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Infertility Presentation

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					Feminine Infertility


     Maria Harter
    Rachel Teeter
    Brooke Bishop
Feminine Anatomy




www.humanillnesses.com/original/images
             General Definitions
•   Infertility
•   Primary Infertility
•   Secondary Infertility
•   Sterility
        Infertility Protein Cause
• Cks2
• Critical for both males and females
     Anatomical Causes of Infertility
•   Anovulation                •   Uterine Fibroids
•   Tubal Factor infertility   •   Asherman’s Syndrome
•   Endometriosis              •   Egg Quality
•   Uterine Polyp              •   Cervical Mucous
                               •   Ovarian Dysgenesis
                         Anovulation

• Causes:
  – Polycystic Ovarian
    Syndrome
  – Hormonal Causes




                                    Blue Circle is around ovary.
                            http://www.advancedfertility.com/pcos.htm
           Tubal Factor Infertility
• Blocked
• Tubal Scarring
   – Scar tissue
  being cut in
  picture.
• Pelvic
Endometriosis


                   http://www.advancedfertility.com/tubal.htm
              Endometriosis
• When the uterine lining breaks apart, attaches and
  grows in other parts of the body.
                    Uterine Polyps
• Overgrowth of Tissue.
• Large interfere with
  reproduction.




                                      This polyp occupied about 1/2 of the entire
                                      uterine cavity.

      http://www.advancedfertility.com/uterinepolyp.htm
   Uterine Fibroids
                            • Very common
                            • Benign
                            • Submucous fibroids




http://www.advancedfertility.com/uterinefibroid.htm
                 Asherman’s Syndrome
                                                • Intrauterine Adhesions
                                                • Scar Tissue




White patches are the scarred areas of
adhesions, pink is normal tissue, dark red is
blood.
                     http://www.advancedfertility.com/uterineadhesions.htm
               Egg Quality
• Quality and Quantity
• Age of the Woman
             Cervical Mucous
• Thick or poor quality
• Antibodies to Sperm
           Ovarian Dysgenesis
• mutation in second X chromosome
• leads to either no ovary formation or
  formation of streaked ovary
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=475561&blobtype=pdf
                Ovarian Dysgenesis




http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1982705&blobtype=pdf
               Ovarian Dysgenesis




http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1982705&blobtype=pdf
Hormonal Causes of Anovulation
– Not enough
   progesterone.
– Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
– High levels of prolactin
       Problems in Fertilization
• Fusion
• Improper pronuclear fusion
• Division Problems
                    Hydatiform Mole
• Female pronucleus is absent
• “Grape-like” placental appearance




http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/images/week2/hydatidiformmolelabel.jpg
         Cell Division Problems
• Anomalies in chromosome segragation
• ooplasmic anomalies
• Low cell levels of cytoplasmic proteins
       Mother’s Immune System
• Attacks at implantation
  – Day 7
• Day 6 – Embryo
  produces IDO
   – If embryo does not
     produce IDO…




                                  A six-day-old embryo nestles in the womb

           http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v443/n7110/full/443376a.html
      Treatments and Alternatives
• Fertility Treatments
    – Drugs
    – In Vitro Fertilization
    – Injections
•   Donor eggs and/or sperm
•   Embryo Adoption
•   Surrogates
•   Adoption
          Fertility Treatments
• Drugs
  – Ovulatory Problems
  – clomiphene citrate
  – gonadotropins
         In Vitro Fertilization
• Tubal Damage
• Definition
        Infertility Treatments
Ooplastic Injection
Germinal Vesicle Transfer
                           Donor Eggs & Sperm
     • Women and Men




http://www.kemeter.at/German/PhotoGallery/Fertilization/pa   http://syi.hkcampus.net/~syi-kc/m_sperm.htm
ges/A%20Mature%20Human%20Egg.htm
             Embryo Adoption
• In Vitro Fertilization
• Frozen Embryos
• Adoption




                           http://www.dataindustries.net/qhn/html/prenatal.html
                                          References
•   Alexander Williams. “Abortion Argument Unravels: How the unborn child defends itself against its mother, confirming that

    he/she is a separate human being from the start,” Creation, September-November 2005, 18-20.

•   http://www.advancedfertility.com/infertility.htm

•   http://www.americanfertility.com/faqs/11.php

•   http://www.americanfertility.com/services/female.php#fertilization

•   www.blackwell-synergy.com

•   http://www.embryoadoption.org/about/index.cfm

•   http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/infertility/DS00310/DSECTION=3

•   http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec22/ch254/ch254c.html

•   http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1982705&blobtype=pdf

•   www.scripps.edu
Any Questions?

				
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posted:11/1/2011
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