FORKLIFT by cuiliqing

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									                                     Course Curriculum for:
                                     Forklift Certification
                                      (Powered Industrial Trucks)

I.     Course Prerequisites

           Successful completion of Hazard Communication training

II.    Instructor's Qualifications

           Prior successful completion of this course
           Working knowledge of OSHA regulation 29 CFR 1910.178

III.   Course Visual Aids

           Forklift Video (optional)
           The Powered Industrial Truck the student will be operating

IV.    Training Method Used

              1.5    Hours of classroom instruction
              0.5    Hours of practical or hands on training

V.     Course Objectives

       Successful completion of this course is contingent upon the student's ability to demonstrate the
           Lift truck fundamentals (balance, stability, and capacity)
           The importance of the preoperational inspection
           General rules of the road
           Safe load handling techniques
           Refueling - gasoline, diesel, LP and battery charging and changing.

VI.    Course Contents

                                     Major Causes of Lift Truck Accidents:

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                                      Fatalities by Age Group:

A. Lift Truck Fundamentals

   Lift Truck Terminology

   Differences Between Lift Trucks and Automobiles – Discuss the differences between lift trucks
   and automobiles.

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   Legal Plates - By law, all lift trucks must display this warning. Explain the importance of the
   various warning plates and decals on a lift truck and those contained in the Operator’s Manual.

   Lift Truck Tires

       Cushion Tires:                                        Pneumatic Tires:
             Smooth, dry surfaces                                   Indoor or outdoor use
             Less traction than pneumatics                          Better traction than cushions
             Low ground clearance                                   Greater ground clearance
             More compact dimensions                                Larger dimensions than cushion
             Better lifting capacity at high lift                   Operates on various, compact
              heights                                                 surfaces
             Not intended for wet or rough,
              uneven surfaces

B. Balance, Stability and Capacity:

   Understanding these principles is important to you because this will allow you to reduce the risk
   of tipping a truck over and injuring yourself or other employees.

   The Principal of Balance

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          Lift Truck Balance
          The load carried in front of the vehicle must be offset by the weight of the vehicle behind the drive

                               Load Center                                            Center of Gravity
           Load center is defined as the distance from the                      Lift Truck Center Of Gravity
           face of the forks to the load’s center of gravity.

                                                Combined Center Of Gravity
           A lift truck has its own center of gravity. When a lift truck picks up a load, a combined center of
                                       gravity is produced (indicated by the star)

                      Principle of Stability                                        Stability Pyramid
        Lift trucks have a three-point suspension – the              With the added dimension of lift height, a
        two drive tires and the center of the steer axle.            Stability Pyramid results.
         This forms the base of the Stability Triangle.
           This is known as the Principle of Stability.

Center of Gravity

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Lateral Stability

Which truck will resist tipping over laterally – the one with a load or the one without a load?

Causes of Tip-over - Good driver must watch for all of these at all times.

                   Overloading the truck
                   Traveling with the load too high
                   Traveling or stacking with the mast tilted forward beyond vertical
                   Sharp turns
                   Braking abruptly
                   Excessive speed
                   Potholes
                   Wet or uneven surfaces
                   Driving on ramps
                   Low tire pressure on pneumatic tire trucks.

Attachments and Effect on Capacity and Stability

    Lift truck capacity is affected in two ways when equipped with an attachment:

        1. The weight of the attachment further reduces the lifting capacity of the truck. You
           should consider your truck partially loaded.
        2. The attachment increases the load center, moving the load farther away from the
           balance point, or fulcrum.

    If you add an attachment to your truck after the truck is received, Federal OSHA regulations
    state that:
        1. You must have prior written approval from the lift truck manufacturer.
        2. You must have a new capacity plate installed showing the correct capacity.

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   Capacity Plate Quiz

            1. What is the truck’s weight,
            2. What is the truck’s maximum lift height,
            3. What is the truck’s load center, and capacity?

