Adolescence by pengxiang

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									Adolescence-Adulthood
Adolescence
        Adolescence is
         the transition
          period from
          childhood to
           adulthood,
        extending from
           puberty to
        independence
Adolescence
       G. Stanley Hall
        described
        adolescence as the
        tension between
        biological maturity
        and social
        dependence
Physical Development
          • Puberty paves way to a
            surge of hormones,
            creating mood swings.
          • The primary sex
            characteristics
            (reproductive organs)
            develop dramatically
          • Menarche- first menstrual
            period
          • Spermarche-first
            ejaculation
         Physical Development
• Early developing boys become stronger and more
  athletic, as well as more popular and have a higher self
  esteem.
• Hereditary and environmental interaction plays a major
  role of how both boys and girls feel about puberty
• During puberty, unused neural connections are
  weakened
• Myelin also grows in the frontal lobe during puberty
• The frontal lobe maturation slows down the emotional
  limbic system. This explains why teenagers can be
  impulsive
• Younger teens are more likely to smoke or do drugs
  since they are unable to plan ahead.
Cognitive Development
           • Adolescents are more
             likely to worry about what
             others think about
             themselves. Since this is
             when they start to think
             about how others perceive
             them
           • During the early teenage
             years, reasoning is often
             self-focused. They feel
             that their private
             experiences are unique.
             They think that others can
             not understand their
             unique experiences
• Formal operations is the shift from
  preadolescents thinking concretely to
  adolescents becoming more capable of
  abstract logic. This is Piaget’s theory
• The teenager’s ability to reason
  hypothetically and deduce consequences
  allows them to detect inconsistencies in
  other’s reasoning and to spot hypocrisy
Developing Morality
           Kohlberg did studies
            in which he recorded
            the morality thoughts
            of people of different
            ages. He found that
            there were 3 different
            stages
Developing Morality
           o Preconventional
             Morality- When
             children before 9 years
             old, have a
             preconventional
             morality of self
             interest. These
             children obey either to
             avoid punishment or to
             gain concrete awards
     Developing Morality
Conventional Morality
– When young
teenagers, use
morality which
includes caring for
others as well as
upholding laws and
social rules just
because they are rules
and laws.
Developing Morality
           o Post conventional
             morality- When
             someone develops
             personally perceived
             ethical principles, they
             confirm people’s
             agreed upon rights
           Developing Morality
• Kohlberg constructed the
  moral ladder, which
  included the three stages
• Once our thinking
  matures, our behavior
  becomes less selfish and
  more caring
• Elevation- tingly, warm,
  glowing feeling in the
  chest, usually felt when
  witnessing someone
  doing charity
          Developing Morality
• Jonathan Haidt exclaimed in his book social
  intuitionist, that moral feelings overpower moral
  reasoning. He revealed that moral reasoning
  aims to convince others of what we feel
• Joshua Greene found that when a person is
  faced with dilemmas, their neural responses
  varied, based on how much their emotion areas
  lit up
• Despite the identical logic, the personal dilemma
  allowed emotions that altered mood judgment.
          Developing Morality
• Morality is influenced by social influences, and is
  doing the right thing.
• Children are taught to be empathetic to others.
• Those who rely on delay gratification (restraining
  one’s impulse and waiting for a greater award)
  became more socially responsible as well as
  academically successfully. Students are
  engaged in responsible action through service
  learning.
Social Development
         • Erik Erikson exclaimed
           that individuals go
           through eight stages in
           life, each with a
           psychosocial task.
         • Till age 1, the issue was
           that of trust and
           mistrust
         • Till age 2, it becomes
           autonomy vs. shame
           and doubt
         • Till age 5, the issue is
           initiative and guilt
         Social Development
• Till puberty, the child is given the issues of
  inferiority and competence
• From adolescence till becoming a young adult, it
  becomes about finding one’s identity
• For young adults, the issue is between intimacy
  and isolation
• From 50-60 years old, it becomes generativity
  vs. stagnation.
• From 60s up, the issue becomes integrity vs.
  despair.
