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Cinematic Techniques and Bonus points
Cinematic Techniques -
Representation is the way that characters are
  presented. The director can influence the
  audience‟s feelings towards characters using this
  cinematic technique.
The representation of characters is created using:
– The attitudes or actions of the character
– The character‟s costume
– The language used by the characters (Quotations)
– The set and props surrounding the character
– Camera angles
                                        Shows his restlessness                    Image
            Blue face paint.
                                        and fear. Highlights the
        Reinforces the idea that                                            Blood splattering.
           Wallace fights for           tension Mornay feels.
                                                                          Suggests Mornay’s fear
         Scotland. He murders                                               of a bloody death.
               for a cause                        Jump

         Effect                                 Mornay’s                                   Effect
Shows the power and
ferocity of Wallace as                                                             Prolongs the tension
he sits on his horse                                                               of the scene, thereby
towering over                    Low                                    Slow
                                                                       motion      emphasising
Mornay. By contrast,            Angle                                              Mornay’s intense
Mornay seems                                                                       fear as Wallace
vulnerable and                                                                     attacks.

                                                  Point of                         Image
                                                   view                          Menacing eyes.
         Riding through fire.
         Makes Wallace seem                                                     Reveals Wallace’s
                                                   Effect                       ruthlessness and
          demonic, but also
                                        Puts us in Mornay’s position             determination.
            suggests he is
              invincible.               as the canon ball swings
                                        towards him. Reveals
                                        Mornay’s terror and raises
 Cinematic Sound
 There are two types of
  cinematic sound.

 Diegetic sound
  – Sound that we think is part of what‟s happening on the
    screen ­ for example, horse‟s hooves, the sound of thunder

 Non-diegetic sound
  – Sound that we know is not part of what‟s on screen, such as
    music (unless there's an orchestra in shot!) and voiceover.
          Camera Techniques
Copy the following camera techniques into
 your notes. A set of descriptions will
 follow. Try to match these with the
 techniques you have copied down.
   Close Up              Zoom
   Extreme Close Up      Pan
   Long Shot             Wide-angle shot
   Extra Long Shot       Low-angle
   Selective Focus       High-angle
   Soft Focus            Point-of-view shot
   Spins
   Close Up - The camera moves in to a specific part of a person or object
   Extreme Close Up - The camera moves in to show detail on a character‟s face, for
   Long Shot - The camera shows all of a fairly large subject and much of its
   Extra Long Shot - The camera is at its furthest distance from the subject, and is
    used to emphasis the background
   Selective Focus - The camera only focuses on part of the action and the remainder
    of the scene appears blurred in the background
   Soft Focus - The camera is used to blur sections of the image to create a particular
    mood or atmosphere
   Spins - The camera turns around, following the action of its subject
   Zoom - The camera moves in close and pulls back from the subject
   Pan - The camera swings across the scene, showing everyone in the action and
    what they are doing
   Wide-angle shot - The camera pulls back to show a broad field of action
   Low-angle Shot - The camera is below its subject, looking up at it. This would make
    the subject seem important and powerful
   High-angle shot - The camera is above its subject, looking down at it. This would
    make the subject seem little or insignificant
   Point-of-view shot - The camera sees what the character sees, to give that person‟s
       Montage is the cinematic technique that relates to the
        way that different images are assembled to build up a
        particular impression using the order and transition of
        the scenes.
       Cut - One image is suddenly replaced by another,
        without a visible transition.

       Montage is used to:
    –     link bits of action together into an understandable story
    –     make the audience feel certain emotions
    –     control and show the passage of time.
         Questions to consider…
1. What does William‟s reaction to the McGregors tell
   you about his initial thoughts and feelings regarding
   the situation he has plunged himself and his village
   into by avenging Murron‟s death?
2. Consider his speech just before he burns the first
   fort. What is William‟s motivation for trying to regain
   Scotland‟s freedom?
3. Describe Edward‟s interaction with his son when they
   discuss Wallace‟s initial uprising in Scotland. Why
   does this deepen the audience‟s dislike for this
4. Why does Robert the Bruce admire Wallace?
5. How does the Bruce‟s father describe Wallace and
   Edward and what are his feelings towards each of
   these characters?
6. How do we know that Isabelle is in an
    unhappy marriage to Edward‟s son?
7. How do the volunteers treat William in
8. During the deer hunting scene, explain
    how the camera angles are used to
    convince the audience that Steven is trying
    to kill Wallace.
9. During the latter stages of this section of
    the film, how do you think that William
    feels about his role as leader of the
10. Have his feelings changed since the start,
    and if so, why do you think this is?
                         Essay Tips
 Capital letters are required for the start of sentences and
  proper nouns
 Apostrophes are required for contractions (when a word has
  been made shorter – “don‟t”, or to show ownership, -
  “William‟s wife”
 A lot = two separate words!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
 Avoid just telling the story – you have to be brief with this.
  The bulk of your essay should focus on analysis.
 Think about the way that you construct your sentences!
 Re-read your work, to ensure that it makes sense.
 Media essays require you to use film language:
   –   Shot, scene, sequence
   –   Audience
   –   Director
   –   Always use third person
Essay Sequencing
  Every essay should start with an introduction,
   and end with a conclusion
  Each paragraph should
   – begin with a topic sentence
   – define the technique that you are focussing on
   – And where possible use a quotation following the
     PEE format (point, evidence, explanation/opinion)

  Your task is to place these sections of the
   battle scene essay in order. You should work
   on this task in pairs.
 Essay 2 – Battle Scenes
 Explain what cinematic techniques are used to
 enhance your understanding and enjoyment of
        the battle scenes in ‘Braveheart’.

In your essay you should cover the following techniques:
•Camera Angles and Shots
•Montage (Editing)

In pairs, try to write a plan for this essay. You will first
need to work out what aspects of the film (hint: you will
discuss with respect to the four techniques above).
          Points to remember

 ALWAYS refer back to the wording of the
  question at the beginning and end of each
 Check your work for technical accuracy –
  spelling, punctuation, grammar, correct
  sentence structures
 Ensure that you provide analysis
 Try to include quotations
    Nature of Freedom for Wallace
 Beginning – wanting peace and a family
 Lack of freedom - his dreams are ripped away from
  him through the murder of Murrin
 Revenge for Murrin‟s murder and his desire for
  freedom, catapult him into a war for freedom
 Despite the fighting and the betrayal, Wallace‟s
  desires are still clear: “I want a home, and children
  and peace, [but] it‟s all for nothing if you don‟t have
 This is made clear at the end when during the
  execution scene Wallace focuses on a child, to remind
  him of his reasons for fighting, and then latterly on
  Murrin when she re-appears just before he is executed
Significance of the sword – a force
of good
 First seen during funeral of father with Argyll, where its use
  is encouraged “First learn to use this (head), then I‟ll teach
  you how to use this (sword)”
 The sword is used as a symbol of the crucifix during
  Murrin‟s funeral, after having been used to avenge her
 Used to swear Wallace in as the guardian of Scotland
 Finally it is used during the final scene to show the success
  of the Scottish cause, after they win their freedom at
  Bannockburn, under the Scottish King Robert the Bruce.

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