Docstoc

Commas sleepy

Document Sample
Commas sleepy Powered By Docstoc
					 Commas
How to use them
            Commas!
• A comma is a punctuation mark.
• It tells us to take a brief pause when
  we are reading – not as long as a full
  stop.
• It is the most common punctuation
  mark but has to be used carefully.
               Commas
• Commas can change the meaning of a
  sentence
• The old lady collected all sorts of things:
  silver paper hats clocks and tablecloths.
• The old lady collected all sorts of things:
  silver paper, hats, clocks and tablecloths.
• The old lady collected all sorts of things:
  silver, paper hats, clocks and tablecloths.
• The old lady collected all sorts of things:
            silver, paper, hats, clocks, and
            tablecloths.
 Rule #1: Items in a Series

• When there is a list of three or more
  items in a sentence
  – Nouns: I bought pizza, soda, and candy.
  – Adjectives: The dog was big, mean, and
    furry.
  – Verbs: She hopped, skipped, and jumped.
  – Phrases: Billy slipped on the ice,
           screamed out loud, and broke his
           toe.
Rule #1: Items in a Series

Practice!
He was a bashful sleepy and dopey
  dwarf.
He was a bashful, sleepy, and dopey
  dwarf.
Rule #2: Introductory Bits

Words and groups of words that come
 at the beginning of a sentence.
They come in four sizes—small,
 medium, and large.
Small Introductory Bits:
    Actually, I really like flamingos.
         Hey, that’s not your papaya.
 Rule #2: Introductory Bits
Medium Introductory Bits:
Screaming wildly, the woman crashed
 through the window.
To Betty, Frank was a fool.
Large Introductory Bits:
When Godzilla destroyed my car with
  his foot, I cried.
         *note: the first part is NOT a
         complete sentence!
   Rule #3: Compound Sentences

   • Made up of two complete sentences
     joined by a conjunction
   • Conjunctions = FANBOYS!
          F A N B O Y S
            for and nor but or yet so

My socks smell really bad , so they will be really easy to find.

             You wore a lovely hat, but
                         you didn’t wear anything else.
     Rule #4: Interrupters
• Words or groups of words that
  interrupt the main idea of the
  sentence.
 You can, for example, buy socks on
 the internet.
• You do not need these interrupters in
  order to understand the sentence!
     Rule #4: Interrupters
Rachel, my little sister, is silly.
  *note: apposition! Apposition adds extra
  information to the sentence.
  *note: two commas when interrupter
  comes in the middle of the sentence

You can eat dessert now, I suppose.
     *note: only one comma when
       interrupter comes at end of sentence
   Rule #5: Direct Address
―Direct address‖ means you are
  directly speaking to someone.

I told you, Bob, to stop eating pie!
Jimmy, bring the llama here.
Do you like elephants, Mary?
          *note: the name needs two
          commas if it’s in the middle
          of the sentence!
       Rule #6: Dialogue
Use commas to separate the exact
 words of the speaker from the rest
 of the sentence.
―Hello,‖ said Mrs. G.
―Howdy,‖ said the class, ―how are you?‖
  (one sentence)
           ―Howdy,‖ said the class. ―How
           are you?‖ (two sentences)
         *note: commas inside quotation marks!
  Rule #7: To Separate Equal
          Adjectives
• Equal adjectives have the same
  importance.
• There is no ―and‖ or ―or‖ joining them in
  the sentence.
• To find out if adjectives are equal, change
  the order of the adjectives and see if the
  sentence still makes sense.
• If the sentence still makes sense, put a
           comma in between them!
  Rule #7: To Separate Equal
          Adjectives
The big hairy bear ate a popsicle.
• Could you say:
  The hairy big bear ate a popsicle.

Yes? Where do you put the comma?

 The big, hairy bear ate a popsicle.
 The hairy, big bear ate a popsicle.
  Rule #7: To Separate Equal
          Adjectives
The nasty Washington apples were rotten.
• Could you say:
  The Washington nasty apples were rotten?

No! Don’t put a comma in!

 The nasty Washington apples were
              rotten.
Rule #8: Big numbers. 1,999,999.

Rule #9: Dates.
     Monday, October 20, 2008
     Month and Year = No Comma!
     October 2008.

Rule #10: Addresses.
     I live at 10 Duck Avenue, San
           Diego, California 92120.
Exit Slip Practice:

Jeff my brother likes cats dogs and
 turtles. (4 commas)

Yes a scary terrible thing happened on
 October 20 2008. (3 commas)

―No Billy‖ she said ―don’t put it in the
  soup.‖ (3 commas)
                 Practice
Miss Jones   , the plumber,      is good at looking after children.
Peter        , Jennifer,         blow dries my hair every week.
Mrs White    , the typist,       has a son called Sam.
Our nanny    , my hairdresser,   fixed a leak in our pipes last week.
Mr Smith     , our teacher,      works in a large office.
              Practice
•   When he reached the car park,
•   Although he was very tired,
•   Despite standing in line for hours,
•   We did our homework,
•   I waited for my brother,

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:11/2/2011
language:English
pages:19