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Dental Morphology and Vocabulary

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Dental Morphology and Vocabulary Powered By Docstoc
					Dental Morphology and
Vocabulary
    Palate




                        1
Palate
     Palate




              2
              Hard Palate

Palate            Soft Palate
     Palate




                                3
              Rugae   Hard Palate

Palate                     Soft Palate
     Palate




                                         4
             Hard Palate

Palate            Soft Palate


Tuberosity
                 Tonsils
                 Retro-Molar Pad
 Uvula



              Frenum
                                5
Maxillary Arch
(Maxilla)
(Uppers)




                 Mandibular Arch
                 (Mandible)
                 (Lowers)
                                   6
  Patient’s Right   Patient’s Left


 Maxillary Right             Maxillary Left
  Quadrant                    Quadrant




Mandibular Right          Mandibular Left
  Quadrant                  Quadrant




                                              7
           Patient’s Right   Patient’s Left




Six Segments




                                              8
                  Maxillary Anterior
                     Segment




  Maxillary                             Maxillary
Right Posterior                         Left Posterior
  Segment                               Segment




 Mandibular                             Mandibular
Right Posterior                         Left Posterior
 Segment                                 Segment




                  Mandibular Anterior
                     Segment
                                                         9
                                Anterior
                                Direction




Posterior
Direction   Medial
            Direction

                        Lateral
                        Direction




                                    Anterior
                                    Direction   10
      Individual Tooth Names
• Incisors
  – Central Incisors
  – Lateral Incisors
• Cuspids
• Premolars (Bicuspids)
• Molars


                               11
 Maxillary CENTRAL Incisors




Mandibular CENTRAL Incisors
                              12
 Maxillary LATERAL Incisors

         X        X




          X   X

Mandibular LATERAL Incisors   13
Maxillary CUSPIDS (Canine)

       X          X




       X      X

Mandibular CUSPIDS (Canine)
                              14
Maxillary 1st BICUSPIDS (Premolars)


          X          X




           X        X


Mandibular 1st BICUSPIDS (Premolars)
                                       15
Maxillary 2nd BICUSPIDS (Premolars)



           X           X




            X         X


 Mandibular 2nd BICUSPIDS (Premolars)
                                        16
Maxillary 1st MOLARS




     X          X




     X         X



Mandibular 1st MOLARS
                        17
Maxillary 1st MOLARS




     X                 6-year Molars
                X




     X         X



Mandibular 1st MOLARS
                                   18
Maxillary 2nd MOLARS




    X          X



    X          X




Mandibular 2nd MOLARS
                        19
Maxillary 2nd MOLARS




                       12-yr Molars
    X          X



    X          X




Mandibular 2nd MOLARS
                                  20
Maxillary 3rd MOLARS




    X          X
    X          X




Mandibular 3rd MOLARS
                        21
Maxillary 3rd MOLARS




                       Wisdom
                       Teeth
    X          X
    X          X




Mandibular 3rd MOLARS
                                22
           “Universal” Method of Tooth Numbering




Continue
around
the arch          1




                                                   23
           “Universal” Method of Tooth Numbering




Continue
around            2
the arch          1




                                                   24
         “Universal” Method of Tooth Numbering
                       7 8
                     6
                   5
                  4
Continue         3
around          2
the arch        1




                                                 25
         “Universal” Method of Tooth Numbering
                       7 8 9 10
                     6            11
                   5               12
                  4                  13
Continue         3                    14
around          2                      15
the arch        1                       16




                                                 26
“Universal” Method of Tooth Numbering
              7 8 9 10
            6            11
          5               12
         4                  13
        3                    14
       2                      15
       1                       16


                             Drop directly
                             Below to the
                             3rd molar


                                         27
         “Universal” Method of Tooth Numbering
                       7 8 9 10
                     6            11
                   5               12
                  4                  13
Continue         3                    14
around          2                     15
the arch        1                     16
                32                            17
                31                           18
                 30                         19
                  29                       20
                    28                    21
                                        22
                     27 26 25 24   23

