Jump Start into Spanish

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					 Jump Start
into Spanish

       Prepared by the
 Alabama Education Association

       This publication is one giant step in fulfilling the commitment of the Alabama Education
Association to all of the children and the citizenry of this state. It has been a vision of the Alabama
Education Association for many years to assure that the needs of our students were met. However,
it was under the leadership of Kathy McVay, a dream catcher and past president of the Alabama
Education Association, who inspired the Association to begin responding to this unmet need in our

       Thanks to President Peggy Mobley who has continued the legacy of responding to the needs
of our members by her continuous support of this program. None of this would happen without the
hard work by the members of the English Language Learners Curriculum Committee. A special
thanks to the dedicated and committed members: Marien Amerigo, Claudia Baez, Marjorie
Bermúdez, Alice Careaga, Brenda Coleman, Mayté Cotton, William “Bill” Gardner, Yamilé R.
Nuckels, Thomas Phillips, Barbara Rogers, Millie L. Rowley, Sylvia M. Taylor, Bryan Ward, and Mary
Westbrook and Consultants Dr. Paul R. Hubbert, AEA Executive Secretary, Tyna D. Davis, Manager
of the Education Policy and Professional Practice Division, Angelita Jackson, former Director of the
Education Policy and Professional Practice Division, and Monica Washington, Secretary of the
Education Policy and Professional Practice Division and to Pamela Fossett for editing the manual.

       A special thanks to Libby Atyola of Sebring, Florida for her contributions to the development
of the program.

          The Education Policy and Professional Practice Division strives to remain on the
     cutting edge of issues in education and prepare our members for state-of-the-art practice
         in the profession. The members of this division are greatly indebted to the people
  named above for their hard work and support of this meaningful project. It is our goal that public
         schoolteachers and students all over our great state will benefit from these efforts.

                                     Tyna D. Davis, Manager
                             Education Policy and Professional Practice
                                 Alabama Education Association
Dear Member:
      This new publication, Jump Start into Spanish, is another of the many efforts AEA
undertakes to serve the needs of our 92,000+ members.                                              E
      No one would have dreamed only a few years ago that teachers in Alabama would be             S
needing to communicate with their students in any language other than English. As needs of         S
our schools and our members change, so must the services of the Association.                       A
      Hopefully you will find this work compiled by Mrs. Davis and her staff with the help of      G
many of our talented members to be very helpful.
                                                Sincerely,                                         S

                                                Paul R. Hubbert                                    O
                                                Executive Secretary

Greetings:                                                                                         H
        An idea, whose time has come and is long overdue, is to sensitize teachers in              E
Alabama and across this country to the need for them to know and appreciate the Spanish
language. Imagine what it would be like to go to Russia and try to take a course in Russian
history with Russian teachers, and the only language spoken is Russian, but the only
language you know is English. This usually happens when young children in schools in               X
Alabama and across this country are confronted with teachers who are speaking English only         E
and the child sits in the classroom helpless because he/she cannot understand one word the         C
teacher is speaking.                                                                               U
        Nothing is more important than for teachers to be able to communicate to their pupils,     T
regardless of the language the child speaks. AEA’s involvement in this is long overdue. In
fact, I have advocated for a long time that every teacher, who is a public school employee,
should have a few Spanish phrases committed to memory. If nothing else, the teacher would          V
be able to say hello, goodbye, good morning, what’s your name, what’s your address, or what        E
have you.
        I believe that every teacher should be offered and have the opportunity to take at least   S
one elementary Spanish course so that the children who speak Spanish as their first                E
language would not be penalized when they enter the classroom in a country where English
is the official language.
        It is my hope that, by having this jump start program, it becomes a major launching        R
pad to help teachers in Alabama to reach goals in making education easier and accessible to        E
all students by having a minimum elementary command of the Spanish language.                       T
                                                Sincerely,                                         R
                                                Joe L. Reed                                        S
                                                Associate Executive Secretary


           Welcome to “Jump Start into Spanish!” This beginner’s workshop in conversational
    Spanish is provided for Alabama Education Association members to assist them in working
    with our English Language Learners. In the last five years, there has been a tremendous
    growth of the Hispanic population in the South. In fact, areas that had relatively few Hispanics
    are now showing as high as a 300 percent increase (U. S. Census Bureau 2000). While most
    southeastern states, including North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, have had large
    Hispanics population increases, one of the largest population phenomenons is happening in
    our own state.

          Alabama is a state with a growing population of Spanish speakers. From 1990 to 2000,
    Alabama has seen an increase from 24,629 to 75,830 in the Hispanic population, resulting in
    a 208 percent increase within a ten-year period. According to Raul Yzaguirre, from the
    National Council of La Raza, “Hispanics are increasingly becoming America’s students,
    workers, taxpayers, and voters. We need to make investments in the Latino community now
I   to ensure that we reap the payoffs that will benefit all Americans in the future.”
R           This training is called “Jump Start into Spanish.” It is designed to peak your interest in
    learning Spanish. AEA is committed to serving the needs of all Alabama students. We hope
O   this intensive training workshop will provide you with beginning conversational Spanish skills
D   that will enable you to communicate more effectively with your Hispanic students.


Ground Rules – Handout #1                    Page 4
Training Objectives – Handout #2             Page 5
Spanish Alphabet Sounds – Handout #3         Page 6
Vowel/Consonant Sounds – Handout #4          Page 7
Pronunciation Practice – Handout #5          Page 8
Essential Words/Phrases – Handout #6         Page 9
Numerals – Handout #7                        Page 10
Time/Calendar – Handout #8                   Page 11
Time Phrases – Handout #9                    Page 12
Clock Faces – Handout #10                    Page 13
Family/Clothing/Colors – Handout #11         Page 14       C
MathVocabulary/Adjective Opposites/
Prepositions – Handout #12                   Page 15       T
Question Words – Handout #13                 Page 16       E
For the Office – Handout #14                 Page 17
The Nurse – Handout #15                      Page 18       S
The Library – Handout #16                    Page 19
Cafeteria/Foods – Handout #17                Page 20
Bingo – Handout #18                          Page 21
School Setting Words/Phrases – Handout #19   Pages 22-24
Appendix A                                   Page 25
Appendix B                                   Pages 26-30
Appendix C                                   Page 31
Appendix D                                   Pages 32-33
Appendix F                                   Page 34
Appendix E                                   Page 35
Appendix G                                   Page 36

