Adams Short Answer 417E3

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					Exam 3 Short answer questions                                 PIN:_______________

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44. (a). Label all the portions of the electrocardiogram and action potential indicated
above. (2 points).

(b) In the space below draw a pair of ECG profiles that indicate the predominant effect of
sotalol (Betapace). (1 point)

          Widened PR
                              Widened QT




                Widened QRS

(c). The ECG tracing below indicates a particular type of arrhythmia. What is this
arrhythmia (1 point).




               AV block


(d). Describe one drug that may be useful in treating the type arrhythmia that you have
described above. (1 point).

               Atropine
Adams Short Answer 417E3

   1.      Please list the enzymes responsible for the each reaction below.
           a. Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II (1 point)
                            Angiotensin converting enzyme

           b. Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I (1 point)
                                         Renin

   2.      Benazepril (Lotensin) is a pro-drug ACE inhibitor.
           a. Please draw the structure of the active drug produced by metabolism
              (partial structures are acceptable). (1 point)



          O      OCH2CH3                                           O     OH       + HOCH2CH3

                 N                                                       N
                 H                                                       H
        Benazepril          N                                                     N
        (Lotensin)   O                                                        O
                             CH2COOH                                              CH2COOH




           b. Why is benazepril given to patients as a pro-drug (i.e., metabolism is
              required for activity)? (1 point)

                         To increase oral bioavailability (increases lipophilicity to
                                        increase oral absorption).



   3.      Please give a specific favorable characteristic of an Angiotensin receptor
           blocker when compared to an Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. (1
           point)
                     ARB have fewer side effects, particularly those associated with
                      bradykinin like the cough and angioedema associated with
                                                 ACEI.

				
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