appendix by EslamAdel2

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									        Appendix
        Research in Organizational
        Behaviour




Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                       Appendix / Slide 1
Learning Objectives

1. Explain what a hypothesis is and define the
   meaning of a variable.
2. Distinguish between independent and dependent
   variables and moderating and mediating variables.
3. Differentiate reliability from validity and
   convergent validity from discriminant validity.
4. Understand observational research and distinguish
   between participant and direct observation.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 2
 Learning Objectives (continued)

5. Describe correlational research and explain why
   causation cannot be inferred from correlation.
6. Explain experimental research and the meaning
   of internal validity and discuss threats to
   internal validity.
7. Discuss the relative advantages and
   disadvantages of different research techniques.




   Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 3
 Learning Objectives (continued)

8. Describe random sampling and external validity
   and the role they play in the research process.
9. Explain the Hawthorne effect and how it can
   occur.
10. Discuss the basic ethical concerns to which
    researchers must attend.




   Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 4
Research in Organizational
Behaviour
• Research is a way of finding out about the
  world through objective and systematic
  information gathering.
• Organizational behaviour is based on research
  that involves objective and systematic
  information gathering.
• This is what separates the study of
  organizational behaviour from opinion and
  common sense.



   Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 5
Importance of Knowing about
Organizational Behaviour
Research
• You should be aware of how the information
  in this book was collected.
• A critical perspective is necessary to evaluate
  interventions to improve organizational
  behaviour.
• Your knowledge of organizational behaviour
  research can enable you to practice
  evidence-based management.



  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 6
Evidence-Based Management

• Translating principles based on the best
  scientific evidence into organizational
  practices.
• Managers can make decisions based on the
  best available scientific evidence from social
  science and organizational research.
• The use of evidence-based management is
  more likely to result in the attainment of
  organizational goals.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 7
The Basics of Organizational
Behaviour Research
• Organizational behaviour research begins with
  a question about work or organizations.
• Research questions are often expressed as
  hypotheses.
• A hypothesis is a formal statement of the
  expected relationship between two variables.
• Variables are measures that can take on two
  or more values.




   Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 8
Types of Variables

• In most research, we are concerned with two
  kinds of variables.
• The independent variable is a predictor or
  cause of variation in a dependent variable.
• The dependent variable is a variable that will
  vary as a result of changes in the
  independent variable.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 9
Types of Variables (continued)

• A moderating variable is a variable that
  affects the nature of the relationship
  between an independent and a dependent
  variable.
• Moderating variables are like contingency
  variables in that they indicate when an
  independent variable is most likely to be
  related to a dependent variable.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 10
Types of Variables (continued)

• A mediating variable is a variable that
  intervenes or explains the relationship
  between an independent and a dependent
  variable.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 11
Measurement of Variables

• Good measures have high reliability and
  validity.
• Reliability is an index of the consistency of a
  research subject’s responses.
• Validity is an index of the extent to which a
  measure truly reflects what it is supposed to
  measure.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 12
Measurement of Variables
(continued)

• Researchers are often able to choose
  measures with a known history of reliability
  and validity.
• Good measures should also be strongly
  related to other measures of the same
  variable and should not be related to
  measures of different variables.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 13
Measurement of Variables
(continued)

• Convergent validity exists when there is a
  strong relationship between different
  measures of the same variable.
• Discriminant validity exists when there is a
  weak relationship between measures of
  different variables.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 14
Research Techniques

• There are three basic kinds of research
  techniques:
   – Observation
   – Correlation
   – Experimentation




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 15
Observational Techniques

• Research that examines the natural activities
  of people in an organizational setting by
  listening to what they say and watching what
  they do.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 16
Observational Techniques
(continued)

Formal observation is systematic and objective:
  -        Set of questions to answer
  -        Ongoing record of the events observed
  -        Trained to draw reasonable conclusions
• Outcomes are summarized in a narrative
  form, sometimes called a case study.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                           Appendix / Slide 17
Participant Observation

• Observation can involve participant observation
  or direct observation.
• In participant observation the researcher
  becomes a functioning member of the
  organizational unit being studied.
• Advantages of participant observation:
   – Personal experience
   – Secrecy




   Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 18
Participant Observation:
Example
• Bensman and Gerver study on the unauthorized
  use of taps by aircraft plant workers.
• Possession of a tap was a strict violation of
  company policy.
• The occasional use of a tap to correct a
  problem could save hours of disassembly and
  realignment time.
• How was the conflict resolved?



   Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 19
Participant Observation:
Example (continued)
• One of the authors served as a participant
  observer while functioning as an assembler.
• The supervisors and inspectors worked together
  to encourage the cautious and appropriate use
  of taps.
• A social ritual was developed to teach and
  control the use of the tap.
• This kind of information would be extremely
  difficult to obtain except by participant
  observation.

   Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 20
Direct Observation

• In direct observation, the researcher
  observes organizational behaviour without
  participating in the activity being observed.
• When to use direct observation:
   – When influence is a concern
   – Observer cannot learn the job tasks
   – Opportunity to record information is
     important



  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 21
Direct Observation: Example

• Henry Mintzberg’s study of the work
  performed by chief executives of two
  manufacturing companies, a hospital, a
  school system, and a consulting firm is an
  excellent example of direct observation.
• Mintzberg spent a week with each of his five
  executives observing and listening to them.
• He kept detailed records of their activities
  and developed a classification scheme to
  make sense of them.


  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 22
Observational Techniques:
Advantages
• Depth.
• Breadth.
• Richness.
• Spontaneity.
• Realism.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 23
Observational Techniques:
Disadvantages

• Lack of control over the environment.
• Small number of observers and situations.
• Generalization to other settings is limited.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 24
Correlational Techniques

• Research that attempts to measure variables
  precisely and examine relationships among
  these variables without introducing change
  into the research setting.
• Does not have the breadth and richness of the
  observational techniques.
• Does have more precision of measurement
  and greater control.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 25
Correlational Techniques
(continued)

• Differs from observational approaches in
  terms of the nature of the data researchers
  collect and the issues they investigate.
• The data of correlational studies involves
  surveys, interviews, and existing data




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 26
Surveys

• Surveys involve the use of questionnaires to
  gather data from participants who answer
  questions on the relevant variables.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 27
Interview

• The interview is a technique in which the
  researcher asks respondents a series of
  questions to gather data on the variables of
  interest.
• The data can be quantitative or more
  qualitative and descriptive.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 28
Existing Data

• Existing data refers to data that is obtained
  from organizational records, such as
  productivity, absence, and demographic
  information.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 29
Survey and Interview Variables

• Variables often measured by surveys and
  interviews include:
   – Employees’ perceptions of how their managers
     behave on the job
   – The extent to which employees are satisfied
     with their jobs, and
   – Employees’ reports about how much autonomy
     they have on their jobs.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 30
Example of Correlational
Research: Hypotheses
• Employees who are satisfied with their jobs
  will tend to be more productive than those
  who are less satisfied.
• Employees who perceive their supervisor as
  friendly and considerate will be more
  satisfied with their jobs than those who do
  not.
• Older employees will be absent less than
  younger employees.
• How would you test these hypotheses?

  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 31
Example of Correlational
Research: Mentors
• Employees’ willingness to serve as mentors to
  newer organizational members.
• IV: Gender; DV: Willingness to mentor
• Questionnaires completed by more than 500
  employees.
• Men and women were equally willing to serve
  as mentors.
• Women perceived more barriers to being a
  mentor.


  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 32
Correlation and Causation

• Hypothesis:
   – Considerate supervisors will have more
     productive employees than unfriendly,
     inconsiderate supervisors.
• Study:
   – Employees describe the friendliness of their
     supervisors on a questionnaire designed to
     measure this variable and obtain employees’
     productivity levels from company records.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 33
Hypothetical Data From a
Correlational Study




 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                        Appendix / Slide 34
Correlation and Causation
(continued)
• As a result of this study, should an
  organization attempt to select friendly
  supervisors or train existing supervisors to be
  more friendly to obtain higher productivity?




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 35
Correlation and Causation
(continued)
• NO – the relationship is correlational not
  causal.
• Supervisors might be friendly if their
  employees are productive.
• Correlation does not imply causation.
• How can we find out which factors cause
  certain organizational behaviours?