                                  GROUND RULES

                                  This is a safe zone!
                                 No rank in the room
                                 Everyone participates
                                  No one dominates

    • Be honest

    • No long WAR stories

H   • Help us stay on track
    • Listen as an ally
D   • Speak one at a time
U   • Be an active listener
    • Give freely of your experience
    • Agree if it makes sense to do so
    • Keep an open mind

    • Maintain confidentiality

    • Keep a sense of humor

    • Be flexible

    • Cell phones off

                          TRAINING OBJECTIVES

•   Assist the teachers in feeling comfortable working with English Language Learners

•   Help English Language Learners feel comfortable and part of the classroom

•   Provide teachers with useful common phrases for communicating with ELL

•   Stimulate interest of teachers so that they will be on a quest for learning Spanish

•   Provide tips for the teachers to help all students, both English and ELL

•   Improve the relationship between the Hispanic community and the school                H
•   Assist in communicating with Spanish speaking parents and other community
    members                                                                               D
•   Understand Spanish culture                                                            T


                       SPANISH ALPHABET SOUNDS

    Spanish Alphabet      Spanish Pronunciation              English Pronunciation

          A                     Ah  ˆ                              ah
          B                     Be  ˆ                              bay
          C                     Se      ˆ                          say
          (CH)                  Che ˆ                              chay
          D                     De
                                ˆ                                  day
          E                     E
                                ˆ ˆ                                ay
          F                     E feˆ                              ay´-fay
          G                     Je              ˆ                  hay
          H                     Ahche
                                ˆ                                  ah´-chay
          I                     E                                  ee
          J                     Hotah                              ho´-ta
          K                     Kah                                kah
N                                ˆ ˆ
D         L                     El e
                                ˆ ˆ                                ay´-lay
O         (LL)                  Eye
                                ˆ ˆ                                ay´-lliay
U         M                     Eme
                                 ˆ ˆ                               ay´-may
T         N                     Ene
                                ˆ ˆ                                ay´-na
          (Ñ)                   Eñie                               ay´-niay
#         O                     Õ                                  o
          P                     Pe                                 pay
          Q                     kõõ
                                 ˆ ˆ                               koo
          R                     Ere
                                ˆ ˆ                                ay´-ray
          (RR)                  Erre
                                ˆ ˆ                                ay´-rray
          S                     Ese ˆ                              ay´-ssay
          T                     Te                                 tay
          U                     õõ  ˆ       ˆ                      oo
          V                     be (ve)                  ˆ         vay
          W                     double õõ double ve
          X                     Ekís
                                 ˆ                  ˆˆ             ay´-kees
          Y                      e
                                Y or Egree gah
                                    ˆ                              yay
          Z                     Se tah                             say´-tah

                         Vowel and Consonant Sounds

Vowel Sounds

        a      as   in father (say ah) as in padre
        e      as   in they (say eh) as in peso
        i      as   in peep (say ih) as in mi
        o      as    in no (say oh) as in no
        u      as   in rule (say oo) as in su

Rules of vocal stress in Spanish

   1. If a word ends in a vowel, “n” or “s,” the vocal stress is on the next to last

   2. If a word ends in a consonant other than “n” or “s,” the vocal stress is on the last
   3. If a word is not pronounced according to these rules, there will be a written accent   A
      mark.                                                                                  N
Consonant Sounds
   ch   –   pronounce like ch, as in church
   ll   –   pronounce like ll, as in million
   ñ    –   pronounce like ny, as in canyon
   rr   –   strongly trilled or rolled r, as in a series of fast d’s (ddddd)
   r    –   trilled when beginning a word, otherwise not rolled
   c    –   before e or i pronounce like s, as in stop
   c    –   elsewhere pronounce like k, as in kick
   cu   –   pronounce like qu, as in quack
   g    –   before e or i pronounce like h, as in hey
   g    –   elsewhere pronounce like g, as in go
   h    –   is silent. Don’t pronounce it.
   j    –   pronounce like h, as in hey
   q    –   pronounce like k, the u is silent after q
   b    –   pronounce like b, as in boy
   v    –   pronounce like b, as in boy (this is the same sound as the Spanish b)
   z    –   pronounce like the Spanish s

                            PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE

    a    adiós (goodbye)                agua (water)         almuerzo (lunch)
    b    baño (bathroom)                boca (mouth)         bueno (good)
    c    casa (house)                   cara (face)          cafetería (cafeteria)
         cero (zero)                    cereza (cherry)      cielo (sky)
    d    dedo (finger)                  diente (tooth)       dolor (pain)
    e    estudiante (student)           escritorio (desk)
    f    familia (family)               fecha (date)         frío (cold)
    g    gracias (thank you)            garganta (throat)
         gimnasio (gym)                 gente (people)
    h    hola (hello)                   hoy (today)          horario (schedule)
    i    inteligente (smart)            invierno (winter)
    j    juego (game)                   jabón (soap)         jueves (Thursday)
A   k    kilómetro (kilometer)
N   l    lápiz (pencil)                 libro (book)         labio (lip)
D   ll   llamar (to call)               lluvia (rain)
O   m    mesa (table)                   madre (mother)       mano (hand)
    n    nueve (nine)                   número (number)      nombre (name)
    ñ    mañana (tomorrow)              niño (child)
#   o    ocho (eight)                   ojo (eye)            otro (another)
5   p    padre (father)                 papel (paper)        parada (bus stop)
    q    qué (what)                     quién (who)          quince (fifteen)
    r    regla (rule)                   reloj (clock)        ropa (clothes)
    rr   perro (dog)                    correr (to run)
    s    sábado (Saturday)              salida (exit)        semana (week)
    t    tarde (afternoon)              tarea (homework)     trabajo (work)
    u    uno (one)                      último (last)        usar (to use)
    v    volver (to return)             vomitar (to vomit)   viernes (Friday)
    w    web (web)
    x    examen (test)                  éxito (success)      extra (extra)
    y    yo (I)                         ya (already/yet)     yogurt (yogurt)
    z    zapato (shoe)                  zorro (fox)