                                                   28
            “Universal” Method of Tooth Numbering
                          7 8 9 10
                        6            11
                      5               12
                     4                  13
Hint:               3                    14
16 teeth in each 2                       15
arch               1                     16
                 32                            17
                 31                           18
                  30                         19
                   29                       20
                     28                    21
                                         22
                      27 26 25 24   23

                                                    29
              “PALMER” Method of Tooth Numbering
                            7 8 8 7
                          6         6
                        5             5
Used by Orthodontist, 4                 4
But not much by       3                 3
General Dentists     2                  2
                     1                  1
                   1                                1
                   2                               2
                    3                             3
                     4                           4
                        5                       5
                                            6
                            6   7 8   8 7

                                                        30
   PRIMARY TEETH
  DECIDUOUS TEETH
     BABY TEETH
20 TEETH




                    31
 PRIMARY TEETH
DECIDUOUS TEETH
   BABY TEETH
               E   F G
           D
       C                 H
   B                      I
  A                        J




                               32
 PRIMARY TEETH
DECIDUOUS TEETH
   BABY TEETH
               E   F G
           D
       C                 H
   B                      I
  A                        J

                           K




                               33
 PRIMARY TEETH
DECIDUOUS TEETH
   BABY TEETH
                  E   F G
              D
       C                    H
   B                         I
  A                           J

  T                             K
      S                         L

          R                 M
              Q P O N
                                    34
Naming of Tooth Surfaces

              MESIAL
              DISTAL
              FACIAL
              LINGUAL
              OCCLUSAL
              INCISAL




                           35
Naming of Tooth Surfaces

            Every tooth has the
            following Surfaces:

                 MESIAL
                 DISTAL
                 FACIAL
                 LINGUAL




                                  36
Naming of Tooth Surfaces

            In addition, Posterior teeth
            Have an Occlusal Surface

                 MESIAL
                 DISTAL
                 FACIAL
                 LINGUAL
                 OCCLUSAL



                                       37
Naming of Tooth Surfaces

            and Anterior teeth
            Have an Incisal Surface

                 MESIAL
                 DISTAL
                 FACIAL
                 LINGUAL
                 INCISAL



                                      38
That surface of the tooth that is
closest to the mid-line




              X
                         Mesial




                                    39
Naming of Tooth Surfaces
                        That surface of the tooth that
                        is further from the mid-line
                       Distal


                               X
                               X



                                                  40
In most cases, Mesial surfaces of one tooth contact the Distal surface of
another tooth.
There are two exceptions in each quadrant.

                            MESIAL               DISTAL



                   X                             X




                                                                            41
                          Exception #1:
                          Mesial of a Central
                          Incisor contacts the Mesial
                          of the other Central Incisor




Exception #2:
The 3rd Molars have no
Contact on their Distal
Surfaces




                                              42
In all other cases,
the Mesial surface
of one tooth contacts
The Distal surface of
Another tooth




               43
In all other cases,
the Mesial surface
of one tooth contacts
The Distal surface of
Another tooth




               44
DISTAL   MESIAL




                  45
DISTAL   MESIAL




                  46
  FACIAL SURFACES

THE SURFACE OF A TOOTH
 CLOSEST TO THE CHEEKS
         (FACE)




                         47
FACIAL TOOTH SURFACES

         Facial surfaces on Posterior Teeth
         are ALSO called Buccal Surfaces.




                                              48
FACIAL TOOTH SURFACES

         Facial surfaces on Anterior Teeth
         are ALSO called Labial Surfaces.




                                             49
              In summary:
• The surface of the tooth closest to the cheek
  (face) is called Facial surface.
  – Facial surface of the POSTERIOR teeth are
    also called Buccal surfaces.

