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					            Curriculum Development

                                The fundamentals




Ms Sumbal Salim. PCEPT Workshop 2011
Task 1
 Lets begin by defining the terms:
1. Curriculum
2. Course
3. Syllabus




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
   Differentiating between curriculum and
   syllabus
 A curriculum may be viewed as the content, standards, or
  objectives for which an institution hold the learners accountable.
 Or it may be taken as the set of instructional strategies teachers
  plan to use
 However, taken as educational plans, standards or intended
  outcomes, curriculum becomes a political stance.
 The teacher is then accountable for the effectiveness of theirs
  plans and the implementation of the curricula in a premeditated
  manner- leaving little room for flexibility.


   Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Differentiating between curriculum and
syllabus
 Syllabus may be viewed as a concise statement or table of the
   heads of discourse..the subjects of a series of lectures..it is
   connected with the courses leading to examinations.




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
What do experts say?
  “.. Curriculum is a very general concept which involves
   consideration of the whole complex of philosophical, social
   and administrative factors which contribute to the planning
   of an educational program. Syllabus on the other hand, refers
   to that subpart of curriculum which is concerned with a
   specification of what units will be taught” (Allen 1984).




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
   Things to remember
 Curriculum MUST be a flexible document..
 A curriculum should ONLY give a guideline for planning.
 A curriculum may be provided by the institution or expert
  curriculum planner.
 Syllabus is a concrete document..
 A syllabus should remind the instructor of what is to be taught,
  how it is to be taught and from where it is to be taught.
 A syllabus should be drawn up the instructor or those involved
  directly in the teaching.


   Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Types of Curriculum frame-works
Subject-centred
Problem-centred
Learner-centred




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Subject-centred Curriculum
 Here the focus is on the content of the curriculum
 The teaching in the subject-centred curriculum corresponds
   to the textbook written specifically for the subject




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Subject-centred Curriculum
 The focus in subject-centred curriculum may be on
 Traditional areas in the traditional disciplines
 Interdisciplinary topics that touch on a wide variety of fields
 On processes such as problem solving
 On the goal of teaching students to be critical consumers of
   information




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
                                              Subject to be taught




Definition of important                                                     Identification of accompanying
                                         Topic area within the subject to   intellectual discipline
generalization and                                 be covered
understandings to teach



                                           Determination of objectives




                                            Deciding upon learning
                                            experiences relevant to
                                             mastering the content




                                          Evaluating the extent of
      Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011mastery of what was taught
Examples of Subject-centred
curriculum
1.    Subject Design
     Stresses entirely on the content
     Learning is very compartmentalised
     Does not account for learner interest, experiences and
      tendencies




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Examples of Subject-centred
curriculum
2.    Discipline Design
     Knowledge gained through a method which the scholars
      use to study specific content of their fields
     Only the In-depth study of specialised areas takes place




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Examples of Subject-centred
curriculum
3.    Correlation Design
     It links separate subject designs to reduce fragmentation
     Subjects are related to one another but also retain
      individual identities




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Examples of Subject-centred
curriculum
4.    Broad field design/ interdisciplinary
     Prevents compartmentalization of subjects
     Integrates the contents which are related to each other




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Learner-centred Curriculum
 Centred on certain aspects of the learners themselves
 May explore the learner‟s own life, family history or local
   environment




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Examples of learner-centred curriculum
1.    Child-centred design (John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi and
      Froebel)
     Anchored on the needs and interests of the child
     Learner is actively involved in the learning process
     Learning takes place through doing
     Learners interact with the teachers and the environment




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Examples of learner-centred curriculum
2.    Experience-centred design
     Experiences of the learners become the starting point
     The learning environment is open and free-no boundaries
      are defined
     Learners choose from various activities the teacher
      provides
     Learners are empowered to shape their own learning




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Examples of learner-centred curriculum
3.    Humanistic design (Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers)
     The ultimate goal is development of the self
     Integrates thinking, feeling and doing with the whole
      person
     Stresses the development of positive self-concept and
      interpersonal skills.




