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									            Virginia Tech AE/ME
            Morphing Wing Project
                 Final Presentation




April 24, 2003    VT AE/ME Morphing Wing Team   1
 Morphing is defined as a change in the
 aircraft’s physical characteristics

• Smooth shape change of wing
  surfaces
                                  Soar, observe
• More efficient flight

• Reduced radar cross-section

                                Maneuverability
 There are two main types of morphing

Mission Morphing      Control Morphing

 • Aspect ratio      • Camber change
   change            • Twist change
 • Area change       • Continuous control
 • Dihedral change     surface change
Our first control morphing idea was to use
linkages off the servo to provide deflection

 – Pros
    • Simple to actuate
    • 180O deflection
    • Good Mechanical
      Advantage

 – Cons
    • Weak
    • Not enough room
      to fasten links
Further analysis showed that an interlocking
and jointed rib provided more reliable actuation


  – Pros
     • Increased Stability
     • Easy to assemble

  – Cons
     • Reduced deflection
       (30O)
     • Requires more
       actuator force
Time constraints and technical difficulties forced a
decision to only go with mission morphing design


 • The laser cam broke
 • Time restraints
 • Decided to buy same kit
 and alter as needed
BetaMax construction was modeled after
the Delta Vortex design


• Removed last rib

• Added telescoping wing

• No CG change
  mechanism
  A comparison of the structural differences
  between the Delta Vortex and the BetaMax




                    Delta Vortex BetaMax Retracted BetaMax Extended Maximum % Change
Weight (lb)             10.2           13.5              13.5              32
Surface Area (in^2)     1357           1367              1567              15
Static stability provides clues to flight
characteristics




Parameter                 Delta Vortex BetaMax Retracted BetaMax Extended
Neutral Point (in)             19             19                18
Center of Gravity (in)         22            20.75            20.75
Stability (%)                   8             4.7              7.4

 Neutral point and center of gravity are measured from the trailing edge
The telescoping wing was a preliminary
design concept last semester

 • Increased wingspan – benefits landing
   and low-speed cruise
 • Retract for increased maneuverability
The telescoping wings were developed in
several stages
•Wings were hot-wire cut from
R7 insulation foam
•The foam was coated in
fiberglass to make a rigid
structure
•Finally, plastic guide tubes were
inserted by drilling out the foam
•The guide tubes ride on twin
aluminum rails that are anchored
within the plane
A bi-lateral rack and pinion coupled to a slider
crank mechanism was used to move the wings

• Custom acrylic housing for
  the dual rack and pinion
  system

• Servo with the stops
  removed is used to run the
  wings in and out

• Kill switches maintain a
  maximum distance of travel
 Balance calculations were performed prior to
 first flight

             Delta Vortex I                  Beta Max II

• Center of Gravity is 22      • Center of Gravity is 20.5 inches
  inches from trailing edge      from trailing edge

• Neutral Point is 19 inches   • Neutral Point is 19 inches from
  from the trailing edge         the trailing edge

• 8 % Stability                • 4.7 and 7.4% Stability [in/out]

                               • Surface Area Wings +15%
We will collect data to compare all of our
designs

 Physical Data:           Performance Data:

• Airspeed               • Accelerations
• Control surface        • Body rates
  deflections/forces
  We needed a variety of instruments to
  find flight characterization data

• Pitot tube/Pressure Transducer– dynamic pressure
• Accelerometers – accelerations, forces
• Gyros – body angular rates
• Potentiometers - to measure control surface
  position
We found off-the-shelf items that will provide
us with the necessary data

                         Crossbow CXL-
Crossbow AD2000
                         10LP3 Triple Axis
Data Logger
                         Accelerometer
 We found off-the-shelf items that will provide
 us with the necessary data

Dwyer Standard Model 1/8”     Analog Devices Piezo-
pitot tube along with Dwyer   Electric Gyroscope
Differential Pressure
Transducer
We found off-the-shelf items that will provide
us with the necessary data

Radio Shack 5K-ohm      Signal Conditioning
potentiometer           Circuitry on a
                        breadboard
We instrumented each aircraft to record data
                                 Delta Vortex

        Throttle Potentiometer              Throttle
                                            Servo
    Pressure Transducer                         Tri-axial Accelerometer @
                                                C.G.