                       ESSENTIAL WORDS AND PHRASES

      English               Spanish                English               Spanish

Good morning           Buenos días.         Where are you           ¿De dónde eres?
Good afternoon         Buenas tardes.       from?
Hello!                 ¡Hola!               Fill out this form.     Completa esta
Welcome                Bienvenido(s).                               forma.
How’s it going?        ¿Qué tal?            Write your name.        Escribe tu nombre.
How are you?           ¿Cómo estás?         Can you speak           ¿Puedes hablar
Please                 Por favor.           English?                inglés?
Thank you.             Gracias.             Salute the flag.        Saluda a la bandera.
You’re welcome.        De nada.             Open your book.         Abre tu libro.
Yes.                   Sí.                  Are you hungry?         ¿Tienes hambre?
No.                    No.                  Do you need to go       ¿Necesitas ir al
How do you say…in      ¿Cómo se dice…en     to the bathroom?        baño?
Spanish?               español?             Sit down.               Siéntate.
Wait a moment.         Espera un momento.   Come here.              Ven aquí.
More slowly, please.   Más despacio, por    Quiet.                  Silencio.
                       favor.               Follow me.              Sígueme.
What grade are you     ¿En qué grado        Form a line.            Forma una línea.       U
in?                    estás?               It’s time to eat.       Es la hora de comer.   T
What is your name?     ¿Cómo te llamas?     Do you need             ¿Necesitas algo?
My name is . . .       Me llamo…            something?                                     #
What is your last      ¿Cuál es tu          Do you need paper       ¿Necesitas papel y     6
name?                  apellido?            and a pencil?           un lápiz?
What is your           ¿Cuál es tu          Do you understand?      ¿Comprendes?
address?               dirección?           Listen.                 Escucha.
What is your phone     ¿Cuál es tu número   Stand up.               Levántate.
number?                de teléfono?         Very good.              Muy bien.
How old are you?       ¿Cuántos años        Good job.               Buen trabajo.
                       tienes?              What?                   ¿Qué?
                                            It’s time to go home.   Es tiempo de ir a


    English         Spanish         Symbol

    Zero            Cero             0
    One             Uno              1
    Two             Dos              2
    Three           Tres             3
    Four            Cuatro           4
    Five            Cinco            5
    Six             Seis             6
    Seven           Siete            7
    Eight           Ocho             8
    Nine            Nueve            9
    Ten             Diez             10
    Eleven          Once             11
    Twelve          Doce             12
H   Thirteen        Trece            13
A   Fourteen        Catorce          14
    Fifteen         Quince           15
    Sixteen         Dieciséis        16
    Seventeen       Diecisiete       17
    Eighteen        Dieciocho        18
    Nineteen        Diecinueve       19
    Twenty          Veinte           20
    Thirty          Treinta          30
    Forty           Cuarenta         40
    Fifty           Cincuenta        50
    Sixty           Sesenta          60
    Seventy         Setenta          70
    Eighty          Ochenta          80
    Ninety          Noventa          90
    One hundred     Cien             100
    Two hundred     Doscientos       200
    Three hundred   Trescientos      300
    Four hundred    Cuatrocientos    400
    Five hundred    Quinientos       500
    Six hundred     Seiscientos      600
    Seven hundred   Setecientos      700
    Eight hundred   Ochocientos      800
    Nine hundred    Novecientos      900
    One thousand    Mil              1000


English      Spanish                    English            Spanish

second       segundo                    now                ahora
minute       minuto                     later              más tarde/después
half hour    media hora                 each day           cada día
hour         Hora                       every day          todos los días
day          día                        day/night          día/noche
week         semana                     last night         anoche
month        mes                        weekend            fin de semana
year         año                        during the day     durante el día
today        hoy                        during the night   durante la noche
yesterday    ayer                       in the morning     por la mañana
tomorrow     mañana                     in the afternoon   por la tarde
tonight      esta noche                 at night           por la noche        H
                          CALENDAR                                             T

English      Spanish                    English            Spanish             8
Monday       lunes                      April              abril
Tuesday      martes                     May                mayo
Wednesday    miércoles                  June               junio
Thursday     jueves                     July               julio
Friday       viernes                    August             agosto
Saturday     sábado                     September          septiembre
Sunday       domingo                    October            octubre
January      enero                      November           noviembre
February     febrero                    December           diciembre
March        marzo

            *Days and months are not capitalized in Spanish.

                                                Time Phrases

                         English                                Spanish

                         What time is it?                       ¿Qué hora es?

                         It is one o’clock.                     Es la una.

                         It is two o’clock.                     Son las dos.

                         It is three o’clock.                   Son las tres.

                         It is four o’clock.                    Son las cuatro.

                         It is five o’clock.                    Son las cinco.

    The equivalent of past or after is y.
A                        It is twenty past five.                Son las cinco y veinte.
O   The equivalent of to or till is menos.
T                        It’s ten to seven.                     Son las siete menos diez.

    The term cuarto y media is equivalent to the English expression quarter and half.

                         It’s a quarter to five.                Son las cinco menos cuarto.

                         It’s half past four.                   Son las cuatro y media.

    As in English numbers can be used in place of the expressions cuarto y media.

                         It’s 15 minutes to five.               Son las cinco menos quince.

                         It’s 4:30.                             Son las cuatro y treinta.

                                    CLOCK FACES

Under each clock write the time shown in English and in Spanish.

 –––––––––––––––––––           –––––––––––––––––––             –––––––––––––––––––

 –––––––––––––––––––           –––––––––––––––––––             –––––––––––––––––––   T


 –––––––––––––––––––           –––––––––––––––––––             –––––––––––––––––––

 –––––––––––––––––––           –––––––––––––––––––             –––––––––––––––––––


     English              Spanish             English             Spanish

     father               padre               grandson/daughter   nieto/nieta
     mother               madre               uncle/aunt          tío/tía
     son/daughter         hijo/hija           cousin              primo
     brother/sister       hermano/hermana     older/younger       mayor/menor
     grandfather/mother   abuelo/abuela


     English              Spanish             English             Spanish

     belt                 cinturón            shirt               camisa
     cap                  gorra               shoes               zapatos
H    coat                 abrigo              shorts              pantalones cortes
A    dress                vestido             socks               calcetines
N    hat                  sombrero            sweater             suéter
D    jacket               chaqueta            tennis shoes        zapatos de tenis
O    jeans                blue jeans          T-shirt             camiseta
U    pants                pantalones          umbrella            paraguas
T    raincoat             impermeable         glasses             gafas
     sandals              sandalias           backpack            mochila