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Advantages of learner-centred
curriculum
 Gives power to the learners who are viewed in experts in
  knowing what they need to know
 Takes into account the social and cultural context of the
  learner
 Creates direct link between in-class work and learners‟ need
  for literacy outside the classroom




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Disadvantages of learner-centred
curriculum
 Relies on teacher‟s ability to create/select material
  appropriate to learners‟ expressed needs
 Requires a skilled teacher, time and resources
 Teachers find it difficult to strike balance among the
  competing needs and interests of students




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Alternatives for a learner-centred
curriculum
 Student-designed creative activities
 Small group-activities (in and out of class)
 Change seating configuration
 Focus on team learning/peer teaching
 Design problem solving activities
 Paired activities
 Design tasks cards
 Standard lectured
 Teacher demonstration


Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Problem-centred curriculum
 Subject matter is organised around a real or hypothetical
  problem to be solved
 Is engaging and authentic and gives learners a real purpose of
  inquiry




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Types of problem-centred curriculum
 Life situations involving real problems of practice
 Problems which revolve around life in a given institute
 Problems selected from local issues
 Philosophical or moral problems




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Curriculum Development
Is a multi-stage process involving dedication, understanding and
knowledge on part of the curriculum designer or developer




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
    Curriculum Development for
    Engineering
 Various models have been presented in the engineering
  educational literature for the development of curricula for study
  programs in engineering.
 In the teacher improvement workshop conducted by the
  engineering development bank, the following adaption of the
  model described by Grayson (1978)was given.
 The model identifies the following stages in the design and
  development of a curriculum:
Stage 1: Problem definition
Stage 2: Structuring the curriculum
Stage 3: Implementation
    Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
      Framework for developing an engineering
      curriculum based on Grayson’s model
                 • Mission statement
                 • Industry needs
                 • Societal needs
   Problem       • Professional needs
  Defitnition


                • Domains of knowledge
                • Stdent constraints
                • Accrediting body
Structuring the • Resources
  curriculum • Teaching and learning methods



               • Advisory boards
               • External examiners
               • Feedback from industry
Implementation • Outcomes assessment
and evaluation

                    Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Stage 1 Problem Definition
The inputs to stage 1 are:
The Mission Statement. This should be a part of the
strategic planning and quality management procedures of the
Department and it provides overall guidance of the purpose of the
Department.
Industry Needs. These can be difficult to obtain but
should include a competencies measure of manpower
requirements and the skills, knowledge and employers expect of
graduate engineers.
Societal needs. The role that the engineer will play in the
national development, the engineer's responsibilities to society,
society's expectations and the impact of technology on society are
necessary inputs to the curriculum design process.
Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Stage 1 Problem Definition
 Professional needs. This input includes criteria set
  for the initial registration of professional engineers,
  criteria for continued registration, and criteria for
  educational program as set by the professional societies.
 Evaluation of an Existing Curriculum. Feedback
  from the existing curriculum, if any, can be used to
  determine how well the existing curriculum satisfies the
  educational goals. This information will help in improving the
  curriculum.



Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
                                      Task 2
1.    Does your department have a mission statement? What do
      you think could be the mission statement?
2.    How can you conduct a needs analysis to learn about the
      industrial needs?
3.    Make a list of the needs of the industry of your particular
      field.
4.    Make a list of the societal roles of engineers of your field.
5.    What are the professional needs of engineers from your
      field?


Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Outputs of Stage 1
 A broad statement of the educational objectives of the
  engineering education program.
 These educational goals reflect the philosophy of the
  Department and are based on the current and future needs of
  society, the profession and industry.
 A qualifications profile (Program outcomes) which is a list of
  the knowledge, skills and attitudes that a graduate from the
  program must possess.




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
  Setting of Goals
 The Grinter Report, for example, proposed two broad goals-
  one technical and the other social- for engineering education.
 The first was the preparation of the student to perform analysis
  and creative design, or construction, production or operation,
  where a full knowledge of the analysis and design of the
  structure, machine or process is essential.
 The second goal was to develop an understanding of the
  evolution of society and of the impact of technology on it, an
  acquaintance with an appreciation of the heritage of other
  cultural fields, and the development of both a personal
  philosophy, which will ensure satisfaction in the pursuit of a
  productive life, and a sense of moral and ethical values
                  with the 2011
  consistentPCEPT Workshop career of a professional engineer.
  Ms Sumbal Salim
                                      Task 3
 1.  Write the aims of your curriculum.
 (aims are the broad learning outcomes which talk about the
 change to be brought about in the learners e.g Students will
 learn how to use effective office communication skills in
 English)
 2. Create a professional profile for learners of your specific
     field.




