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					Using Classroom Assessment
 Techniques (Low Threshold
  Assessments) to Promote
      Student Learning
            Dr. Barbara Millis
       University of Nevada, Reno
             Dr. Douglas Eder
        University of North Florida
              Dr. Ray Purdom
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Minute Paper
     What was the
      most important
      thing you
      learned during
      this session?
     What important
      question
      remains
      unanswered?
           Bloom’s Taxonomy
   LEVEL           SOME COGNITIVE BEHAVIORS

 Evaluation      Appraisal of an Analysis
                     or Synthesis
 Synthesis       Assembly of Application
 Analysis        Disassembly of Application
 Application     Use of Understanding
 Understanding   Management of Knowledge
 Knowledge       Memorization of facts, language,
                     concepts, principles, theories
      Analytic Minute Paper:
        Analysis via Bloom’s Taxonomy
                            [--after Harding]

Knowledge Understanding     Application     Analysis        Synthesis    Evaluation
   define        arrange          apply        analyze       I arrange     appraise
  identify       classify       compute       calculate      assemble       assess
  indicate   comprehend        construct     categorize        collect      choose
    know        describe     demonstrate      compare        compose       compare
    label        discuss       dramatize      contrast       construct     contrast
     list        explain         employ       criticize        create       decide
 memorize        express    give examples       debate         design      estimate
    name         identify      illustrate    determine      formulate      evaluate
    recall         locate     implement       diagram        integrate       grade
   record        manage         interpret   differentiate    organize        judge
    relate       outline      investigate   disassemble       perform      measure
   repeat     paraphrase         operate    distinguish         plan          rate
   select      recognize        practice      examine         prepare       revise
 underline         report        predict    experiment        produce        score
                  restate      schedule        inspect        propose        select
                  review           shop      inventory         set up        value
                   show           sketch      question      synthesize      weigh
                 suggest        translate       relate
              summarize             use          solve
                     tell                         test
                translate
        Analytic Minute Paper:
             Analysis via Bloom’s Taxonomy
                 SIUE 2006 NFO [n=44]

Knowledge Understanding Application         Analysis      Synthesis    Evaluation
  Identify    Explain Show me   Implement    Compare       Integrate
   Name       Explain Show me   Implement    Compare       Integrate
              Explain Show me   Implement   Distinguish
              Explain Show me    Practice
              Explain Show me    Practice
              Explain Show me     Apply
              Explain Show me     Apply
              Explain Show me     Apply
              Explain Discuss
              Explain Discuss
              Explain Discuss
              Explain Discuss
              Describe
              Describe
              Describe
              Outline
      Analytic Minute Paper:
        Analysis via Bloom’s Taxonomy
        Lycoming College Conference

Knowledge Understanding Application  Analysis       Synthesis   Evaluation
  Repeat     Explain         Use    Differentiate    Collect
             Explain         Use    Differentiate    Arrange
             Explain         Use     Compare         Create
                            Give                     Create
                         Examples                    Create
                         Examples                    Create
                         Illustrate                  Set up
                         Illustrate                 Construct
                         Illustrate                 Construct
                                                     Design
              RSQC2
 Recall
 Summarize
 Question?
 Connect
 Comment
    Immediate Goals for this Second
               Session

 To discuss the second key learning principle –
  students need deep foundational knowledge;
 To introduce appropriate Classroom
  Assessment Techniques (CATs) to assess
  deep foundational knowledge;
 To suggest—and demonstrate—that well-
  chosen CATS can be fairly easily administered
  within an online setting.
      How People Learn:
    Brain, Mind, Experience,
           and School
John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown,
  and Rodney R. Cocking, editors
Committee on Developments in the
        Science of Learning
 Commission on Behavioral and
  Social Sciences and Education
   National Research Council

     NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
       Washington, D.C. 1999
http://www.nap.edu/html/howpeople
            1/notice.html
         Three Key Learning
             Principles
Prior Knowledge: Students construct new
knowledge based on what they already know (or
don’t know);
Deep Foundational Knowledge: Students need
a deep knowledge base and conceptual
frameworks;
Metacognition: Students must identify learning
goals and monitor their progress toward them.
       Learning Principle #2