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                           Appendix / Slide 36
Experimental Techniques

• In an experiment, a variable is manipulated
  or changed under controlled conditions, and
  the consequence of this manipulation for
  some other variable is measured.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 37
Experimental Techniques
(continued)

• The variable that a researcher manipulates or
  changes is the independent variable.
• The variable that the independent variable is
  expected to affect is the dependent variable.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 38
Example of Experimental
Research: Hypothesis
• Friendly, considerate supervisors will tend to
  have more productive employees.
• What is the independent and dependent
  variable?
   – IV: Style of supervision
   – DV: Productivity




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 39
Example of Experimental
Research: Manipulation

• The researcher must manipulate or change
  the friendliness of some supervisors and
  observe what happens to the productivity of
  their employees.
• This might be accomplished by exposing the
  supervisors to some form of human relations
  training to teach them to be more
  considerate and personable toward their
  workers.



  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 40
Hypothetical Data From an
Experiment




 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                        Appendix / Slide 41
Example of Experimental
Research (continued)
• Productivity increased and remained higher
  following the training program.
• Does this mean that friendliness increases
  productivity?
• NO – We cannot be sure that something else
  did not occur at the same time of the training
  to influence productivity (e.g., change in
  equipment).




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 42
Control Group

• To control for the possibility that something
  else might have increased productivity, we
  need a control group of supervisors.
• A control group is a group of research
  subjects who have not been exposed to the
  experimental treatment.
• In this case, we need a group of supervisors
  who have not been exposed to the training.
• These supervisors should be as similar as
  possible to those who receive the training.


  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 43
Hypothetical Data From an
Improved Experiment




 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                        Appendix / Slide 44
Results of Improved Experiment

• The productivity of the employees whose
  supervisors were trained increases following
  training while that of the control supervisors
  remains constant.
• We can thus infer that the human relations
  training affected employee productivity.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 45
Internal Validity

• The extent to which a researcher can be
  confident that changes in a dependent
  variable are due to the independent variable.
• Internal validity has to do with the validity of
  the experimental design.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 46
Internal Validity (continued)

• Factors that are alternative explanations for
  the results of an experiment are called
  threats to internal validity.
• Without a control group, there are many
  threats to internal validity that might be
  responsible for a change in productivity.
• Internal validity increases the confidence
  that one has in concluding that the training
  program was the cause of the improvement in
  productivity and not something else.


  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 47
Threats to Internal Validity

• Selection of participants.
• Testing.
• Instrumentation.
• Statistical regression.
• History.
• Maturation.
• Mortality.



   Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 48
A Continuum of Research
Techniques




 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                        Appendix / Slide 49
Combining Research Techniques

• Research techniques do not have to be used
  independently.
• Different techniques can be used in a study
  to complement each other (e.g.,
  correlational and observation).




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 50
Issues and Concerns in
Organizational Behaviour
Research
• Three issues that confront researchers in
  organizational behaviour:
   – Sampling
   – Hawthorne effects
   – Ethical concerns




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 51
Sampling

• Researchers usually want to generalize the
  results of their research beyond their study.
• The extent to which the results of a study
  generalize to other samples and settings is
  known as external validity.
• External validity will be greater when the
  results of a study are based on large, random
  samples.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 52
Random Sampling

• Random sampling means that research
  participants have been randomly chosen from
  the population of interest.
• In experimental research, randomization
  means randomly assigning subjects to
  experimental and control conditions.
• Random sampling is another way to lower the
  threats to internal validity.




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 53
Hawthorne Effect

• Discovered as a result of a series of studies
  conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the
  Western Electric Company.
• These studies examined the effects of
  independent variables, such as rest pauses,
  lighting intensity, and pay incentives, on the
  productivity of assemblers of electrical
  components.
• In a couple of these studies, unusual results
  occurred.


  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 54
Hawthorne Effect (continued)

• The results gave rise to the term Hawthorne
  effect which refers to a favourable response
  of subjects in an organizational experiment
  to a factor other than the independent
  variable that is being manipulated.
• This “other factor” is psychological in nature
  such as subjects’ reactions to special
  attention.
• Research subjects can have unmeasured
  feelings about their role in the research.


  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 55
Ethics

• Researchers have an ethical obligation to do
  rigorous research and to report that research
  accurately.
• The psychological and physical well being of
  the research subjects is of prime importance.
• What should ethical researchers do?




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                         Appendix / Slide 56
Ethics (continued)

• Ethical researchers should:
   – Avoid unnecessary deception
   – Inform participants about the general purpose
     of the research
   – Protect the anonymity of research subjects
   – Afford subjects the opportunity to decline to
     participate
   – Prevent negative consequences for subjects




  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.
                                          Appendix / Slide 57

								
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