C. Preoperational Inspection

   Reasons for Inspection

   Besides being required by Federal OSHA regulations, other reasons for performing a pre-
   operational inspection are:
       1.      To reduce the risk of injury by operating a defective vehicle
       2.      To improve the condition of the lift truck
       3.      To increase productivity
       4.      To reduce maintenance cost and downtime

   Visual Inspection

   A proper visual inspection will include inspection of the following:

       1.   Overall condition
       2.   Frame
       3.   Tires and wheels
       4.   Forks
       5.   Mast, carriage, and load backrest extension
       6.   Lift chains
       7.   Hydraulic hoses
       8.   Overhead guard
       9.   Battery
       10. Hood latch
       11. Capacity plate and all warning decals
       12. Operator’s compartment

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   LP Trucks

       1.    Properly mounted tank
       2.    Pressure relief valve pointing up
       3.    Hose and connections
       4.    Tank restraint brackets
       5.    Leaks (use soapy solution if gas is smelled)
       6.    Tank for dents, nicks, cracks

   Electric Trucks

       1.    Cables and connectors for frayed, exposed wires
       2.    Battery restraints in place
       3.    Electrolyte levels. Never use matches or a lighter to check
       4.    Hood latches properly.

   Operational Inspection (All Lifts)

       1.    Safety belts and lanyards
       2.    Horn, lights, audible alarms
       3.    Unusual engine noise
       4.    Fuel level
       5.    Displays and gauges
       6.    Hydraulics:
            a.   Mast
            b.   Tilt
            c.   Other hydraulic functions
       7.    Service and parking brake
       8.    Steering

   Completion of Inspection

       1. Report any defects immediately.
       2. Never operate a truck in need of repair.
       3. Repairs shall be made by authorized and trained personnel.

D. General Rules of the Road

   Entering the Vehicle

       1. Check hands and feet for grease or oil.
       2. Never jump on or off a stationary or moving truck.
       3. Squarely face the vehicle. Use three-point method for mounting and dismounting your
          truck. Use two feet and a hand.
       4. Avoid grabbing the steering wheel.

   Safety Guidelines When Operating a Lift Truck

       1. Notify your supervisor immediately if you are involved in a lift truck accident that results in
          personal injury to you, injury to others, or damage to company property.

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   2. Stay inside operator’s compartment. Keep all body parts inside compartment.
   3. Always use the truck’s operator restraint system (seat belt) (if so equipped).
   4. Use the lift truck only in areas where it can safely operate. Avoid the following areas:
            Narrow aisles and other restricted places
            Hazardous (classified) locations
            Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation (or poor vehicle
             maintenance) could cause a build-up of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust
       Plates and decals on your truck tell you if your truck is equipped with the proper safety
       devices to operate in hazardous areas.
   5. Obey all company safety rules and posted traffic signs.
   6. Keep a clear view of the path of travel.
   7. If your forward vision is blocked, travel in reverse.
   8. Operate your truck at a safe speed.
   9. Start, stop, and change directions smoothly.
   10. Sound your horn and slow down when approaching intersections, blind corners, door and
       ramp openings, pedestrians, and other vehicles, and when backing up.
   11. When traveling, keep the forks in a low position that provides adequate clearance over
       the surfaces you will travel.
   12. Check for overhead obstructions.
   13. When following another vehicle, maintain at least a three-truck-length distance between
       you and them.
   14. Never attempt to pass another moving vehicle going in the same direction at
       intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations.
   15. Slow down for rough or uneven surfaces.
   16. Avoid running over obstacles or holes in the roadway. Never run over debris. Remove or
       avoid the debris. Mark the location with caution indicators if the hazard cannot be
       removed, and report it to your supervisor.
   17. Make absolutely sure the operating surface or floor can safely support the vehicle and its
       load. This includes:
           a. Tractor trailers
           b. Railcars
           c. Elevators
           d. Old multistory buildings.
   18. Know the weight of the lift truck, which you can find on the truck’s capacity plate, and the
       weight of the load.
   19. When entering an elevator or other confined areas, enter with the load end first.

Hazardous Materials

   1. Refer to Material Safety And Data Sheets (MSDS).
   2. Know how to handle.
   3. Know how to clean up spills.
   4. Know what medical actions to take should you become exposed to
      the material.