To develop competence in an area of
inquiry, students must:
(a) have a deep foundation of factual
     knowledge;
(b) understand facts and ideas in the
     context of a conceptual framework;
(c) organize knowledge in ways that
     facilitate retrieval and application.
  ―Learning is defined as
    stabilizing, through
   repeated use, certain
 appropriate and desirable
synapses in the brain,‖ p. 5
 —Leamnson, R. (2000). Thinking about Teaching and
 Learning: Developing Habits of Learning with First
 Year College and University Students. Sterling, VA:
 Stylus Press.
 Teaching/Learning Implications
 Deliberately sequence and structure
  activities (homework, interactive
  assignments, etc.) so that students
  approach the same materials from
  multiple perspectives.
 Students/humans learn by processing
  information: they do not typically learn at
  a first exposure unless there is a great
  deal of relevant prior knowledge.
    ―CASTLE TOP‖ DIAGRAM
 Good tool for identifying your Teaching
  Strategy.

 In-        ?                 ?                    ?                  Exam
 class:
 Out-                ?                  ?                Review
 of-
 class:
 Out-of-class:


     Fink, L. D. Creating significant learning experiences:
     An integrated approach to course design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
  Primary Trait Analysis...



...is a very
strong link.
     Assessment and Evaluation of Papers
                                Excellent   Very Good   Adequate   Weak   Poor
(2) Presents a manifest
    topic statement
(3) Exercises good critical
    thinking
(4) Expresses its purpose
    clearly
(6) Provides adequate
    supporting arguments
(10) Correctly documents
     and cites sources
(11) Is free of mechanical
      errors
(12) Displays originality and
     creativity
     Assessment and Evaluation of Papers
                                Excellent   Very Good   Adequate   Weak   Poor
(2) Presents a manifest
    topic statement
(3) Exercises good critical
    thinking
(4) Expresses its purpose
    clearly
(6) Provides adequate
    supporting arguments
(10) Correctly documents
     and cites sources
(11) Is free of mechanical
      errors
(12) Displays originality and
     creativity

    Overall Evaluation             A           B           C        D      E
                    7 Principles of Good
                    Practice in Effective
                  Undergraduate Education
 Encourages contact between students and faculty
 Develops reciprocity and cooperation among
  students
 Encourages active learning
 Gives prompt feedback on performance
 Emphasizes time on task
 Communicates high expectations
 Respects diverse talents and
  ways of learning
      An Eighth Principle?




How effectively are we using available technology
           to help our students learn?
An Eighth Principle?




    Effective practice
promotes reflective thinking
    One Sentence summary
                  [--from Angelo and Cross]

Write a One Sentence Summary for promoting
active learning in the e-nvironment for one
baccalaureate trait (such as problem solving) or a
content topic in your domain.

     “Who does what to whom, when, where, how, and why?”
                   Memory Matrix
                      [--from Angelo and Cross]



                   Description         Example    Application

  How People
    Learn

  Grading and
  Assessment

Seven Principles
  of Effective
   Practice

 Metacognition
LTAs for Learning Principle #2

     • Think-Pair-Share
     • Structured
       Problem Solving
     • Send A Problem
Think-(Write)-
 Pair-Share
Think-Pair-Share Applications
                    Factual
   What are issues that current
    psychotherapists have with S. Freud’s
    basic theories?
   Define osmosis…photosynthesis.
   What is the central theme of Moby Dick/A
    Lesson Before Dying?
                   Reflective
   Should medial/nursing students be
    ―coached‖ in patient interactions?
   Should research into human cloning be
    permitted? Why or why not?
 Think-Pair-Share Activity

Students often bring negative feelings
to class about doing active learning
activities ("group work").

