Justin Kim Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated. The by cuiliqing


									Justin Kim

Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated. The assassination brought the tensions between
Austro Hungarian empire and the neighboring kingdom of Serbia. Nationalist aspirations,
international rivalries, and an inflexible alliance system transformed that conflict into a war.
Allies vs. Central Powers

Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria

New Nations- Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia,
and Finland

The war helped unleash the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 which set the stage for an ideological
conflict between capitalism and communism

The Drift toward War

The Great War was responsible for an international realignment of power

    Catalyst for war was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne
     of the Austro Hungarian empire, by a Serbian nationalist
    Nationalism, national ambitions and ethnic resentments, economic interests, colonial
     rivalries, balance of power in Europe
    Nationalism was the idea that peoples with same ethnic origins, language, political ideals
     had the right to form sovereign states; Self Determination
    Russia fueled by promoting Pan Slavism- movement that stressed the ethnic and cultural
     kinship of the various Slav peoples.
    The industrialized nations of Europe competed for foreign markets and engaged in tariff
     wars especially Great Britain vs. Germany
    Naval Race- Very expensive- super battleships known as dreadnoughts

Understandings and Alliances

    By 1914 Europe’s major powers had transformed themselves into two hostile camps- the
     Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente
    German war plan- The Schlieffen plan called for a swift knockout of France followed by
     defensive action against Russia

Global War

    Austrians issued a nearly unacceptable ultimatum to Serbia and they accepted all but one
     leads to war
    The subsequent sequence of events was largely determined by two factors: complex
     mobilization plans and the grinding logic of the alliance system
     Germany tries to pass through Belgium but they denied. Great Britain sends an ultimatum that
      Belgium’s neutrality be respected, however, Germans decided to go through Belgium and Britain
      immediately declares war.

    Mutual Butchery

     The war was expected to be brief however it wasn’t
     Some dreamed of glory and honor, and they believed that God was on their side
     Gott mit uns (God is with us)-German God and Tsar –Russia For God, King,Country-Britain make
      the world safe for democracy- American
     The stalemate on the western and southern fronts reflectred techonological developments that
      favored defensive tactics
     Barbed wire, machine gun, poisonous gas (mustard gas) grenade, tanks and airplanes,
     In eastern Europe and the Balkans, the battle lines were more fluid.
     Military leaders on both sides used blockades to deny food to whole populations

Total War

     Helmuth Karl von Moltke former chief of the Prussian General Staff stated that this war would
      not end with one war
     War became total, fought between entire societies, not just between armies
     Military front and home front
     Economic measures were foremost in the minds of government leaders because the war
      created unprecedented demands for raw materials and manufactured goods
     As men marched off to war, women marched off to work
     Middle and upper class women often reported that the war was a liberating experience, freeing
      them from older attitudes that had limited their work
     To maintain the spirit of the home front and to counter threats to national unity, governments
      resorted to the restriction of civil liberties, censorship of bad news, and vilification of the enemy
     False hood eventually engendered public skepticism and cynicism

Conflict in East Asia and the Pacific

     Three reasons why there were war in Asia and Africa
      1. European governments carried their animosities into their colonies- especially African
      2. Europe’s human reserves were not enough to satisfy the appetite of war, the British and
          French augmented their ranks by recruiting men from their colonies. Millions of Africans and
          Asians were drawn into the war
      3. Great War assumed global significance b/c the desires and objectives of some principal
          actors that entered into the conflict
      Japanese government claimed that it desired “to secure firm and enduring peace in Eastern
      Asia,” sent an ultimatum to Germany demanding he handover of the German leased territory of
     Japanese presented the Chinese government with twenty one secret demands
     The twenty one Demands reflected Japan’s determination to dominate east Asia and served as
      the basis for future Japanese pressure on China

Battles in Africa and Southwest Asia

     Germs were also frequently more deadly than Germans
     Winston Churchill (first lord of the Admiralty (British navy)) suggests taking out the Ottomans- a
      weak ally of the Central Powers
     Mustafa Kemal went on to play a crucial role in the formation of the modern Turkish state
     During the Great War, the Ottoman government branded Armenians as a traitorous internal