                          English                  Spanish

                          yellow                   amarillo
                          orange                   anaranjado
                          blue                     azul
                          white                    blanco
                          brown                    café
                          gray                     gris
                          black                    negro
                          red                      rojo

                                MATH VOCABULARY

English                  Spanish                  English              Spanish

percentage               por ciento               how much             ¿cuánto?
to buy                   comprar                  add                  suma
to spend                 gastar                   subtract             resta
discount                 descuento                divide               divide
taxes                    impuestos                multiply             multiplica

                             ADJECTIVE OPPOSITES

English                  Spanish                  English          Spanish

little/big               pequeño/grande           easy/difficult   fácil/difícil
quickly/slowly           rápido/lento             up/down          arriba/abajo       H
full/empty               lleno/vacio              before/after     antes/después de   A
noisy/calm               ruidoso/tranquilo        inside/outside   afuera/adentro     N
heavy/ligh               pesado/ligero            hot/cold         calor/frío         D
good/bad                 bueno/malo               closed/open      cerrado/abierto    O
organized/disorganized   ordenado/                late/early       tarde/temprano     U
                         desordenado              more/less        más/menos          T
pretty/ugly              bonito/feo


English                  Spanish                  English              Spanish

to the left              a la izquierda           before               antes
to the right             a la derecha             after                después
straight                 derecho                  with                 con
up                       arriba                   from/of              de
down                     abajo                    in/on                en
behind                   detrás                   for                  por/para
in front of              en frente de

              QUESTION WORDS

     English                   Spanish

     What?                     ¿Qué?
     How?                      ¿Cómo?
     Which?                    ¿Cuál?
     Who?                      ¿Quién?
     When?                     ¿Cuándo?
     How much?                 ¿Cuánto?
     Where?                    ¿Dónde?
     Why?                      ¿Por qué?



                          FOR THE OFFICE/PARA LA OFICINA

                    English                              Spanish

How can I help you?                      ¿En qué puedo ayudarle?
One moment please.                       Un momento, por favor.
I don't speak Spanish.                   No hablo español.
Do you speak English?                    ¿Habla usted inglés?
I speak only a little Spanish.           Hablo solamente un poco de español.
Speak more slowly please.                Hable más despacio, por favor.
We need an interpreter.                  Necesitamos un intérprete.
What is your child's name?               ¿Cómo se llama su hijo/a?
What grade is he/she in?                 ¿En qué grado está él/ella?
Who is his/her teacher?                  ¿Quién es la maestra de él/ella?
Your child is not feeling well.          Su hijo/a no se siente bien.
Your child is not behaving.              Su hijo no se está comportando
Call back later.                         Llame más tarde.
last name                                apellido
What is your address?                    ¿Cuál es su dirección?
age                                      edad
primary school                           escuela primaria                      N
Sign it.                                 Fírmelo.                              D
schedule                                 Horario                               O
Fill out this form.                      Llene el formulario.                  U
place of birth                           lugar de nacimiento                   T
registration                             matrícula
name                                     nombre
phone number                             número de teléfono
principal                                director                              14
bus                                      autobús
bus stop                                 parada de autobús
bus driver                               chofer de autobús
bus number                               número de autobús
Where does your father work?             ¿Dónde trabaja tu papá?
Where does your mother work?             ¿Dónde trabaja tu mamá?
Do you have brothers and sisters?        ¿Tienes hermanos?
What's your father's name?               ¿Cómo se llama tu papá?
What's your mother's name?               ¿Cómo se llama tu mamá?
Welcome                                  Bienvenido/s
I'm glad to see you.                     Me alegro de verte.
I'm sorry.                               Lo siento.
Excuse me.                               Perdón.
This is beautiful.                       Eso es bonito.
Good job.                                Buen trabajo.
Pleased to meet you.                     Encantado de conocerle.
Let me introduce you to...               Le presento a...

                          THE NURSE/LA ENFERMERA

                English                             Spanish

     How do you feel?                    ¿Cómo te sientes?
     What hurts?                         ¿Qué te duele?
     Did someone hit you?                ¿Alguien te pegó?
     Who hit you?                        ¿Quién te pegó?
     Do you want to rest?                ¿Quieres descansar?
     Have a good day!                    ¡Que le vaya bien!
     What lovely clothes!                ¡Qué linda ropa!
     See you tomorrow                    Hasta mañana.
     Goodbye                             Adiós
     See you later                       Hasta luego
     Do you have a fever?                ¿Tienes fiebre?
     Where does it hurt?                 ¿Dónde te duele?
     Do you feel sick?                   ¿Te sientes enfermo?
H    Do you have a sore throat?          ¿Te duele la garganta?
A    You need to see a doctor.           Tienes que ir al médico.
     Are you...?                         ¿Estás...?
           sick                                enfermo
           tired                               c_ns_do
           angry                               enojado
           nervous                             nervioso
15         worried                             preocupado
           prepared                            preparado
           bored                               aburrido
           excited                             emocionado
           comfortable                         cómodo
           happy                               contento

     Are you...?                         ¿Tienes...?
           cold                                frío
           hot                                 calor
           hungry                              hambre
           thirsty                             sed
           sleepy                              sueño

                      THE LIBRARY/ LA BIBLIOTECA

English                                Spanish

computer                               computadora
story                                  cuento
Sign it.                               Fírmelo.
table                                  mesa
web (internet)                         red
silence                                silencio
card                                   tarjeta
You have 15 minutes to pick a book.    Tiene quince minutos para elegir un libro.
book fair                              feria de libros
Here are the books in Spanish.         Aquí están los libros en español.
Go back to your class now.             Regrese a su clase ahora.
beca                                   scholarship                                  N
letter of recommendation               carta de recomendacin                        D
counselor                              consejero/a                                  O
money                                  dinero                                       U
community service                      servicio de comunidad                        T
college, university                    universidad

        English         Spanish                   English         Spanish

     breakfast        desayuno                  bottle          botella
     lunch            almuerzo                  knife           cuchillo
     dinner           cena                      fork            tenedor
     entrance         entrada                   spoon           cuchara
     main dish        plato principal           napkin          servilleta
     vegetables       vegetales                 tray            bandeja
     dessert          postre                    trash           basura
     glass of water   vaso de agua

