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Discrimination Powered By Docstoc
     Learning objective –
to be able to identify types of
  discrimination and abuse
Health and Well being
• The effects of attitudes and prejudices on
  health and wellbeing of service users when
  their needs are unmet can be profound
• The effects of discriminatory practice are
  both physical and psychological.
• When prejudiced attitudes affect the ways
  individuals behave towards other people is
  known as discrimination.
• To discriminate means to show preference,
  or to choose
• It is important to understand that
  discrimination can be favour of someone or
  something as well as against.
• Care work is concerned with anti-
  discriminatory practice which means not
  treating any person or group more
  favourably than another
• Discrimination is defines by Giddens
  (2001) as:-
    ‘activities (or actions) that deny to the
    members of a group resources or rewards
    which can be obtained by others’.
• Although prejudge is linked to
  discrimination, not everyone who is
  prejudiced behaved in a discriminatory
• People who discriminate are usually
  prejudice but not all prejudge people
Discrimination can occur because of the
differences between people
– Ability
– Appearance
– Age
– Ethnicity
– Culture
– Gender
– Marital status
– Race
– Religion
                               Physically assaulting
                                 people who are
        Devaluing people,            different
        Treating their needs                           Making assumptions
          of being of less                                about people
         value than others

Verbally abusing
                                 Discriminatory                  Excluding people
  people who
                                    practices                     from activities
  are different

          Avoiding people
                                                       Excluding people
           because they
                                                       from opportunities
            are different
                               Negative non-verbal
• Prejudice can lead to discrimination and lack of
  respect for individuals, preventing them from having
  their needs met.
• In extreme cases this may lead to bullying,
  particularly against vulnerable individuals (children
  & elderly)
• This can also lead to mistreatment of people, by
  those who are in positions of power over them.
• Different types of abuse
  –   Physical abuse
  –   Psychological abuse
  –   Financial abuse
  –   Sexual abuse
  –   Neglect
Effects of abuse
• Physical injury
  – Leading to feelings of being unsafe
  – Intimidation
  – Avoidance, devaluing and exclusion
• Access to resources
  – Financial
  – Social opportunities
• Stress and depression
  –   Irregular sleep patterns
  –   Negative though patterns
  –   High blood pressure
  –   Comfort eating/drinking
  –   Increase of stress hormones (adrenaline)
Self-esteem and empowerment
• Uninformed attitudes and prejudices have a
  significant impact on an individuals self-
• They undermine an individuals self esteem
  (confidence, self respect, self regard)
• They may feel disempowered – loosing their
  right to exercise choice and make decisions
  about their life.
• If a service user is not consulted about their
  care then they can also feel devalued.
• To be an effective carer, you need to be able
  to examine your own attitudes honestly and
  work hard to overcome any prejudices
• This is known as anti-discriminatory practice
• Anti-discriminatory practice includes:-
  – Open mindedness
  – Fairness
  – Respect
  – Consideration
  – Care
Direct Discrimination
• This is when individuals are deliberately
  disadvantaging another.
• Unfair discrimination can occur on the
  grounds of
  – Age, class, colour, creed (faith), culture,
    gender, health status, lifestyles, marital status,
    mental ability, mental health, offending
    background, physical ability, the place of origin,
    political beliefs, race, religion, sensory ability,
    sexuality, responsibility for dependents or other
    special factors.
Indirect discrimination
• This is much less obvious
• This occurs when certain conditions are in
  place that demonstrates preference for
  some people over others.
  – Not providing toilet facilities that children or
    disabled can use
  – Employing only males or females
Attitudes and prejudices summary
 • As care workers we need to be aware that we will be
   part of the service users socialisation process and
   can influence positive or negative attitudes.
 • A positive, respectful and considerate approach can
   improve the rate of recovery fro illness and can
   enable people to higher quality of life
 • Stereotypical thinking is apparent to service users,
   whether they are consciously demonstrated, and will
   affect on the emotional and physical health of those
   they care for.
 • We have a responsibility to examine our own views
   and be open-minded if we are to deliver high quality
   anti-discriminatory practice

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