The End of the War

Revolution in Russia

     The Great War had undermined the Russian state. In the spring of 1917, disintegrating armies,
      mutinies, and food shortages provoked a series of strikes in Petrograd
     Tsar Nicholas was persuaded to abdicate the throne
     The March Revolution- the first of two revolutions in 1917- was an unplanned and incomplete
     After its success in Petrograd, the revolution spread throughout the country and political power
      shifted to two new agencies: the provisional government and the Petrograd soviet of Wokers’
      and Soldiers’ Deputies
     Provisional government failed to bring peace, therefore the Petrograd was more popular
     Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, a revolutionary Marxist who had been living in exile in Switzerland
     German transported Lenin and other revolutionaries to Russia in a sealed train, hoping that this
      committed antiwar activist would stir up trouble and bring about Russia’s withdrawal from the
     Lenin headed the Bolsheviks, the radical wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party
     The Bolsheviks, who were a minority eventually gained control of the Petrograd soviet
     The Bolshevik rulers ended Russia’s involvement in the Great War by signing the Treat of Brest
      Litovsk with Germany on 3 March

U.S. Intervention and Collapse of the Central Powers

     During the first two years of the war, the US economy coped with a severe business recession.
      Economic recovery became dependent on sales of war materials, especially on British orders for
    The official factor in the United States’ decision to enter the war was Germany’s resumption of
     unrestricted submarine warfare

After the War

    Immediate effects of the Great War were all too obvious. Aside from the physical destruction,
     the war had killed, disabled, orphaned.
    The end of the Great War coincided with the arrival of one of the worst pandemics ever
     recorded in human history
    Key among Wilson’s Fourteen Points were the following recommendations: open covenants of
     peace, openly arrived at’ absolute freedom of navigation on eas in peace and war; the removal
     of all economic barriers and equality of trade conditions among all nations; adequate
     guarantees for a reduction in national armaments; call for “a general association of nations”,
     adjustments of colonial disputes to give equal weight to the interests of the controlling gov. and
     the colonial population
    Mustafa Kemal, now known as Ataturk (Father of Turks) instituted an ambitious program of
     modernization that emphasized economic development and secularism
    Government support of critical industries and businesses, and other forms of state intervention
     in the economy designed to ensure rapid economic development
    The government’s policy of secularism dictated the complete separation between the existing
     Muslim religious establishment and the state
    The policy resulted in the replacement of religious with secular institutions of education &
     justice, the emancipation of women, including their right to vote, the adoption of European
     derived law, Hindu Arabic numerals, the Roman alphabet, and western clothing
    Ataturk ruled Turkey as a virtual ruler
    In an effort to avoid future destructive conflicts, the diplomats in Paris created the League of
    The League was the first permanent international security organization whose principal mission
     was to maintain world peace
    Two major flaws of the League
     1. First, though designed to solve international disputes through arbitration, it had no power
          to enforce its decisions
     2. It relied on collective security as a tool for the preservation of global peace
    Basic premise of the collective security arrangements was the concept that aggression against
     any one state was considered aggression against all the other states, which had pledged to aid
     one another
    Shared deterrence could assume- diplomatic pressure, economic sanctions, ultimately, force
    However, the basic precondition for collective security never materialized, because at any given
     time one or more of the major powers did not belong to the League
    US never joined the League because the senate rejected the idea
    Germany viewed the League as a club for the victors
    Japan saw it as an instrument of imperialism
    The League established the pattern for a permanent international organization and served as a
     model for its successor, the United Nations
    One of the principal themes of the peacemaking process was the concept of self dtermination
     which was promoted most intensely by Woodrow Wilson
    Wilson believed that self determination was the key to international peace & cooperation
    However imperfect the results, the peacemakers at Paris tried to apply the principle of self
     determination and nationality through Europe
    The League divided the mandates into three classes based on the presumed development of
     their populations in the direction of fitness for self government
    The administration of the mandates fell to the victors of the Great War
    The Allies viewed the mandate system as a reasonable compromise between the reality of
     imperialism and the ideal of self determination
    To the peoples who were directly affected, the mandate system smacked of continued imperial
     rule draped in a cloak of respectability

Challenges to European Preeminence

    The Great War changed Europe forever, but to most Europeans the larger world and the
     Continent’s role in it remained essentially unchanged
    The war of 1914-1918 accelerated the growth of nationalism in the European controlled parts of
     the world, fueling desires for independence and self determination
    Colonial subjects in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific often viewed the Great War as a civil war among
     the European nation
    The war helped spread revolutionary ideas to the colonies
    The postwar disappointments and temporary setbacks experienced by nationalist movements
     did not diminish their desire for self rule and self determination

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