ones who bridge the path of infection between the ‘identified’ MSM and
                    the general population is lost in this scheme, reducing in turn the efficacy of the whole
                    prevention effort.

                    But having a greater ramification is the fact that this reductionist viewpoint allows the
                    continuation of the abuse and violence against feminised males, for they are identified
                    and identifiable by the labelling and the bracketing, while the vast majority of their
                    sexual partners dissolve into the invisibility of mainstream hegemonised masculinity.
                    The labelling creates the ‘other’, the ‘outsider’, who can be attacked from within the
                    confines of the fortress of mainstream masculinity by those who dwell there.

                    In the estimation of those capable of enabling a change for the better, the labelling and
                    bracketing also reduce the importance of rights of those so identified, for in psephologi-

22   Naz Foundation International
cally determinate democracies of the new globe, their numbers are just not significant
enough.

Simultaneously lesbian and gay activists, along with many human rights activists, see the
world in the largely western terminologies of ‘lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender’
without any thought as to how this translates into local languages, practices, significan-
ces, and meanings. One is either this or that. However the many for whom they speak,
and who cannot often identify themselves with either this or that, feel alienated by their
intellectual activism. Sometimes this alienation leads to actual confrontation.

This GLBT (or is it LGBT, or LGBTI?) paradigm, where each person must fit into a
box of this or that, and where space for the un self-identified, the unlabelled is denied,
if not denigrated (remember the struggle to get a concept of bisexual behaviour/iden-
tity accepted by lesbians and gay men who often would state that those with bisexual
desires were closet gay men or lesbians), Where do hijras, kothis, waria, bakla, kathoey,
fa’fa’fini, or even the ‘two-spirit’ people of North America, ‘fit’? What if they do not
wish to be labelled as lesbian, gay bisexual, transgender, or whatever by others? Why
bi-polar categories in the first place? The result is a brand of identity politics, often
acrimonious, which invisibilises much of male-to- male sex (as well as female-to-female
sex) and denies their actors participation in the fight for their human rights, for their
sexual rights.

Across the world and in every continent, there is an enormous range of same-sex be-
haviours and lived identities that cannot be reduced to some simplistic framework of
heterosexual/homosexual, gay/straight, or even man/woman. Understanding sex/gender
systems should be based on what has meaning, significance, and lived experience, not
on what others tell us to whom to be and what we should call ourselves and identify
with.

There are ‘men who have sex with men’ because they desire other men. There are men
who have sex with other males because they do not consider these males to be men.
There are males who do not think of themselves as men, who have sex with real men.
There are men who have sex with men because of fun, discharge, body heat, and so
on. There are males who have sex with males and consider it ‘lesbian sex’. The vari-
ous possibilities are endless. However the polemics and discourse of these diversities
of sexual possibilities are dominated by those who are lesbian or gay identified, but
whose real life experience is not the same as the majority of those males for whom they
speak. The rights to sexual autonomy, incorporating in its fold the rights to penetrate
as much as the rights to be penetrated (or even the right not to have penetrative sex of
whatever sort) gets lost in the identity politics that demands rights for gay men. Those
who do not define as gay are somehow sidelined or forgotten. And there the moot
question again raises its head; does anyone have the right to impose their philosophy,
identity, or politics, on others?

We do not lose the concepts of rights within such an openness to be different, to ex-
plore ourselves in different ways, to experience other human beings in different ways.
We are talking about autonomous, consensual human beings with sexual rights to be
themselves, to define themselves, and to live their lives in meaningful and significant
way appropriate to who they are and who they wish to become in a never ending proc-
ess of becoming.




                                                                         Naz Foundation International   23
24   Naz Foundation International
Our supporters
NFI thanks all our friends, NGOs partners, institutions, and all the many others, both
as individuals and as a part of their agency, who have given their support.

Their on-going encouragement, critiques and positive feedback on what is acknowledged
to be a difficult and sensitive issue is always gratefully received, not only by NFI, but
also by those we work with.

Our main financial donors during 2004-5 were:

•   DFID, UK
•   Community Fund, UK
•   British Foreign and Commonwealth Office
•   North-South Development Trust




                                                                         Naz Foundation International   25
26   Naz Foundation International
Financial summary: 2004-5
Summary balance sheet as at 31st March 2005

                                                 2004/5 (£)           2003/4 (£)

Fixed assets                                         10,715                 13,094
Current assets                                        4,912                 39,160
Fund balance                                       (17,012)                 20,138

Summary income and expenditure accounts for year ended 31st March 2004

Income

                                                             Restricted

                                                 2004/5 (£)           2003/4 (£)

DFID (ARPF)                                         268,180               303,758
DFID (JFS)                                                    -             27,968
Foreign and Commonwealth Office                       24,813                58,250
Community Fund                                        40,486                 4,097
Family Health International                                   -              8,002
Catalyst                                                  547                6,910
UNAIDS                                                        -              7,827
International HIV/AIDS Alliance                        6,104                        -
PACT                                                  18,864                        -
Other                                                     965                7,827
                                                     ----------            ----------
                                                    360,059               416,812
                                                     ======                ======

                                                             Unrestricted

                                                 2004/5 (£)           2003/4 (£)

Sales                                                    160                        -
Donations                                                686                    225
                                                         -----                  -----
                                                         846                    228
                                                         ===                    ===

Expenditure

                                                 2004/5 (£)           2003/4 (£)

Direct charitable activities                       295,025                320,022
Management and administration                      103,634                  70,739
                                                   -----------            -----------
                                                    398,695                390,761
                                                   =======                =======


Our Auditors are: Shah Dodhia & Co.,Chartered Accountants, First Floor, 22 Stephenson
Way, London, NW1 2LE, United Kigdom.

A full copy of the accounts is available from our UK office (details on inside of front
page.

                                                                          Naz Foundation International   27
28   Naz Foundation International
Our ethical policy
NFI will fully consider the implications of males who have sex with males, for them-
selves, for any male or female sexual partners such males may have, and for any clients
of those males who do sex work.

In this work NFI will be guided by the principles that we will:

•   Promote the reproductive and sexual health of males who have sex with males by
    encouraging sexual responsibility and safer sexual practices.
•   Encourage males who have sex with males to access STI treatment whenever neces-
    sary.
•   Respect confidentiality in the relationship between males and their sexual partners
    and, or clients.
•   Promote the protection of children and non-consenting adults from abusive sexual
    relationships.
•   Promote the reproductive and sexual health of any female partners of MSM by
    encouraging greater sexual responsibility of their male partners.
•   Encourage communication of sexual health information between sexual partners
    and promoting partner notification of STI/HIV infection, irrespective of the gender
    of the partner.
•   Collaborate with female reproductive and sexual health services in order to ensure
    appropriate services for the female partners of males who have sex with males.




                                                                       Naz Foundation International   29
30   Naz Foundation International

				
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