Plant identification key by cuiliqing

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									Crude key to common woody plants which grow naturally
       in the uplands of Western Massachusetts
                          1. Leaves needle-like, scale-like or awl shaped, and less than 3 mm wide (Gym
                          2 Leaves in bundles of 2-5, sheathed at base (Pines)
                              3 Needles in bundles of 5à.Pinus strobus, white pine
                              3a Needles in bundles of 2-3
                                 4     Needles in bundles of 2, bark reddish on mature trees. Pinus re
                                 4a    Needles in bundles of 3, bark of mature trees yellowish brown. P
                          2a Leaves not in bundles, each individually attached to branch
                              6 Leaves needle-like, flat, approx. 1 cm long. Tsuga, hemlock
                                       (Some lump the species of this area into Tsuga canadensis, oth
                              6a Leaves generally scale-like or less than 1 cm long
                                 7     Leaves scale-like, rounded at tipà.Thuja occidentalis, arbor vitae

                                  7a    Leaves needle-like or scale-like and sharp pointed
                                        8     Plant an erect treeà.Juniperus virginiana, eastern red ceda
                                        8a Plant a shrubà.J. communis, pasture juniper
                          1a. Leaves not needle-like or scale-like, and more than 3mm wide
                          9 Plant a trailing or climbing vine
                              10 Leaves simple, palmately lobedà.Vitis sp., grape
                              10a Leaves compound
                                  11    Leaves with 6, rarely 7 leaflets, climbing by tendrilsà.Parthenoci

                                 11a Leaves with 3 leaflets, trailing or climbing by rootsà.Rhus radica
                          9a Plant erect or spreading, not a vine
                             12 Leaves compound
                                 13     Leaves opposite
                                        14 A shrub; flowers white; fruit a berryà.Sambucus sp., Elderb
                                        14a A tree; flowers insignificant; fruit a samara (winged)à.Fraxin
                                 13a Leaves alternate
                                        15 Plant spiny; a shrub less than 2 meters high
                                             16 Leaves palmately compound with 5 leafletsà.Rubus sp
                                             16a Leaves pinnately compound with 5 or more leafletsà.R
                                        15a Plant without spines; a tree or shrub over 2 meters high at
                                             17 Teeth on the leaflets, 1-3on each margin near base wi
                                                 (a gland) on underside of each toothà.Ailanthus altissi
                                             17a Teeth on leaflets not as above, gland absent
                                                 18     Twigs hairy; fruit a persistent red-hairy drupe. R

                                                  18a   Twigs not hairy; fruit a nut
                                                        20 15 to 23 leaflets per leafà.Juglans nigra, bla
                                                        20a 5-9 leaflets per leafà.Carya sp., hickories
                              12a Leaves simple
21    Leaves opposite
      22 Leaves palmately lobed
          23 Plant a shrub producing black berriesà.Viburnum acer

           23a plant a tree producing winged seeds (maples)
               24     Leaf margin smooth; 5 lobes distinguishableà.A

               24a    Leaf margin toothed; 3 lobes or with 2 extra, mu

      22a Leaves not lobed
          25 Leaves toothed, leaf veins branching typicallyà.Viburn

          25a Leaves entire, leaf veins curve, following leaf margins
               26    Plat a tree; twigs greenishà.Cornus florida, flowe
               26a Plant a shrub; twigs reddishà.Cornus stolonifera
21a   Leaves alternate
      27 leaves lobed
          28 Leaves palmately lobed with up to three lobes; some le
                                                lobed. Sassafras albid
          28a Leaves pinnately lobed (oaks)
               29    Lobes rounded, without bristle tips (white oak gr

               29a   Lobes pointed, bristle-tipped (black oak group)
                     30 Leaf underside pubescent along midribà.Q.
                     30a Leaves not pubescent. .probably Q. rubra, r
                                                to distinguish from sca
      27a leaves not lobed
          31 leaves entire (leaf margin not toothed or wavy)
              32     Leaves pungent when crushed
                     33 A shrub; no leaves lobed; order of lemon oi

                      33a A tree; some leaves lobed; odor spicy, not l

               32a   Leaves not pungent when crushed
                     34 Leaves 5-10 cm long, evergreenà.Kalmia la
                     34a Leaves less than 5 cm long, deciduous...Va
           31a Leaf margin toothed or wavy
               35    Leaf margin wavy (crenate)
                     36 Leaf base asymmetric; a tall shrubà.Hamam

                      36a Leaf base symmetric; a treeà.Quercus prinu
               35a    Leaf margin toothed
                      37 Leaf base distinctly asymmetric
    38   Leaves heart-shaped, singly serrate, n

    38a Leaves elliptical, doubly serrate, usual

37a Leaf base approximately symmetric
    39 Petiole flattened; leaves approximately
                     veins; bark light green, exc
         40 Leaves 2-7 cm long with large, rou

