DEATH PENALTY STATISTICS

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					             Death Penalty
• Genesis 9:6 – Whosoever sheddeth a
  man’s blood, so shall his blood be shed.

• Exodus 21:12 - Anyone who strikes a man
  and kills him shall surely be put to death.

• John 8:7 – If any one of you is without sin,
  let him be the first to throw a stone at her.
The Capitol Punishment Debate
• Is it ever morally justified to deliberately take the
  life of any person, even a person who has killed
  another?

• How does one reconcile being anti-abortion but
  pro-death penalty or being pro-abortion but anti-
  death penalty?

• Does sanctity of life apply only to innocents?
The Capitol Punishment Debate

• Is an ultimate retribution for an ultimate
  crime necessary for justice, or for society’s
  upholding of the value of life?

• Given it’s limited use is the death penalty
  actually effective in deterring crime?
The Capitol Punishment Debate
• Is the death penalty necessary for the
  incapacitation of dangerous criminals?

                     • OR

• Would a sentence of life without the
  possibility of parole be as effective as the
  death penalty in deterring crime and
  protecting society from criminals?
The Capitol Punishment Debate
• Does the value of capitol punishment
  justify its cost and the diversion of scarce
  resources from efforts to fight crime or
  rehabilitate criminals?
The Capitol Punishment Debate

• How often are innocent persons executed
  by mistake?

• Is the execution of the innocent a
  necessary price to pay for the security of
  society?
The Capitol Punishment Debate


• Should the United States Constitution's
  prohibition of “cruel and unusual
  punishment” apply to the death penalty?
The Capitol Punishment Debate

• What is the role of discrimination in the
  disproportionate sentencing of blacks,
  other minorities and the poor to death?

• Given the reality of discrimination in the
  United States can the death penalty ever
  be administered fairly?
The Capitol Punishment Debate

• How can judges and jurors be given
  enough discretion to consider the
  individual merits of each case without
  decisions appearing to be “arbitrary and
  capricious?”
The Capitol Punishment Debate


• Should the United States follow the lead of
  the majority other developed nations that
  have abolished capitol punishment?
  Homicide Occurrence and the
         Death Penalty
               • 1973 – 1992
            • 412,580 homicides

          • 4,704 death sentences

  • 1.14 death sentences per 100 homicides

• 1 in 88 chance of receiving the death penalty
    Number of Inmates Received Under
      Sentence of Death, 1973-2009
•   1973       42       2001      159
•   1974      149       2002      166
•   1975      298       2003      152
•   1980      173       2004      140
•   1985      261       2005      139
•   1990      251       2006      123
•   1995      313       2007      120
•   2000      224       2008      119
•                       2009      112
  DEATH ROW POPULATION

• RACE              1977-2009
•
•                On Death Row     Executed
• Total                7773      15.3   1188
• RACE
  –   WHITE         .49   3774    .18   672   .57
  –   BLACK         .41   3184    .13   411   .34
  –   HISPANIC      .09    694    .13    91   .08
  –   Other         .01    121    .11    14   .01
          Death Row Population
          – As of                               As of
          – 12/31/08 Received Removed Executed 12/31/09

• Total    3210          112   97        52       3173

• White    1795 (.56)    65    49        31 (.60) 1780 (.56)

• Black    1343 (.42)    42    47       21 (.40) 1317 (.42)

• Other       72 (.02)    5     1         0         76 (.02)
      Death Row Population
• WOMEN On Death Row 12-31-2009

• Total           60
•    White        42 (.70)
•    Black        15 (.25)
•    Other         3 (.05)
               CRIMINAL HISTORY PROFILE
                     Year End - 2009
•                                     ALL     WHITE   BLACK    HISPANIC
•   Prior Felony
•           Yes                       65.7%   62.1%   71.4%    61.8%
•            No                       34.3    37.9    28.6     34.3
•
•   Prior Homicide
•           Yes                        8.6%    8.8%    9.0%     6.7%
•           No                        91.4    91.2    91.0     93.3
•

•   Legal Status at Time of Offense

•    Charge Pending                    7.7%    8.6%     7.6%    5.0%
•    Probation                        10.5     9.1     11.7    11.4
•    Parole                           15.2    12.9     16.5    19.2
•    Prison Escapee                    1.5     2.0      0.9     1.5
•    Incarcerated                      4.1     4.5      3.9     3.5
•    Other Status                      0.5     0.4      0.5     0.6
•    NONE                             60.6    62.5     58.9    58.9
Demographic Characteristics of
 Prisoners – Year End 2009
                      Gender
                  Year End   Admitted   Removed
 Total Inmates     3173        112         149
 Gender
         Male       98.1%       98.2%      100%
         Female      1.9%        1.8%        0

