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                      AP United States History - Terms and People – Unit 2, Chapter 7 (12 Ed.)
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                                    The Road to Revolution: 1763 – 1775
Before studying Chapter 7, read over these “Themes”:
Theme: Tension between the colonies and Britain centered around the issues of mercantilism and its implementation.
The British Empire attempted to more strictly enforce laws aimed at maintaining a system of mercantilism while colonists
objected to this change from the earlier "salutary neglect."
Theme: The American Revolution occurred because the American colonists, who had long been developing a strong
sense of autonomy and self-government, furiously resisted British attempts to impose tighter imperial controls and
higher taxes after the end of the French and Indian War in 1763. The sustained conflict over political authority and
taxation, enhanced by American agitators and British bungling, gradually moved Americans from asserting rights within
the British Empire to openly warring with the mother country.
Theme: At the outset of the Revolutionary War, Britain appeared to be a mighty empire, but it was weaker than it
seemed at first glance. Poor leadership in London along with second-rate generals in the colonies reduced the impact of
the larger British population and its naval supremacy. Americans, on the other hand, had many advantages such as
George Washington's leadership and fighting a defensive war. However, the colonists also faced disorganization,
jealousy, and economic difficulties.

After studying Chapter 7 in your textbook, you should be able to:
1. Explain the deeply rooted historical factors that moved America towards independence from Britain.
2. Describe the theory and practice of mercantilism and explain why Americans resented it.
3. Explain why Britain attempted tighter control and taxation of Americans after 1763 and why Americans
   resisted these efforts.
4. Describe the major British efforts to impose taxes and tighten control of the colonies.
5. Describe the methods of colonial resistance that forced repeal of all taxes except the tax on tea.
6. Explain how sustained agitation and resistance to the tea tax led to the Intolerable Acts and the outbreak
   of war.
7. Assess the balance of forces between the British and the American rebels as the two sides prepared for
   war.
Know the following people and terms. Consider the historical significance of each term or person.
Also note the dates of the event if that is pertinent.
A. People
   Adam Smith
    John Hancock
    Lord North
    George Greenville
    Samuel Adams
    +John Adams
    Charles Townsend
    Crispus Attucks
    Marquis de Lafayette
    King George III
    Baron von Steuben
    +Patrick Henry
B. Terms:
   mercantilism
    Navigation Acts
    “No taxation without representation”
                                                                                                               th
                          AP United States History - Terms and People – Unit 2, Chapter 7 (12 Ed.)
.
    “virtual” representation
    nonimportation agreement
    “royal veto”
    internal/external taxation
    boycott
    “radical Whigs”
    Board of Trade
    Sons of Liberty
    Declaratory Act
    First Continental Congress
    Sugar Act
    Townshend Acts
    Quartering Act
    Boston “Massacre”
        Who defended in court the British soldiers charged with the “massacre”? __________
    The Association
    Stamp Act
    committees of correspondence
    Hessians
    Admiralty courts
    Boston Tea Party
    Loyalists
    Stamp Act Congress
    Intolerable Acts
    “Continental”
    +=One of the 100 Most Influential Americans of All Time, as ranked by The Atlantic. Go to Webpage to see all 100.
C. Sample Essay: Using what you have previously learned and what you learned in Chapter 7, you
   should be able to answer an essay such as this one:
   It might be said that it was the British who were revolutionaries in 1763 and the colonists who were
   conservatives attempting to preserve the status quo. Explain.

D. Voices from the past:
   Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace-- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that
   sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in
   the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so
   dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God!
   I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!
       +Patrick Henry, March 23, 1775
            In a speech to the Virginia House of Burgess at St. John's Church in Richmond, where the
             legislature was meeting

				
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