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Stage 2 Structuring the Curriculum
Elements
The inputs to stage 2 are:
 The educational objectives and program outcomes from
    stage 1.
 The domain of knowledge for the engineering discipline.
    This represent the area of the knowledge that can be
    identified as being fundamental to the particular discipline,
    including the basic sciences and mathematics on which the
    engineering principles and practice are based. Advances in
    engineering sciences and in technology will result in modifications
    to the curriculum if the knowledge of graduates is to be up-to-
    date.
 Student characteristics. Course designers are able to
    better accommodate the needs of the "clients" if they have
    an understanding of the prior education, experience, learning
    habits, motivation and numbers of the students entering the
    program.
Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Stage 2 Structuring the Curriculum Elements
 Accrediting       body. The criteria and accrediting
  procedures of the relevant authority must be met in the
  final curriculum design. Criteria often include topics to covered,
  time to spend on each section of the curriculum, minimum length
  of course and staff qualifications, for example see the ABET 2000
  criteria.
 Resources. The resources available to the Department to
  be used in delivering the curriculum include: library facilities,
  laboratories, computer systems, staff qualifications, experience
  and interests, funding, classrooms, access to resources outside the
  department and so on. It may be necessary to plan the upgrading
  of some of these resources as part of the continuous improvement
  in the quality of the program. The effectiveness of the use as well
  as the actual quantity of the resources needs to be considered.
     Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
 Teaching and Learning Methods. An awareness of
   the theories of learning can provide some insight into
   understanding how university students learn. This in turn
   will reflect on the design of the curricula, the teaching
   methods, the assessment procedure to adopt and educational
   technology to be used. These considerations become more
   important when one is involved in the fine details of
   curriculum design, that is in the design of the syllabus to
   achieve the learning outcomes of each subject.



Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
 Stage 2
Stage 2 consists of two steps:
1. Organizing the main structural elements of the curriculum.
    The objective of this step is to make decisions about the
    broad structure of the course: the length of study, the
    percentage of the course devoted to each study the major
    subjects and their sequence, mandatory courses and elective
    courses.
 Sequencing of material is important. Students must learn to
  apply the fundamentals to increasingly difficult problems over
  the duration of the program. Topics may be treated at a
  fundamental level initially and at advanced levels in later years.
 Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Stage 2
 Integration of material is also important. For example, in
  the study of mathematics it is good practice if students learn
  to apply to their chemical engineering science subjects what
  is being taught in mathematics as it is being taught or soon
  after. That is, knowledge should not be developed in isolation
  in individual courses.
 2. Detailed structuring of the course. This is the development
  of the content and learning activities within each subject
  area. Subject specialists provide the main input at this stage.



Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Stage 2
Guiding principles for organizing the content are:
 Exposition of content should proceed from the simple to the
  complex
 Material for presentation should be ordered according to
  prerequisite knowledge
 Material should be presented from the practical to the
  abstract.
 Material should be presented from the part to the whole, that
  is individual elements should be mastered before complex
  systems or mechanisms are studied.

Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
                                      Task
 Evaluate the objectives of any particular course in your
  curriculum and see whether it contributes towards the aim
  or not.
 Does your curriculum have proper sequencing and
  integration? Give us an example if, yes. If no, why and how
  can it be corrected?




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
   Stage 3 Implementation and
   Evaluation
The curriculum developed and approved at stage 2 must now be
implemented and evaluated.
 ABET 2000, for example, requires that Departments have a
  documented assessment process which demonstrates that the
  objectives of the program are being measured and achieved, and
  that the results of this outcomes assessment are being applied to
  the continuous improvement of the study program.
 Evidence that could be gathered as part of this assessment
  process would include: students„ results, students' project and
  design outputs, nationally (or internationally) referenced subject
  content examinations, alumni surveys, career developments of
  former students, graduate employment, employer satisfaction
  surveys and program accreditation results.
   Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011
Stage 3
 Individual subjects can be evaluated by getting feedback from
   students, by observing the quality of students' output in
   designs, tests or examinations, by observing student
   performance in subsequent courses and by comparing class
   performance with that in previous years or for similar
   courses.




Ms Sumbal Salim PCEPT Workshop 2011

				
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