 Race
        White        56.1%      58.0%      53.7%
        Black        41.5%      37.5%      45.6%
        Other         2.4%       4.5%       0.7%
  Demographic Characteristics of
   Prisoners – Year End 2009
• Education
  – 8th Grade or less      13.5%
  – 9th – 11th grade       36.0
  – High School Grad/GED   41.5
  – Any college             9.0
  – Median                 12th Grade
  Demographic Characteristics of
   Prisoners – Year End 2009
• Marital Status

  – Married              22%
  – Divorced/Separated   21
  – Widowed               3
  – Never Married        55
 Age at Time of Arrest and Current
             Yearend   Admission   Removals
   Total #     3173      112         149

20-24          1.2       11.6          0
25-29         5.5        14.3          4.7
30-34        12.3        18.8         7.4
35-39        16.8        19.6        16.1
40-44        17.0         5.4        12.1
45-49        17.9        16.1        19.5
50-54        13.3         5.4        19.5
55-59         7.8         4.5         5.4
60-64         5.6         3.6        10.7
65 up         2.6         0.9         4.7

Mean Age        44         38         47
            EXECUTIONS 1973-2008
•   PERSONS OCCUPIED DEATH ROW                        8115
•   EXECUTED                                          1188 (14.6%)
•   AVERAGE DEATH ROW TIME: 12 years, 7 months

•   OTHER DISPOSITIONS                                3754 (46.2%)
    – STATUTE CHANGE                   520 (06.4%)

    –   SENTENCE OVERTURNED           1,580 (19.5%)
    –   CONVICTION OVERTURNED           839 (10.3%)
    –   COMMUTATION                     365 (04.5%)
    –   OTHER/UNKNOWN REASONS            34 (00.4%)
    –   OTHER DEATH                     416 (05.1%)
•
•   UNDER DEATH SENTENCE 12/31/2009                   3173
           DNA Reversals
• DNA Based Reversals
  – Death Row Reversals 17
  – Wrongful Convictions 252
  – 34 states and Washington D.C.
• Actual Time Served      17 years
• Minorities              70%
• Actual Perpetrator Identified 40%
         EXECUTIONS BY RACE
•   RACE            1977-2009      %              2009        %
•   WHITE              672         56%              24      46%
•   BLACK              411         35%              21      40%
•   HISPANIC            91          8%               7      14%
•   OTHER               14          1%               0       0%
                      1188                          52
•   By State - 2009                               By Region - 2009
•   24 – Texas                                    North-East - 0
•    6 - Alabama                                  South - 45
•    5 – Ohio                                     Mid-West - 7
•    3 – Georgia, Oklahoma, Virginia              West - 0
•    2 – Florida, South Carolina, Tennessee
     1 – Indiana, Missouri

     2010 (Advance) Texas – 17, Ohio – 8, Alabama – 5, Mississippi, Ohio, Virginia – 3
                     Georgia – 2, Florida, Louisiana, Arizona, Utah, Washington - 1
         45 – males, 1 – female (VA)
    METHOD OF EXECUTION
•                                  77 – 09   2009   2010

• LETHAL INJEC 36 STATES + FED’S   1016       52    44

• ELECTROCUTION     10 STATES        156      0      1 (VA)

• GAS                4 STATES         11      0      0

• HANGING            3 STATES          3      0      0

• FIRING SQUAD       3 STATES          2      0      1 (UT)

                                   1188      52     46
MINIMUM DEATH PENALTY AGE
           2006


    • AGE 13    1 STATE
    • AGE 14    3 STATES
    • AGE 16    5 STATES
    • AGE 17    5 STATES
    • AGE 18    18 STATES + FED’S
    • NO AGE     6 STATES
    SPECIFIED
            PENNSYLVANIA STATISTICS
•   Death Row Population
•                          TOTAL    WHITE    BLACK    OTHER
•   12/31/1999             230      74       144      12
•   12/31/2000             238      78       149      11
•   12/31/2001             241      81       149      11
•   12/31/2002             240      81       148      11
•   12/31/2003             230      79       140      11
•   12/31/2004             222      77       134      11
•   12/31/2005             218      75       132      11
•   11/23/2006             219      74       134      11
•   12/31/2007             224      80       134      10
•   12/31/2008             223      81       133       9
•   12/31/2009             218 5*   80 3*    129 2*    9 * = Female
•   Received 2009              8     3         5       0
•   Removed 2009             13      4         9       0
•   Executed 2009            0       0         0       0
•   Executed in Pennsylvania
    1930 to Present - 155           Since 1977 - 3
   Who Gets the Death Penalty
    System Based Variables
• Whether the state has the death penalty.