Why do you think they feel that way?
   Groups in Course Management
              Systems
 Course management systems allow
  students to participate in group
  activities;
 In Blackboard, select your group (red,
  green or blue);
 Each group can participate in their own
  discussion board and virtual classroom;
 Each group can file share and e-mail
  each other.
          Numbered Heads
     Together/Structured Problem-
            Solving (F2F)
• Each student has an assigned identity within a
  team/group: a number, playing card suit, color,
  etc.
• The students complete a task together.
• The group prepares to
  respond, making certain
  that each group member
  can serve as the
  spokesperson.
• Responses occur by
  number, suit, or color.
     Positive Results of Using
    Structured Problem Solving:
 Students are individually accountable: all must know
  the material;
 Peer coaching occurs because the team is only as
  strong as its weakest member; the students who
  explain and elaborate for their peers often learn the
  most because they are processing at a deeper level;
 Students are giving a group, not an individual, answer,
  which is less stressful;
 The process is perceived as fair, not ―picking‖ on
  specific individuals;
 Students who never normally volunteer to respond will
  participate.
Numbered Heads Together/Structured Problem-
               Solving (Distance)

 • Each student has an assigned identity within a
   team/group: a number, playing card suit, color,
   etc.
 • Working within their Blackboard or WebCT
   group, the students complete a task together.
 • The group prepares to respond, making
   certain that each group member can serve as
   the spokesperson.
 • The teacher selects the person in each
   group, based on their identity (the ―hearts‖)
   to respond or to take a test for the group.
 Send / Pass a Problem (F2F)

 Each group identifies a problem or issue to
  solve or discuss. This is written on the front
  of a folder or envelope.
 Within a given time limit, each group
  prepares responses to the problem or issue,
  writing them on a single sheet of paper.
 At the signal, the sheet is placed in the folder
  and forwarded to the second group.
Send / Pass a Problem (F2F)

 The second group--without
  looking inside--prepares its own
  responses to the same problem
  or issue.
 At the signal, the second sheet is
  added to the first and the folder
  is passed to a third group.
   Send / Pass a Problem (F2F)
 The third group opens the
  folder, reads the sheets of the
  two previous groups and then
  identifies the two best
  responses. They can star the
  two best, consolidate ideas, or
  come up with their own original
  response.
 Reports occur as time permits.
 Send / Pass a Problem (Distance)
 Each group is assigned or selects a given problem to
  solve, clearly articulating the issue so that others can
  understand it. (In our example, each group could focus
  on overcoming a problem related to negative feelings
  about group work, such as the ―freeloader‖ issue,
  inequities in grading, unclear instructions, leadership
  failure, dysfunctional groups, etc.)

 Working together within Blackboard or WebCT, each
  group comes up with as many viable solutions as
  possible for this problem.
Send / Pass a Problem (Distance)
 Each group submits their clearly articulated problem
  and the solution to the instructor.

 The instructor takes each problem and sends it
  (without the answer) to another group who solves it,
  also. The group submits to the instructor.

 The instructor sends out the problems to different
  groups again (each group getting a different one than
  their previous two), but this time including the
  proposed solutions from the two previous groups.
 Send / Pass a Problem (Distance)
 Each group reads the submissions of the other two
  groups and comes up with a synthesis (the best
  possible solution(s)) based on the best thinking of all
  three groups. This final process involves students in
  the highest levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy, evaluation
  and synthesis.

 The final results for all problems are posted to the
  class as a whole with opportunities for comments
  (either optional or required) on the quality and likely
  success of the proposed solutions.
Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
     Evaluation
      Synthesis
      Analysis
    Application
   Comprehension
     Knowledge
      S-a-P Applications in Various
              Disciplines
 History: Support the territorial claims of
 (1) ranchers; (2) farmers; (3) Native
  Americans
 Premed: What would a clinician need to
  know for a diagnosis of (1) Attention-deficit
  disorder; (2) AIDS; (3) Alzheimer’s?
 Literature: In Antigone, explain the chief
  character traits and motivations of (1)
  Antigone; (2) Creon; (3) Haemon; (4)
  Ismene
Questions?
Some Advice about Deep
      Learning

				
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