H                                       FOODS
N       English         Spanish                   English         Spanish
O    apple            manzana                   milk            leche
U    bread            pan                       mineral water   agua mineral
T    cake             pastel                    rice            arroz
     chicken          pollo                     pizza           pizza
#    french fries     papas fritas              salad           ensalada
17   egg              huevo                     sauce           salsa
     fish             pescado                   sausage         salchicha
     fruit            fruta                     salt            sal
     ice cream        helado                    soup            sopa
     lemon            limón                     sugar           azúcar
     meat             carne                     tomato          tomate


 Free   N
Space   D


            English                 Spanish                  English               Spanish

     Open the door            Abra la puerta          Repeat.                Repita.
     window                   ventana.                Leave/ Don’t leave.    Salga/No salga.
     Open the book.           Abra el libro.          Jump.                  Salte.
     Hurry up.                Apúrese.                Sit down.              Siéntese.
     Help.                    Ayude.                  Follow me.             Sígame.
     Jump.                    Brinque.                Follow the rules.      Siga las reglas.
     Walk.                    Camine.                 Work in groups.        Trabaje en grupos.
     Sing.                    Canta.                  Translate.             Traduzca.
     Shut the door/           Cierre la puerta/       Go.                    Vaya.
     window.                  ventana.                Go outside/inside.     Vaya afuera/adentro.
     Continue.                Continúe.               Come.                  Venga.
     Run/Don’t run.           Corra/No corra.         Return to class.       Vuelva a la clase.
     Draw.                    Dibuje.                 Brainstorm.            Elabore.
H    Tell.                    Diga.                   Fill in.               Llene.
A    Go to sleep/Don’t        Duérmase/No se          Circle.                Encierre.
N    sleep.                   duerma.                 Mark.                  Marque.
D    Turn in the              Entregue la tarea/      Cross out.             Tache.
O    homework/lesson.         la lección.             Underline.             Subraye.
U    Enter.                   Entre.                  Put in order.          Ponga en orden.
T    Write.                   Escriba.                Match.                 Seleccione.
     Write your name.         Escriba su nombre.      Check.                 Revise.
#    Listen.                  Escuche.                Correct.               Corrija.
19   Study the lesson.        Estudie la lección.     Look up.               Busque.
     Speak/Don’t speak.       Hable/No hable.         Say.                   Diga.
     Do number . . .          Haga número . . .       Spell.                 Deletree.
     Read.                    Lea.                    Copy.                  Copie.
     Raise your hand.         Levante la mano.        Answer.                Conteste.
     Stand up.                Levántese.              Ask a question.        Haga una pregunta.
     Look at the board.       Mire la pizarra.        Share.                 Comparta.
     Move/Don’t move.         Muévase/No se           Don’t interrupt.       No interrumpa.
                              mueva.                  Don’t push.            No empuje.
     Stop/Don’t stop.         Pare/No pare.           Don’t fight.           No pelee.
     Ask your question.       Pida su pregunta.       Don’t say bad words.   No diga malas
     Pay attention, please.   Ponga atención, por                            palabras.
                              favor.                  Get down.              Bájate.
     Pronounce.               Pronuncie.              Go outside.            Ve afuera.
     Lie still.               Quieto.                 Go inside.             Ve adentro.
     What does this           ¿Qué quiere decir...?   Hurry, quickly.        Apúrate.
     mean...?                                         Attention! Look out!   ¡Atención! ¡Cuidado!
     Stay here/in line.       Quédese aquí/en fila.   Halt! Stop!            ¡Alto!

Useful Vocabulary:
      English             Spanish               English          Spanish

right now            ahora mismo          sentence         oración
water                agua                 page             página
locker               armario              word             palabra
alphabet             alfabeto             paper            papel
lunch                almuerzo             wall             pared
friend               amigo                game             partido
flag                 bandera              hallway          pasillo
bathroom             baño                 paints           pinturas
trash                basura               floor            piso
pen                  pluma                chalkboard       pizarra
eraser               borrador             project          proyecto
calendar             calendario           projector        proyector
folder               carpeta              quiz             prueba
letter               carta                door             puerta
classmate            compañero de clase   ruler            regla                  H
computer             computadora          clock            reloj                  A
crayons              crayolas             exit             salida                 N
notebook             cuaderno             emergency exit   salida de emergencia   D
room                 cuarto               nap              siesta
holidays             días de fiesta       homework         tarea
dictionary           diccionario          television       televisión
diskette             disquete             scissors         tijeras
sports               deportes             chalk            tiza
entrance             entrada              window           ventana
desk                 escritorio           let’s ….         vamos a…               19
school               escuela              read             leer
students             estudiantes          study            estudiar
test                 examen               work             trabajar
date                 fecha                write            escribir
weekend              fin de semana        draw             dibujar
stapler              grapadora            hurry            apurar
schedule             horario              stop             parar
pencil               lápiz                stay             quedar
book                 libro                come             venir
teacher              maestro/maestra      leave            salir
snack                merienda             go               ir
table                mesa                 Fire drill       práctica de incendio
grade                nota                 Tornado drill    práctica de tornado
numbers              números

     Places in the

           English          Spanish                English            Spanish

     parking lot      estacionamiento        playground         patio de recreo
     auditorium       auditorio              baseball field     campo de béisbol
     office           oficina                computer class     clase de
     hall             pasillo                                   computadora
     water fountain   fuente de agua         music class        clase de música
     class            clase                  art class          clase de arte
     classroom        sala                   English/Spanish/   clase de inglés/
     library          biblioteca             French class       español/francés
     cafeteria        cafetería              PE                 clase de educación
     nurse            enfermera                                 física
     gym              gimnasio               math class         clase de matemáticas
                                             science class      clase de ciencia
                                             history class      clase de historia


                                        APPENDIX A

Hispanic Culture

As with anything, generalizations do not always hold true. In the case of Hispanic culture,
most of the following characteristics are common throughout the Hispanic world. However, it
should be noted that not all ELL students exhibit these qualities.