• The breadth of the death penalty statutes in the
  state.
  – Murder 37 States and the U.S.
  – Other Offenses: Sex with a minor, Kidnapping,
    Treason, Drug Trafficking, Aircraft Hijacking, Perjury
    resulting in Death

• The prosecutors attitude toward the death
  penalty.
  Who Gets the Death Penalty
   System Dased Variables
• The availability of competent defense
  counsel, with supporting resources,
  including investigators, expert witnesses
  and supporting staff.

• The attitude of the victims family.

• The cultural cross section of the
  assembled jury.
  Who Gets the Death Penalty
   Crime/Criminals Variables
• The victims race and class.

• The actual or perceived innocence of the
  victim.

• The number of victims.

• The heinousness of the crime.
  Who Gets the Death Penalty
   Crime/Criminals Variables
• The offenders prior criminal history.

• The absence of mitigating factors in the
  criminals background.

• Clarity of the evidence pinpointing guilt.
  Who Gets the Death Penalty
   Crime/Criminals Variables
• In multiple defendant cases which of the
  defendants is most to blame and is he/she
  willing to take the blame.

• The defendants remorse of lack thereof.

• Where the defendant is from.
   Death Penalty Communities
• A public order advocate style, politically
  popular prosecutor.

• Public order advocate style Judges

• A jury pool dominated by conservative
  public order advocates.
   Death Penalty Communities
• A small lower class, including significant
  numbers of blacks and Hispanics.

• Size of the town.
           Criminal Victims
• Forensic fraud

• Mistaken identification (eye witness)

• Run away juries who convict or acquit
  even with contradictory evidence.

• Jailhouse informants
          Criminal Victims
• Dishonest prosecutors and police.

• Incompetent defense counsel.
               Questions
• Should police and prosecutors who
  knowingly contribute to a wrongful
  conviction and execution be charged with
  murder?

• Should the State be subject to a wrongful
  death action by the family of the wrongfully
  executed persons family?
          Issues to Consider
• Seven of the ten States with the lowest homicide
  rates do not have the death penalty.

• 95% of all current death row inmates are
  indigent.

• Most death row inmates were represented by
  public defenders or more likely court appointed
  counsel.
           Issues to Consider
• Blacks are four times more likely to receive the
  death penalty than are whites for the same
  offense.

• Studies have shown the death penalty, as well
  as most other punishments have no deterrent
  effect.

• The Untied States is the only advanced nation in
  the world still using the death penalty.
           Issues to Consider
• Actual innocence is not an appellate issue at the
  Federal level and in some states depending on
  the time limits for appeals.

• The death penalty is more expensive than life
  without parole.

• Endless confinement for a full lifetime is a more
  severe punishment than an early and painless
  death.
           Issues to Consider
• Based on recent DNA and eyewitness
  exonerations there just cannot be any doubt that
  innocent persons have been put to death.

• Is system biased based on the race, class,
  gender and age of the offender and victim.

• Does support for the death penalty is say that it
  is OK for the State to kill off undesirables.
          Issues to Consider
• Is the death penalty justice or revenge?

• The death penalty is not
  – Rehabilitation
  – Deterrence
  – Restoration

• The death penalty is incapacitation, but so
  is life without parole.
              Ponder This
• John 6:40 - For my Fathers will is that
  everyone who looks to the Son and
  believes in Him shall have eternal life, and
  I will raise him up at the last day.

• John 11:23 - I am the resurrection and the
  life. He who believes in me will live even
  though he dies; and whoever lives and
  believes in me will never die.
             Think About It
• Do you believe that all those who confess
  their sins and accept Jesus Christ as their
  Lord and Savior will be admitted into the
  Kingdom of God?

• If you believe this and a convicted
  murderer has truly accepted Jesus Christ,
  will he not be at the foot of God upon his
  death?
DEATH PENALTY

				
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