    Pitot Tube                                         Data Logger


Right Elevon                                                  Left Elevon
Potentiometer                                                 Potentiometer

  Right Elevon                                                Left Elevon
  Servo                                                       Servo

           Breadboard with                 2 Single Axis Angular
           Necessary Circuitry             Rate Sensors
We instrumented each aircraft to record data
                                  Beta Max

Throttle Potentiometer                        Throttle
                                              Servo
Tri-axial Accelerometer
                                                 Pressure Transducer
@ C.G.

    Pitot Tube                                           Breadboard with
                                                         Necessary Circuitry

Right Elevon
Potentiometer                                                  Left Elevon
                                                               Potentiometer
   Right Elevon
                                                                Left Elevon
   Servo
                                                                Servo

                         Data                2 Single Axis Angular
                         Logger              Rate Sensors
   Signal conditioning was necessary for
   several of the instruments

                    Unfiltered                                                    Filtered
                 acceleration data                                            acceleration data
         5                                                           5




                                                       a Accel (g)
ax (g)




         0                                                           0




                                                              x
     -5                                                              -5
             0   10   20       30       40   50   60                      0   10   20      30        40   50   60


         5                                                           5




                                                       a (g)
az (g)




         0                                                           0

                                                              z


     -5                                                              -5
             0   10   20       30       40   50   60                      0   10   20      30        40   50   60
                           Time (sec)                                                   Time (sec)
                  During the flights, we successfully collected
                  data from each of the instruments
                                 Delta Vortex Vertical Climb
                 100
                                                                         Delta Vortex loop and roll
p (deg/s)




                     0

            -100
                         0   5    10             15            20   25
                  50
     q (deg/s)




                     0


                 -50
                         0   5    10             15            20   25
                     4
             a (g)




                     2
                  z




                     0

                         0   5    10             15            20   25
                  80
                  60
        V (mph)




                  40
                  20
                     0
                         0   5    10             15            20   25
                     5
                     0
   e (deg)




                  -5
                 -10
                 -15
                         0   5    10             15            20   25
                                         Time (sec)
During the flights, we successfully collected
data from each of the instruments
                                      BetaMax Roll and Wing Extension
                 100

                    50
                                                                                  BetaMax Roll
p (deg/s)




                     0

                 -50

            -100

            -150
                         0   5   10      15      20       25      30    35   40

                    50
     q (deg/s)




                     0




                 -50
                         0   5   10      15      20       25      30    35   40


                     4


                     2
            a (g)
                 z




                     0


                    -2
                         0   5   10      15      20       25      30    35   40
Two flight attempts were performed with
the BetaMax

•Improper balancing resulted in a failed first flight


•BetaMax (version 1.0) vs.
Delta Vortex:
  • 50% heavier
  • 30% less elevon area
  • ~5% more statically
  stable (harder to rotate)
 The balance and weight problems were
 easily fixed by removing the added weight

• Reduced weight by 2 lbs

• Moved CG further back,
  lessening static margin

• Constructed new elevons
  with 11% more area than
                              Unfortunately, other problems arose
  those of the Delta Vortex
We have accomplished most of our
goals for this year

            Build and fly a conventional delta
            wing
            Gather performance data from
            conventional delta wing
            Build and fly morphing delta wing
            Gather performance data from
            morphing delta wing
            Compare data
We plan to fly the Delta Vortex and the
BetaMax one more time

•Will fly specific flight paths with both aircraft
•Fuel consumption will be measured and
compared
•Data will be analyzed
 by future teams


      Questions?

								
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