The Hispanic family is often affectionate and extended. Many Hispanic households include
not only a father, mother and children but also grandparents, uncles, aunts, and even
• Physical affection; hugs, kisses when greeting/saying goodbye by both male/female of all
   ages “Not taking offense”
• Responsibilities taken at a young age (older children taking care of smaller ones).            A
• Physical labor at an early age (field work, migrating)                                         P
• Money managing very important, since extended family still receiving support back in their     P
   countries                                                                                     E
Food                                                                                             N
Most common types of foods used: rice, beans, tortillas, spices, and fruits                      D
Religion                                                                                         X
A large majority of the Hispanic population comes from a Catholic background, whether active
or inactive. Religious tradition may be noticeable by the wearing of jewelry, i.e. crucifix,     A
rosaries or medallions.

Many holidays are religious and are duplicated in the United States. Some, however, are          C
more important or unique to the Hispanic world.                                                  U
  • Carnaval: similar to Mardi Gras but more widely celebrated in the Hispanic world             L
  • Semana Santa (Holy Week): beginning with Palm Sunday, ending with Easter Sunday,             T
      marked by processions, parades, and religious services
  • 5 de mayo (May 5): celebration of Mexican culture and heritage
  • Día de la Raza ("Day of the Race"): Columbus Day, celebrated as the mingling of              R
      cultures and races in the Hispanic world                                                   E
  • Todos los Santos/Día de los Muertos (All Saints' Day/Day of the Dead): similar to
      Halloween, celebrated widely to remember the dead, even more important in Mexico

Members of the Hispanic culture listen to a variety of international music, not just mariachi!

Personal Space
Large personal space is not very common due to the large Hispanic household. Privacy is not

                                              APPENDIX B


    A. In order to assist your ELL students, the community contains resources that are yours for
       the asking. Some of these resources are:
       • List of interpreters, translators
       • Board of Education
A      • Chamber of Commerce
P      • Civic Organizations (Kiwanis, Rotary, churches [Catholic])
P      • Human Resources Departments of local companies
       • Spanish-owned business (restaurants, tiendas)
E      • High School Spanish Teacher/Spanish Clubs
N      • Family Members of your students
D          *older siblings
I          *parents
X      • Adult Education Organizations list

    B. Translations (School Rules, Forms . . .)
B      • In order to establish proper communication with your ELL students and parents, School
          Rules and Forms should be translated.
       • Some of These documents are:
S         1. School Discipline Booklet
T         2. School Rules of Conduct
R         3. Instructions for fire, tornado and emergency drills
          4. Classroom rules and conduct
A         5. Notes from the teacher to the parents.
E   A note of caution: make sure that whoever is to translate school documents is completely
G   fluent in reading and writing in Spanish and English. Also, Internet translations are not always
I   correct because translations are done literally.
    Here is a list of helpful suggestions taken from•uicktips/index.php
    Teaching the Text Backwards
&   It is very difficult for ELLs to understand a textbook if it is taught in the traditional sequence:
    Read text, answer questions, discuss, apply information. When teaching the text backwards
T   you do an application such as a science experiment first. Then you discuss the material in
I   class, and answer the questions at the end of the chapter. Reading the text is the last thing
    you have students do.
S   Make lessons visual and kinesthetic
    Two methods of helping your English Language Learners (ELLs) acquire content knowledge
    are providing plenty of visual clues to meaning and assigning "hands-on" tasks. Visuals
    include pictures, photographs, realia, maps, graphic organizers, and charts. Hands-on
    activities that help ELLs are collaborative projects such as mobiles, murals, demonstrations,
    science experiments, timelines, and pictures with labels.

Communicative competency does not equal academic success
Your ELLs may interact well with classmates but be floundering academically. BICS (Basic
Interpersonal Communication Skills) may be learned quickly. However, CALP (Cognitive
Academic Language Proficiencies) may take five to seven years to acquire. If your students
are unable to understand your language arts or social studies lessons, they have acquired
BIC skills but lack CALP.

Explain BICS and CALP
Do the mainstream teachers in your school know the difference between BICS (Basic                     A
Interpersonal Communication Skills) and CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)?               P
Explain that BICS may take up to two years to develop and CALP may take five to ten years.
Ability to speak English does not mean the student is able to work academically in English.
Help students develop cognitive skills                                                                N
Encourage the parents of your English Language Learners to use their native language at               D
home. Explain to them that cognitive growth in native language helps their children develop            I
English academic language. It is easier to teach the water cycle, for example, if the students        X
have already learned it in their own language.

Assessing ELLs for Learning Disabilities                                                              B
The referral of an ELL/Bilingual student by the Child Study Team should not be taken lightly.
All avenues must be explored before a second language learner is identified for special
education. It is important when evaluating an ELL/Bilingual student to throw away the                 S
traditional testing model and to collect data in a portfolio. Input from the ELL/Bilingual teacher,   T
the classroom teacher, and the parents should all be considered during the assessment
process. Students should be tested in native language unless they speak a language for
which there is no test. At this time, a trained interpreter can be used.                              A
Reading strategies are universal                                                                      E
Students who are already literate in native language learn to read at a higher level in English       G
than those who are not. Literacy related skills are transferred from one language to another           I
even if the writing systems are quite different. However, only concepts that are completely
learned will make that transfer. Building native language literacy is important.
Foster social interaction
Provide a variety of activities for newcomers. Set limits on the amount of time English               &
Language Learners listen to tapes or work on a computer. They need to interact with real
speakers of English. Social acceptance is a powerful motivator for learning a new language.           T
Learn that name correctly!                                                                             I
Determine which part of a newcomer's name is the given name and which is the family name.             P
Two-part first names are common in many cultures, and may appear to be a first name and a             S
middle name. Ask. Use both parts of a two-part name. (Asian names are given in reverse
order from American names; this may or may not have been reversed in the office.) Hispanic
family names may also be two-part. Saying the name right isn't always easy, but it's impor-

    Pronounce that name correctly!
    Don’t let your new student lose his/her name. Write it on the board with a phonetic translation.
    Practice until you can say it correctly. Don’t Americanize a student’s name unless requested
    by parents.