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Pedestrian Traffic

    1. Always give pedestrians the right-of-way.
    2. When approaching corners, slow down, sound your horn, check convex mirrors.
    3. When working around pedestrians in tight quarters, watch out for rear end swing.
    4. Never give a pedestrian a ride.
    5. Keep pedestrians away from your vehicle at all times, even if you are not moving.
    6. Never allow anyone underneath the elevated portion of the truck.
    7. Never raise anyone on the forks.

Traveling on Ramps (10% grade or more)
    1. When you’re traveling empty, the forks should always point down the grade regardless of
    2. When traveling with a load, the load should always point up the grade regardless of

Parking Your Lift Truck

    1. Attended Parking Method:

          a.   Keep engine running
          b.   Be within 25 feet and in full view of truck
          c.   Set parking brake
          d.   Place directional control in neutral
          e.   Lower forks/load completely to ground with tips down
          f.   Chock wheels if you must park on an incline

    2. Unattended Parking Method
        (When you leave truck for a long period and truck is beyond 25 feet or out of view):

          a.   Park in safe area
          b.   Set parking brake
          c.   Place directional control in neutral
          d.   Engage directional control lock if truck is equipped with one
          e.   Lower forks/load completely to the ground

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E. Safe Load Handling Techniques

   Assessing the Load – Watch for and refuse to carry any of the following:

       1. Poorly balanced load
       2. Damaged pallets
       3. Load too heavy
       4. Fork Position
           a. Unevenly spaced
           b. Not completely under load
           c.   Fork locks not in place or not functional

   Engaging a Load

       1. Move lift truck slowly into position squarely facing the load
       2. Enter the load smoothly
       3. Move truck forward until load touches back of forks
       4. Carefully lift load and tilt back slightly to cradle the load
       5. Raise mast about 6-8 inches when picking from a stack
       6. Watch for top clearance when picking from a middle rack
       7. As soon as load clears stack, lower mast to travel position
       8. Sound horn, check behind you, and slowly back away

   Executing Turns
       1. Approach and turn slowly
       2. Sound horn
       3. Start turn when inside drive tire reaches corner
       4. Watch rear end swing of truck

   Rear End Swing
       1. Rear of truck swings out and around drive wheel path.
       2. If not careful, operator can cause product and property damage as well as injury to
          others. Lift truck capacity is affected in two ways when equipped with an attachment:

   Placing Loads
       1. Align truck and position mast. Stay a fork-length away from stack position.
       2. Squarely face stack position
       3. Watch out for rear end swing
       4. Raise load to opening and creep into position
       5. Place load squarely on rack or stack
       6. Do not over lower load. This causes slack in chain, and forks will suddenly drop when
          disengaged from the load.
       7. Sound horn, check behind you, and slowly back away.
       8. Lower forks to ground as soon as they clear stack or rack.

   Elevating Personnel
       1. Use a work platform built in accordance with ANSI and Federal OSHA regulations.

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       2. Platform must be secured to the lift truck
       3. Operator must be at the controls at all times when personnel are raised
       4. Never move with personnel raised on platform

   Tip-Over Procedure
       1. Always fasten seat belt anytime you operate your truck.
       2. Never jump! Stay with the truck.
       3. Hold on tight.
       4. Brace your feet.
       5. Lean forward and away from the fall.

F. Refueling Gasoline, Diesel, and LP Lift Trucks

   Gasoline and Diesel Refueling
       1. Refuel when engine is cool
       2. Start shift with a full tank
       3. Refuel in designated areas only
       4. Never expose fuel to any source of ignition (sparks, flames, etc.)
       5. Be aware of fire extinguishers and know how to use them
       6. Park truck in “unattended mode”
       7. Never completely fill container. Fuel expands when hot and could create a fire hazard.

   Characteristics of Liquified Petroleum (LP) Fuel
       1. LP is heavier than air
       2. LP is extremely flammable
       3. LP is extremely cold when exposed to the atmosphere
       4. LP is odorless in its natural state

   Basic LP Fuel Guidelines
       1. Do not refuel LP trucks in confined areas where LP gas could collect if a leak is present.
       2. Do not leave an LP truck near high heat sources, stairways, exits, or other safe egress
          areas even for a short period of time.
       3. When parking LP trucks for a long period of time, turn the service valve off. On empty LP
          tanks, turn off the service valve.
       4. Do not drop, roll, or strike LP tanks.