  – Facial surface of the ANTERIOR teeth are also
    called Labial surfaces


                                                50
FACIAL SURFACES
      BUCCAL
       (Posteriors)




 X
       LABIAL         X
        (Anteriors)




                          51
    LINGUAL SURFACES
X


         Those surfaces of the teeth
         that are closest to the
         tongue




                                  52
    LINGUAL SURFACES
X




       THE MAXILLARY LINGUAL
       SURFACES ARE ALSO
       CALLED
         PALATAL SURFACES


                         53
LINGUAL SURFACES




                   54
OCCLUSAL SURFACES
    (POSTERIOR TEETH ONLY)




                             55
OCCLUSAL SURFACES
    (POSTERIOR TEETH ONLY)




                             56
INCISAL SURFACE (EDGE)
      (ANTERIOR TEETH ONLY)




                              57
INCISAL SURFACE (EDGE)
      (ANTERIOR TEETH ONLY)




                              58
Crown



The Crown is
Covered by
Enamel


         59
    Root      Crown



The root is
covered
by Cementum


                      60
   CEJ
Cementoenamel
  Junction




           61
      A cross-section of a tooth Crown
    CEJ                                      Root
 Cementoenamel
   Junction




The CEJ separates the Crown from the Root.
                                                    62
         A cross-section of a tooth

The Bone surrounding
a tooth is specialized
Bone called
Alveolar Bone




                                      63
         A cross-section of a tooth

The Bone surrounding
a tooth is specialized
Bone called
Alveolar Bone




                                      64
A cross-section of a tooth




                    Enamel
                             65
A cross-section of a tooth




                    Dentin
                    Enamel
                             66
Below the
hard, brittle
enamel is a
softer material
called DENTIN




                  67
A cross-section of a tooth




                    Pulp
                    Dentin
                    Enamel
                             68
The pulp has two   In the center of
Parts:             each tooth are
                   the nerve and
                   blood supply….
                   called the PULP




                                  69
The pulp has two   In the center of
Parts:             each tooth are
                   the nerve and
The Pulp           blood supply….
  Chamber          called the PULP




                                  70
The pulp has two   In the center of
Parts:             each tooth are
                   the nerve and
The Pulp           blood supply….
  Chamber          called the PULP


And the Pulp
  Canal



                                  71
A cross-section of a tooth



                     Cementum

                    Pulp
                    Dentin
                    Enamel
                                72
A cross-section of a tooth



                      Cementum


                   Cementum covers
                   the root of a tooth


                                    73
A cross-section of a tooth

                      Apex



                     Cementum

                    Pulp
                    Dentin
                    Enamel
                                74
A cross-section of a tooth

                    The soft tissue
                    surrounding the
                    Bone is called the
                    Gum….or the
                    GINGIVA




                                   75
                      The Periodontal
                       Probe

Periodontal Probing




                                76
Periodontal Probing
Measures the distance
between the top of the
Gingiva and the top of
the Alveolar Bone




                         77
Periodontal Probing
Measures the distance
between the top of the
Gingiva and the top of
                         Example A
the Alveolar Bone
                         is healthy;
                         2-3 mm




                             78
Periodontal Probing
Measures the distance
between the top of the
Gingiva and the top of
                         Example C
the Alveolar Bone
                         is not
                         healthy:
                         4-5 mm




                            79
Embrasure:
The space between
2 teeth




                    80
The embrasure is filled
with tissue called the
Papilla




                          81
The embrasure is filled
with tissue called the
Papilla




                          82
      more about the Gingiva…..

Gingival Attachment
where the gingiva
attaches to the
tooth




                                  83
      more about the Gingiva…..

Attached Gingiva
where the gingiva
attaches to the
Bone.




                                  84
     more about the Gingiva…..




Free Gingiva
where the gingiva
is not attached to
anything
                                 85
more about the Gingiva…..
                   The space between
                   the free gingiva
                   and the tooth is
                   called the
                   Gingival Sulcus




                              86
more about the Gingiva…..
                   The space between
                   the free gingiva
                   and the tooth is
                   called the
                   Gingival Sulcus




                              87

				
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