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					                     HONEY


By: Arieal Lombard
   Final Project
    Chemistry
      What Is Honey?
• Honey is an organic, natural
  sugar alternative with no
  additives, easy on the stomach,
  adapts to all cooking, and has an
  indefinite shelf-life

• Honey is primarily composed of
  fructose, glucose and water. It
  also contains other sugars as
  well trace enzymes, minerals,
  vitamins and amino acids
              History
• Its names comes from the English hunig,
        and it was the first and most
    widespread sweetener used by man

• In the Old Testament of the Bible, Israel
   was often referred to as “the land of
               milk and honey.”

• Honey was valued highly and often used
     as a form of currency, tribute, or
  offering. In the 11th century A.D., German
    peasants paid their feudal lords in
    How Honey is Made
   • Bees perform the vital service of
    pollinating fruits, vegetables and
 other types of food producing plants in
        the course of honey making
• The nectar mixture they gather from
  the flowers is carried back to the hive
   and placed into the honeycomb cells
• Honeybees carry the nectar and mix it
 with enzymes in a pouch located in their
     body (which begins the process of
      changing the nectar into honey
 • The bees then evaporate much of the
    water out of the nectar mixture to
                 thicken it
     Fermentation of Honey
• Beekeepers gather the honey from
  the supers in the hive-A super is a
  section of the hive that contains
  several frames of honey in
  honeycombs
• The supers are taken to the honey
  house for extracting-A extractor
  is a machine that is made to spin
  the frames of honey until the
  honey spins out and drips down the
  sides of the extractor
Chemical Makeup




Chemical Characteristics
pH
Honey contains a number of acids which include amino
acids (0.05-0.1%)
and organic acids (0.57%, range: 0.17-1.17%). The average
pH of honey is 3.9
(with a typical range of 3.4 to 6.1).
Proteins, Amino Acids & Isoelectric Point
Protein 0.266%
Nitrogen 0.043%
Amino Acids 0.05 – 0.1%
Isoelectric Point 4.3
   Why is some honey light and
            some dark?
• The color and taste depends on the kinds of
  flower the nectar came from

• Clover makes a light colored, mild tasting honey
  that is usually found in grocery stores

• Another popular variety is Orange Blossom
  honey, it is usually darker that Clover
      References

   •www.queenbeejan.com
•www.homecooking.about.com
      •www.honey.com

				
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posted:11/1/2011
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