    Use manuscript writing
    Your newcomers may know the Roman alphabet but will probably not be able to read cursive
    writing. Either write in manuscript or ask a mainstream student to copy homework in
A   manuscript.
    Help ELLs negotiate meaning
P   Provide ELLs with opportunities for negotiating meaning. Comprehensible input is not enough
E   to guarantee comprehension. Your students need the opportunity to interact in a meaningful
N   way with peers who speak English.
I   Comprehensible output
X   Comprehensible output is crucial for students learning English. ELLs need to negotiate
    meaning through interactions with fluent English speakers. This exchange provides second
    language learners with corrective feedback and knowledge about how to communicate their
B   ideas.

    Teach about fire drills
S   Schools in many countries do not conduct fire drills, and the noise made by the bell can be
T   frightening for a newcomer. Ask a bilingual person to explain what a fire drill is before your
    newcomers start school.
A   Provide time-outs
T   Provide frequent "time-out from English" periods for newcomers. Allow the newcomer to
E   spend time each day during those first weeks speaking with others of the same native
G   language. He or she needs to ask someone, "What's going on here?"
    Try to learn a few new words
E   Join with your mainstream students to learn a few words in your newcomer's native
S   language. When you show your good humor about making mistakes and risking smiles and
    laughter, your newcomer will be more willing to risk speaking in English.
    Check for comprehension
T   Good communication with ELLs requires that teachers check periodically for comprehension
    by asking questions at the student’s level of comprehension. Do not ask ELL students “Do
I   you understand?” in front of the class. They will usually say “yes” whether they do or not.
S   Develop pride in cultures
    Help your students develop pride in their cultures. Display pictures in your classroom from
    your students' home countries. Have newcomers write in a home language diary, read books
    in their home language, draw pictures of people and places in their home countries, and listen
    to native language music.

Support home language development
Don't discourage the maintenance of home languages. Encourage the parents of your
students to develop literacy skills in native language. Whatever your students learn in their
home languages will eventually be transferred to English.

Allow translation time
Newcomers are translating the language they hear back to their native language, formulating
a response, and then translating that response into English. Allow extra time for this
translation.                                                                                         A
Teach to your newcomer's learning mode
Most newcomers learn best kinesthetically. Don’t expect them to sit and listen to
incomprehensible auditory input for long periods of time. Use gestures, drawings, sketches,          E
drama, or other visual support. Give students hands-on activities to complete.                       N
Be generous with thanks                                                                               I
Thanks and praise will go a long way with your English-speaking buddies and cross-age                X
tutors. Let them know that you appreciate their efforts. Acknowledge their contributions
frequently and point out the progress newcomers in your class have made.
Respect newcomers "silent period"
Don't force your newcomers to speak before they are ready. ELLs will acquire language when
they have comprehensible input and their affective filter is low. Allow students a "silent period"   S
during which they acquire language by listening and understanding English.                           T
Be an active listener!                                                                               R
When listening to your newcomers as they learn to speak, give feedback, nods,                        A
encouragement, and praise. Give your whole attention when trying to understand the                   T
communication. Demonstrate your patience through your body language.                                 E
Where should newcomers sit?                                                                           I
Give advance thought to where you will seat an incoming student so the decision doesn’t
have to be made on the spot. Put a new student near your desk so you can provide help or
near a student who has been trained as a buddy. Avoid front row center. If your class sits in        S
groups, place newcomers with sociable English speakers.
Make an I.D. card for newcomers
More than one newly arrived student has become lost during his or her first few days of              T
school and this is a terrifying experience. Write the newcomer’s name, home address,
telephone number, and school address on an index card. The student should keep this card
in his/her pocket.                                                                                   P
Cooperative learning fosters social interaction.
Newcomers who work in cooperative groups have real reasons to learn English. They
become an essential part of the class community. Even beginners can learn the basic vocab-
ulary of the unit you are teaching. Encourage members of the cooperative group to help new-
comers learn.

    Encourage participation
    Encourage ELL students to participate in class. Some students may know the answer but will
    hesitate to speak. Give them the question ahead of time so that they can be prepared to

    Avoid drawing unwanted attention to newcomer
    If you have something important to convey, speak one-on-one to the newcomer rather than in
    front of the class. The anxiety of being in the spotlight interferes with comprehension.
P   Be aware of culture shock
    The newcomers in your classroom are probably suffering from culture shock. Being in a
P   strange place and losing the power to communicate can be quite painful. Creating an
E   environment where the newcomer feels secure will lessen the intensity and duration of culture
N   shock.
I   Assign a buddy!
X   A buddy or cross-grade tutor who speaks the newcomer's language is a wonderful asset at
    the beginning of the school year. During the adjustment phase, the buddy or cross-grade tutor
    can explain what's going on. You may want to rotate buddies so that the bilingual buddy does
B   not miss too much work.

    Keep a list of translators
S   Keep a list of the people in your building who speak the languages of your students so that
T   classroom teachers have a resource when they need someone to translate important
    instructions. Make sure that the main office and the school nurse have a copy of these lists.
A   Tie culture to your curriculum
T   Tie the cultures of your second language learners to your curriculum. Children with diverse
E   linguistic and cultural backgrounds have stories and experiences that are unique. Teachers
G   should build on the background knowledge and cultures their students bring from their home
I   countries.
E   Give simple directions
S   Give clear, simple directions to ELL students. Break complex directions down into simple
    steps. Ask students to retell, in their own words, what you are asking them to do before they
&   attempt a task.

T   Focus on the positive
    The more comfortable ELL newcomers feel in your classroom, the quicker they will be able to
I   learn. Focus on the positive. Give lots of encouragement and praise for what the student can
P   do. Don't dwell on all that they can't yet do. Create frequent opportunities for their success in
S   your class.

    Enlist parent volunteers
    If possible, have parent volunteers or older students who speak the newcomers' languages to
    take your new students on a tour of the important places in your school. Have a bilingual
    student or parent show newcomers immediately where the bathrooms are and explain what
    the rules are for leaving the classroom.

                                         APPENDIX C

                                        TRAINER NOTES

   It is obvious to all of us that a person new to the United States will have difficulties if
he/she does not speak English fluently; however, most of us take our own knowledge of
English so much for granted that we do not realize how serious the difficulties are.

