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Foreigners in their own land

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					Foreigners in Their Own Land
    Loss of Land
 After the Treaty of Guadalupe
 was signed, only about 2,000
 Mexican headed South of the
new border. The majority stayed
  behind in the land they still
called home (about 100,000 by
        some estimates)

     Many disputes followed
regarding the rightful ownership
 of Mexican Land by its owners
  in US Courts even up to this
              day.
        Loss of Cultural Rights
 US citizens of Mexican
  descent lost some 20 million
  acres of land and the
  guarantee that the new
  government would respect
  their culture and language
  was often violated.
 In Texas, English became
  the official law of the land
  and kids were punished for
  speaking Spanish in schools.
                Racial Injustices
 On the frontier areas, US         US merchants even fought
   merchants often exaggerated       Mexican merchants in border
   the fear of “Mexican bandits”     towns like Brownsville and
   because this way the US           Matamoros. In 1855, US
   would build military              merchants lynched 11
   installations that would          Mexicans along the Nueces
   purchase goods and services       River. Two years later white
   of local businesses. (Acuna       traders killed 75 Mexican
   2000:59)
                                     competitors in San Antonio.
                                     At Goliad, the townspeople
                                     killed several Mexicans
                                     because the Mexicans drove
                                     carts on public roads (Acuna
                                     2000:63)
                 Texan Rangers
 In Arizona, Texan “Cowboys”
   formed gangs that raided
   defenseless Mexican villages.
   The Texans showed little
   respect for women or children.
 Without violence the white
   elite could not have
   maintained control. The
   Texans Rangers played the
   role of the enforcer. From
   multiple accounts and
   documents, the Texan
   Rangers were in many case
   paid assassins.
          California Gold Rush
 On January 24, 1848 James
  W. Marshall found gold on
  John Sutter’s property.
  Thousands of outsiders
  flooded into California. It made
  the Mexicans in California an
  instant minority!
 By mid-1849, nearly 100,000
  miners were panning for gold-
  80,000 were white, 8,000 were
  Mexicans, 5,000 were South
  Americans, and several
  thousand were Europeans.
     Decline of the Californios
 With the Gold Rush almost         Some of the forty-niners who
  over, the Yankees turned their      failed at mining wanted
  attention to securing more          something to show for their
  land for themselves. In 1851        trouble. So they took land--
  the US Congress set in motion       some of which belonged to the
  a way to challenge all Spanish      Californios. Some miners
  and Mexican land grants by          squatted, or lived on the
  establishing a land court and       ranchos without the
  requiring all owners to prove       permission of the landowners.
  legal title.                        Many squatters seized land
                                      violently, killing cattle, burning
                                      crops, and chasing Californios
                                      out of their homes. Others
                                      used the courts to make unfair
                                      claims on the Californios'
                                      property.
Governor Andres Pio Pico
            Last Mexican Governor of
             California who was of
             Spanish, African, Italian and
             native American descent. He
             was born in San Gabriel
             Mission in 1801 and became
             governor in 1832.
            During the Mexican American
             War, his army killed 18 North
             Americans in Battle of San
             Pascual. Ultimately, his forces
             are outnumbered and he is
             forced to surrender in 1847.
             Acts of Violence
 Juanita, a former prostitute, killed a white miner who
  forced himself into her house and tried to force himself
  on her. She killed him with a knife to defend her honor.
  She was tried quickly and sentenced to be hanged
  publicly, eventhough she was pregnant.

 It is estimated that 597 Mexicans were lynched in the
  US between 1848 and 1928. At least 163 Mexicans
  were lynched in California between 1848 and 1860
  (Acuna2000:115).
        Vigilante Committees
 Several “vigilante” groups formed throughout the large
  cities in California to “keep order”. In fact, many of them
  committed acts of violence against Mexican miners and
  other “foreigners”.

 On July 15, 1849, a group attacked a Chilean
  community in San Francisco where they killed a mother
  and sexually assaulted her daughter (Bean and Rawls
  1988:110)
  Joaquin Murrieta
 Some myths say he was Chilean but
  he was originally from Sonora. And
 the best known “bandit” in California.
         He was a miner who was
discriminated by Anglo miners of 1849
legend in Northern California. Stories
  tell of his brother being hanged and
   his wife being raped. He formed a
group of about 50 to 80 other outlaws
   and robbed stagecoaches and got
  revenged on the men that killed his
  brother and raped his wife. He was
   just 18 years old when this started
   and killed several law enforcement
   who were sent out to kill him. They
finally killed him in 1853, cut his head
    and parade it throughout several
                   towns.
Joaquin Murrieta
                Juan “Cheno” Cortina was another
                  Mexican Outlaw from the region of
                  Brownsville Texas. He came from a
                  well off family. Legend has it he killed
Juan Cortina      an officer who was pistol whipping a
                  Mexican worker he knew and insulted
                  him. So he shot him. In 1859, he left to
                  Mexico with some of his followers
                  because he knew he would not get a
                  fair trial in the new Anglo courts.
                  Cortina went to Tamaulipas where
                  from 1861 to 1867 he defended the
                  state against the French and became
                  for a time its military governor as well
                  as a general in the Mexican Army.
                  From his Mexican base Cortina
                  allegedly led rustling operations
                  against Anglo ranchers north of the
                  border. (Acuna:65).
Tiburcio Vazquez
    He was born in Monterey in
     1835. About 1853, he was
  involved in a shooting of a law
    enforcement and fled to the
  mountains with other followers
   (or social rebels) attracted by
    the social inequalities of the
times and who also saw an easy
opportunity to enrich themselves
by stealing. His “gang” operated
   for about 20 year until he was
        caught and hanged.
Outlaws or Social
    Bandits?
    What do you think?
        Californios Disappear
 In Southern California, White Americans became the
  majority in the 1870’S.

 Lower class Mexicans were also called “greasers” and
  “cholos”
Mexican Stereotypes

				
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