           Forming an identity
• Erikson revealed that
  some teenagers take
  their parents values
  and expectations and
  use it as their identity.
• Other teenagers tend
  to gain a negative
  identity by rejecting
  traditional values ant
  conforming to a
  particular group
           Forming an identity
• William Damon revealed that a main idea of
  teenagers is to try to make a difference in the
  world
• Daniel Hart discovered that younger teenagers
  were more likely to reflect the values of a certain
  group while older teenagers were more likely to
  reflect their own personal values.
• Older teenagers were also more likely to have
  intimacy, the ability to form emotionally close
  relationships. This is after these individuals get a
  better sense of who they are
Parent and Peer Influence
             • Positive relations with
               parents support
               positive peer relations
             • Teenage years is a
               time of decreasing
               parental connection
               and a more peer
               connection
Parent and Peer Influence
              Parents have a bigger
               influence on religious
               faith, career, college
               and thinking values.
               Most teenagers share
               their parents political
               views
         Emerging Adulthood
• Emerging adulthood
  are people who are
  no longer teenagers
  but are not ready to
  take on adulthood
  responsibilities.
• Due to this emerging
  adulthood, marriage
  has been delayed by
  several years.
     Physical Changes in Middle
              Adulthood
• Physical vigor has less to do with age; it has
  more to do with a person’s health and exercise
  habits.
• In Eastern countries, respect is given to the
  aged. Power is seen to be derived over age
• In many western cultures, young people are
  more prized.
• Menopause is the ending of the menstrual cycle
  beginning around when a woman hits her 50th
  birthday. Estrogen is reduced during this period.
Physical Changes in Middle
         Adulthood
             • Menopause usually does not
               create psychological problems
               for women.
             • A woman’s attitudes reflect on
               how she will perceive and go
               through menopause
             • Bernice Neugarten went
               around and asked women who
               had their menopause how they
               felt. The majority felt at the
               prime of their lives.
             • Men experience a more
               gradual decline of sperm
               production over age.
               Testosterone levels, erection
               and ejaculation are also at a
               declining rate.
  Physical Changes in later life
• Life expectancy has increased from the
  average 49 years to 67 years
• Women outlive men and after the stage of
  infancy, outnumber them
• After age 70, hearing, distance perception,
  reaction time, stamina, muscle strength,
  sense of smell all decrease
• Neural process slow their rate
• Around age 80, 5% of the brain shrinks.
Physical Changes in later life
               • Physical exercise
                 however, can stimulate
                 the development of some
                 new brain cells and
                 connections.
               • The risk of dementia
                 increases, doubling every
                 five years from age 60. It
                 is not a normal part of the
                 aging process.
   Physical Changes in later life
• Older adults who exercise
  regularly become smart
  thinkers due to the oxygen and
  nutrient circulation.
• Alzheimer’s disease affects
  over 3% of the world’s
  population by age 75. They are
  not part of the normal aging
  process. It is the loss of brain
  cells and deterioration of
  neurons that produce the
  neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  Memory and thinking thus
  decrease.
Aging and Memory
        • Recalling new information
          declines during the early
          and middle adulthood
          years.
        • Older adults are able to
          recall meaningful
          information more easily
          than meaningless
          information, they may
          however take longer to
          produce words to
          describe these memories
            Aging and Memory
• Thomas Cook and Robin West discovered that younger
  adults were more likely to recall names after one
  introduction, while older age groups had a poorer
  performance.
• When asked how they heard a certain event or news ,
  many could recall instantaneously upon a few moments,
  while asking after a couple of months prompted
  variations in their recalls.
• David Schonfield and Betty-Anne Robertson found that
  recognition memory is better for older adults early in the
  day rather late.
• Being able to recognize a set of words via multiple
  choices had a minimal decline when compared to the
  results of each age. It was the recall of the words which
  had a greater difficulty
• Time based tasks as well as habitual tasks decline over
  age
Aging and Intelligence
           • Cross sectional studies
             are comparing people of
             different ages with one
             another.