    Learning a language is primarily an oral activity. This linguistic principle allows a person to
learn a new language quickly. Even if you know that the teacher does not understand what
you say, keep talking; he/she needs to get used to the sounds of Spanish. At the same time,           P
you must keep sight of the fact that there is an equally high priority on the teacher’s learning      E
to speak the language. This means that s(he) must spend as much time repeating after you              N
and answering questions as s(he) spends listening. Both tutor and teacher will feel more              D
comfortable if each lesson follows a regular pattern; this will minimize frustration resulting         I
from trying to explain new procedures. Spend time having the teacher repeat patterns and
reinforcing learning s(he) has already started.

   This is difficult and tedious work for both the tutor and the teacher; however, constant
repetition of basic patterns will eventually produce results. The mistake most beginning tutors
make is to think that oral drill is effective with only one reading. Each pattern must be             T
repeated many, many times. Include variety so that the lessons do not become tiring and
monotonous. Though oral pattern practice is the most important activity, you may divide
lessons into listening-repeating (pattern practice), reading, and writing.                            A
   If a teacher does not understand you, you must first make sure that the reason is not your         E
own defective speech. Speak slowly and distinctly and use simple words. Always use                    R
sensitivity in your demeanor and in your comments.

   Stress to teachers that some student problems are more complicated and may require the             O
assistance of someone who knows the language of the child and the Spanish culture.                    T
Spanish children and families may need assistance in locating a bilingual lawyer, a person            E
who can translate documents, an interpreter when they visit stores, banks, or government              S
agencies, employment opportunities, a list of local churches of various national groups,
university and college residential halls, and social clubs.

                                            APPENDIX D

                                       TEACHING TECHNIQUES

    Auditory Comprehension

    How well does the teacher understand what s(he) hears in Spanish?
P   Conversational Questions
E   1. Have the teacher listen to your questions in Spanish. Tell him or her to answer the question in
       Spanish. The conversational questions may include personal questions, questions about
N      sports, school, the body, food, animals, etc. Do not let the teacher read the questions.
D   2. After s(he) has answered them, have the teacher ask you the questions and you answer them.
I   3. Have the teachers ask each other the questions.
    Dictate Spanish words, phrases, sentences, and/or names for the teacher to write. At the
    beginning, speak slowly – one word at a time. Gradually add phrases and sentences. Use words
    that have been previously taught. Styrofoam plates and dry erase markers work well for
T   assessing single word dictation.
A   Scripts: Prepare a short conversation. Have the teachers say it to each other or to you. Reading
C   aloud is a good exercise to prepare teachers for more fluent speech.
H   Pronunciation
N   How well does the teacher pronounce the sounds of Spanish?
    Listening-repeating (pattern practice):
T   1. Read aloud words, phrases, and/or sentences. Have the teachers to repeat after you as a
E   2. Have individual teachers repeat after you.
C   3. Have the teachers read the lists without hearing you first.
N   Recordings
Q   Record some of your Spanish patterns on tape and have the teacher repeat them and record his
    or her own voice.
E   Flash cards/Vocabulary File
    Have the teacher make flash cards/vocabulary cards with the word or phrase on one side and
    the definition on the other. The teacher may use these cards for drill and practice.


How good is the teacher’s Spanish vocabulary?

Ask questions; have the teacher answer questions about a paragraph that is written in Spanish.
Sometimes children’s stories are suitable – even if the student is an adult. Preteach vocabulary
words you think will give the teacher difficulty.
Dictionaries                                                                                       P
Have the teacher keep a dictionary of new Spanish words. They should be alphabetically
arranged, and each word should be followed by a definition and a sentence using the word.
Sentences                                                                                          D
Have the teacher write sentences, or say them, using newly learned Spanish words and               X

Word Lists

Teach some basic principles of Spanish word formation such as
• masculine and feminine,                                                                          T
• capitalization rules about the days of the week and the months of the year,                      E
• punctuation,                                                                                     A
• word order of a question, and
• placement of adjectives and adverbs in a sentence.
Category Word Lists                                                                                 I
Picture File                                                                                       G
Workbooks                                                                                          E

                                            APPENDIX E

                               CLASSROOM TEACHERS

    1.    Label items in the classroom in English and in Spanish.
P   2.    Post the flags of the native country of your ELL students.
N   3.    In playing games in the classroom include Spanish words.
X   4.    Have an International Festival Day that includes the tasting of foods from around the
    5.    In order to help ELL students feel comfortable, partner with an English speaking
P   6.    Have a pen pal from a different country.
    7.    Get the Spanish version of textbooks.

S   8.    Play Spanish background music.
R   9.    Keep a word journal.
E   10.   Teach Spanish songs.
    11.   When speaking to ELL students, talk slowly and face the students.
    12.   Introduce a Spanish word daily.

                                      APPENDIX F


Favorite Web sites
                                                                      A                                     P   P
National Clearing House for English Language Acquisition
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)             I                                                         X

National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE)                   F

Free Teacher Resources
Dictionary                                                            E                                                  F
Creating Spanish Characters on the Computer                           N      C
Free weekly Spanish lessons
                                                                      L                         I
                                                                      S                   T

Fun for Kids

Translator Alligator

Story Place

                                           APPENDIX G


    Spanish à la Cartoon, Dr. Albert H. Small, editor, Passport Books: 1990.

    Spanish Phrase Book, Passport Books: 2000.

    1001 Pitfalls in Spanish, Marion P. Holt, Julianne Dueber: 1997.

    Easy Spanish Vocabulary Puzzles, Jane Burnett Smith, Passport Books: 1991.
P   Spanish in 10 Minutes a Day, Bilingual Books: 2002.
E   Spanish Part I, 90-minute video, The Standard Deviants. Order at 1-800-VCR-REVU or
D   Spanish Part II, 90-minute video, The Standard Deviants. Order at 1-800-VCR-REVU or
    Spanish for Gringos, 51-minute video, Barron's Educational Series, Barron's #7889-6,
G   $19.95, ISBN 0-8120-8359-8

    Hispanic, a magazine, 10 issues/year. Mostly in English but some in Spanish. A good
    overview of Hispanic life in the United States.
S   Literature
U   Many books have been written concerning immigrant life in the United States. Poetry, short
    stories, and other materials can add to our ability to help ELL students. A few of the most
R   notable authors include Sandra Cisneros, Miguel Piñero, Judith Ortiz-Cofer, and Julia Alvarez.

   Alabama Education Association
422 Dexter Avenue (36104) • P. O. Box 4177
       Montgomery, AL 36103-4177
      334.834.9790 • 800.392.5839

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