   Case Study

   A welder died from an explosion that was traced to an LP leak caused by a lift truck. The truck
   was parked near an elevator shaft, and the tank was not shut off. The fuel leaked down the shaft
   and settled at the bottom. When the welder came to work, he started a weld procedure and
   caused a spark which ignited the gas fumes.

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G. Battery Charging and Changing

   Charging an Industrial Battery in a Truck
       1. Be in a designated area only. Designated charge area must be well ventilated.
                a. Hydrogen gas is released during charge. Hydrogen is lighter than air.
       2. Park truck and set brake. Neutralize controls. Lower forks to ground.
       3. Open battery compartment fully.
       4. Unplug battery from truck and connect to compatible charger.
                a. Do not plug charger into truck connection.
       5. Check cables and connectors for damage, exposed wire.
       6. Charge per battery manufacturer’s instructions.
       7. After charging, turn off charger first, then disconnect cable.
                a. If you disconnect the cable first, you could cause a spark and ignite the hydrogen

   Ensuring Maximum Battery Life
       1. Discharge battery to manufacturer’s recommended level, usually 80 percent.
       2. Batteries typically have a life of 1,500 to 2,000 cycles. A cycle is one complete discharge
          and one complete charge.
       3. Avoid quick or opportunity charges.
       4. Run battery for 8 hours, charge for 8 hours, and let it cool for 8 hours.
       5. Do not overcharge battery.
       6. Do not undercharge battery.
       7. Clean battery periodically, using a neutralizing agent and water.

   Overcharging Batteries
       1. Creates high temperatures
       2. Produces large amounts of oxygen and hydrogen
       3. Electrolyte boils out requiring more frequent watering
       4. Shortens battery life

   Undercharging Batteries
       1. Causes plates to become dry and brittle (sulfation) because of high concentration of
          electrolyte at bottom of cell
       2. Full voltage is not achieved, resulting in poor performance.
       3. Battery life is shortened.

F. Hands-On Training and Driving Practice:

   Instructors shall instruct the student on all of the topics to be covered during the driving test.
   These items include the following:

       *   Pre-operational Inspection (breaks, oil, radiator...)
       *   Safety features of the forklift (emergency stops, fire extinguishers...)
       *   Truck controls and instrumentation (location, operation, and function)
       *   Engine or motor operation

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         *   Picking up loads (capacity determination, load placement...)
         *   Travelling with loads (inclines, trailers, speed, turns, stopping...)
         *   Stacking and placing loads
         *   Safe operation practices (i.e. look before backing, etc.)
         *   Refueling
         *   Any attachments to be used
         *   Necessity of maturity and physical coordination

     Any student who has successfully completed the classroom instruction and hands-on training
     may practice driving the forklift only under the following conditions:
             1. The practice must be conducted with the knowledge and approval of the trainee’s
             2. The trainee must be directly supervised by a certified forklift driver who qualified to
                provide training
             3. The trainee will practice in an area away from any pedestrian traffic,

G. Retraining and Evaluation:

     Refresher training, and evaluations of the effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted as
     described below to ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate the
     powered industrial truck safely.

     Refresher Training - Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided to the operator when:
         1. The operator has been observed operating the vehicle in an unsafe manner,
         2. The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident,
         3. The operator has received and evaluation that reveals that the operator is not operating
            the truck safely,
         4. The operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck, or
         5. A condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the

     Evaluation – An evaluation (physical observation) of each powered industrial truck operator’s
     performance shall be conducted as part of the initial certification process and at least once every
     three years thereafter.

H. Curriculum Quiz and Driving Test:

     A curriculum quiz score of 80% or greater is required to demonstration understanding of the
     material presented. To ensure that the students understand the questions, this quiz may be
     presented orally by the instructor.

     In order to demonstrate their ability to safely operate the equipment they are being tested for,
     students must complete their Performance Evaluation with less than three points missed on each

     Any student not trained to this level must repeat the training and be retested. Retraining must
     also be completed after any accident or near miss.

I.   Re-certification: Forklift operators must pass a Performance Evaluation every three years.

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