         40aLeaves 5-10 cm long with large, ro

    39a Petiole not flattened; leaves generally

         41 Leaves doubly toothed
            42 Fruit an apple, borne singly; b

             42a Fruit a tiny, winged seed, born

                 43 Twigs have mint taste whe
                    44 Bark of mature tree go

                     44a Bark of mature tree da

                43aTwigs without mint taste
                    45 Leaves distinctly triang
                        than 30 feet, often in c
                        populifolia, grey birch
                    45a Leaves oval shaped; t
                        tall and are often singl
                        papyrifera, paper birch
         41aLeaves singly toothed
            46 Teeth large, at ends of princip
                leaves. Fagus grandifolia, Am
            46a Teeth small, all along leaf mar
                or on lowest teeth. Prunus, sp
 d less than 3 mm wide (Gymnosperms)



 h on mature trees. Pinus resinosa, red pine
 ure trees yellowish brown. Pinus rigida, pitch pine
 ed to branch
 . Tsuga, hemlock
  into Tsuga canadensis, others split them)

huja occidentalis, arbor vitae
            or northern white cedar
 sharp pointed
virginiana, eastern red cedar.
asture juniper
 than 3mm wide



bing by tendrilsà.Parthenocissus quinquefolia
                   Virginia creeper
mbing by rootsà.Rhus radicans, poison ivy



 erryà.Sambucus sp., Elderberry
 t a samara (winged)à.Fraxinus sp., Ash

  meters high
nd with 5 leafletsà.Rubus sp., blackberry
 d with 5 or more leafletsà.Rosa sp., rose
shrub over 2 meters high at maturity
n each margin near base with a bright green spot
each toothà.Ailanthus altissima, tree of heaven
 ove, gland absent
 ersistent red-hairy drupe. Rhus typhina,
                    staghorn sumac

  per leafà.Juglans nigra, black walnut
 leafà.Carya sp., hickories
ack berriesà.Viburnum acerfolium,
             maple-leafed viburnum
ged seeds (maples)
; 5 lobes distinguishableà.Acer saccharum,
                    sugar maple
 ; 3 lobes or with 2 extra, much smaller lobesà.
             Acer rubrum, red maple

 branching typicallyà.Viburnum alnifolium,
                   hobble bush
urve, following leaf margins (dogwoods)
eenishà.Cornus florida, flowering dogwood
 reddishà.Cornus stolonifera, redosier dogwood


 th up to three lobes; some leaves may not be
       lobed. Sassafras albidum, sassafras

 out bristle tips (white oak group)à.Quercus alba,
                              white oak
 e-tipped (black oak group)
 pubescent along midribà.Q. veluntina, black oak
 escent. .probably Q. rubra, red oak, difficult
       to distinguish from scarlet and pin oaks

not toothed or wavy)
en crushed
 ves lobed; order of lemon oilà.Lindera benzoin,
                            spicebush
 aves lobed; odor spicy, not lemon oilà.Sassafras
                   albidum, sassafras
  when crushed
m long, evergreenà.Kalmia latifolia, mountain laurel
 n 5 cm long, deciduous...Vaccinium sp., blueberry


 metric; a tall shrubà.Hamamelis virginiana,
                    witch hazel
metric; a treeà.Quercus prinus, chestnut oak

 ctly asymmetric
art-shaped, singly serrate, not scabrousà.Tilla
                     americana, basswood
ptical, doubly serrate, usually scabrousà.
                     Ulmus sp., elm
oximately symmetric
 ened; leaves approximately round with yellow
  veins; bark light green, except on large trunks
  2-7 cm long with large, rounded teethà.Populus
              tremuloides, quaking aspen
  5-10 cm long with large, rounded teeth. Populus
              grandidentata, large-toothed asper
 flattened; leaves generally longer than wide; bark
                               not green
  doubly toothed
uit an apple, borne singly; bark not peeling. Malus
                               sp., apple
uit a tiny, winged seed, borne on a catkin; bark
                     often peeling (birches)
  Twigs have mint taste when chewed
       Bark of mature tree golden, peeling.
                     Betula lutea, yellow birch
       Bark of mature tree dark, not peelingà.
                     Betula lenta, sweet birch
  Twigs without mint taste
       Leaves distinctly triangular; trees no taller
       than 30 feet, often in clumps. Betula
       populifolia, grey birch
       Leaves oval shaped; trees may get 80 feet
       tall and are often single trunksà.Betula
       papyrifera, paper birch
  singly toothed
 eth large, at ends of principal veins; no glands on
aves. Fagus grandifolia, American beech
 eth small, all along leaf margin; gland on petioles
 on lowest teeth. Prunus, sp., cherry

								
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