           • These studies revealed
             that intelligence declined
             after early adulthood
           • They excluded the factors
             of generational
             differences of education
             as well as life
             experiences
             Aging and Intelligence
• Longitudinal studies is the
  retesting the same people over a
  period of time, these studies
  showed that intelligence may be
  stable through out the years.
  They however, excluded the
  factors of people dropping out of
  studies, those who were less
  intelligent and that in poor health.
• The present day view is that fluid
  intelligence takes place by
  declining later in life and that
  crystallized intelligence does not.
  (Paul Baltes)
• Crystallized intelligence is the
  accumulation of knowledge and
  skills
Aging and Intelligence
           • Fluid intelligence is the
             ability to reason speedily
             and abstractly
           • Scientists and
             mathematicians are more
             likely to have their best
             outcomes in earlier
             adulthood, while
             historians and writers
             experience success later
             in life.
  Adulthood’s Ages and Stages
• Midlife transition takes
  place in the early forties
  and is associated with
  struggle, regret, and
  feeling struck down.
  Usually triggered by
  illness, divorce or by job
  loss.
• The social clock is the
  cultural prescription of
  when the right time of
  each stage in life must
  occur. For example, what
  time to leave home,
  college, get a job, family,
  etc.
Aging and Intelligence
           • Romantic attraction is
             often influenced by
             chance encounters.
           • Not many identical
             twins would feel
             attracted to their
             twin’s partners.
           • The social clock
             varies from culture to
             culture
         Adulthood’s Commitments
• Erik Erikson pinned two
  aspects of our live.
  Intimacy and Generativity.
• Generativity is being
  productive and supporting
  future generations.
• Love and work are two
  major themes of adulthood
• The social expectation of
  families staying together, is
  explained by evolutionary
  psychologists in having a
  better chance of passing
  down one’s genes.
    Adulthood’s Commitments
• Due to the increased expectations of both
  women and men and women’s increased
  independence, divorce rates have doubled in the
  past 40 years
• Those who tested out their marriage before
  getting married had a higher rate of divorce and
  marital dysfunction.
• The risk of poor martial outcomes appears
  greatest for those who cohabit prior to
  engagement. Cohabiters tend to be less
  committed to the ideal of enduring marriage.
         Adulthood’s Commitments
• John Gottman discovered
  that stable marriages provide
  five times more instances of
  smiling, touching,
  complimenting, laughing
  than of sarcasm, criticism
  and insults.
• Work satisfaction reveals the
  roles of the woman, such as
  a paid worker or a wife did
  not matter, but the quality of
  her experiences in these
  roles meant a lot.
• Satisfying work correlates
  with life satisfaction
Well Being Across the Life Span
               • A person’s feeling of
                 satisfaction and well
                 being are stable through
                 out one’s lifespan
               • Older adults may
                 experience a higher rate
                 of satisfactions since
                 they had satisfied the
                 tasks of early adulthood.
                 They are filled with a
                 strong sense of
                 satisfaction and identity
   Well Being Across the Life Span
• Older adults are less sensitive
  to negative facts. The
  amygalda show decreased
  activity in response to
  negative events while
  maintain its responsiveness to
  positive events.
• Mihalay Csikszentmihalyi and
  Reed Larson revealed that
  teenagers got over an
  emotion within an hour while
  older people endured their
  emotions longer.
Death and Dying
       • Death of spouse is the hardest
         for a person
       • When death comes at an
         expected time, grieving may
         be short lived.
       • When death comes earlier,
         grief is more severe
       • Erikson believed that older
         people were filled with a sense
         of meaning and identity when
         thinking about death
Continuity and Stages
           • Researchers who stress
             biological maturation see
             development as a series of
             genetically predisposed
             steps.
           • Researchers who stress slow
             continuous development
             stress experience and
             learning.
           • Piagets’s, Erikson’s and
             Kohlberg’s ideas have
             shown us the ways people
             differ at various points in the
             life span.
          Continuity and Stages
• Lifelong development
  also shows stability and
  change
• Personality gradually
  stabilizes throughout
  age.
• When we age, we may
  change our earlier
  personalities but
  sustaining characteristic
  traits in comparison to
  our age mates.

								
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