berg_balance_scale_interpretation

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					FALL PROOF™ PROGRAM: CENTER FOR SUCCESSFUL AGING                                CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON


                                                  BERG BALANCE SCALE (BBS)
                                            Interpretation of Individual Item Scores

   Item                                Possible Impairments                        Recommended Exercises

1. Sit to Stand                1. Lower and/or upper body weakness                 Wall sits; U and LB exercises with resistance.
                                                                                   (Quads, biceps/triceps, hip ab/dductors)
                               2. Poor dynamic COG control                         Seated/standing balance activities emphasizing
                                                                                   Forward weight shifts
                               3. Abnormal weight distribution                     Standing balance activities with EC
                                                                                   (controlled sway in A-P and lateral directions)


2. Stand for Two Minutes       1. Poor gaze stabilization                          Teach gaze fixation and stabilization techniques.
                               2. Lower body weakness                              Wall sits; LB exercises with resistance
                               3. Abnormal weight distribution in standing         COG standing balance activities


3. Sitting for Two Minutes     1. Poor trunk stabilization and/or UB weakness      UB exercises with resistance (own body); seated
                                                                                   balance activities on compliant surfaces.
                               2. Abnormal perception of true vertical             Stand against wall with EC; somatosensory cues


4. Stand to Sit                1. Poor dynamic COG control                         Seated/standing balance activities emphasizing
                                                                                   backward weight shifts.
                               2. Lower and/or upper body weakness                 U and LB exercises with resistance (own body/
                                                                                   theraband: emphasize eccentric component.
                               3. Poor trunk flexibility                           Flexibility exercises emphasizing trunk rotation/
                                                                                   flexion. Seated and standing.


5. Transfer (Chair to Chair)   1. Poor dynamic control of COG                      Seated/standing balance activities emphasizing
                                                                                   multidirectional weight shifts
                               2. Lower and/or upper body weakness                 U and LB exercises with resistance
FALL PROOF™ PROGRAM: CENTER FOR SUCCESSFUL AGING                                    CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON


                                              BERG BALANCE SCALE (BBS)
                                           Interpretation of Individual Item Scores

   Item                               Possible Impairments                             Recommended Exercises

6. Stand with EC (10 sec)             1. Poor use of somatosensory inputs.             Seated/standing balance activities with EC.
                                         Visual dependency and/or fear of falling      Verbally emphasize use of surface cues.
                                      2. Lower body weakness                           Wall sits; LB exercises with resistance

7. Stand with feet together (1 Min)   1. Poor COG control                              Standing balance activities with reduced BOS.
                                      2. Weak hip ab/dductors                          Lateral leg raises/weight shifts against resistance


8. Standing Forward Reach             1. Poor dynamic COG control                      Seated/standing COG activities emphasizing
                                         (Reduced Limits of Stability)                 leaning away from and back to midline
                                      2. Lower body weakness                           LB exercises with resistance (body/theraband)
                                                                                       (dorsiflexors; gastroc/soleus muscles)
                                      3. Reduced ankle ROM                             Flexibility exercises (dorsiflexion emphasized)


9. Pick Up Object                     1. Poor dynamic COG control                      Seated/standing COG activities emphasizing
                                                                                       leaning away from and back to midline
                                      2. Poor upper and lower body flexibility         Selected exercises to improve U and LB flexion
                                      3. Lower body weakness                           LB exercises with resistance (body/theraband)
                                      4. Vestibular impairment (dizziness?)            Head and eye movements:habituation exercises


10. Turn to Look Behind               1. Poor dynamic COG control                      Standing weight shifts in lateral direction
                                      2. Poor neck and/or trunk flexibility            Selected exercises emphasizing rotation of neck,
                                                                                       shoulder, and hips
                                      3. Lower body weakness                           LB exercises with resistance; ball movement
                                                                                       exercises in standing position.
FALL PROOF™ PROGRAM: CENTER FOR SUCCESSFUL AGING                                       CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON


                                              BERG BALANCE SCALE (BBS)
                                           Interpretation of Individual Item Scores

   Item                               Possible Impairments                                 Recommended Exercises

11. Turn in a Circle                  1. Poor dynamic COG control                          Standing weight transfer activities; gait
                                                                                           pattern enhancement (turns, directional changes)
                                      2. Vestibular impairment (dizziness)?                Head and eye movement coordination exercises
                                      3. Lower body weakness                               LB exercises with resistance; emphasize hip and
                                                                                           knee flexion; hip ab/dduction.

12. Dynamic Toe Touch                 1. Poor dynamic COG control                          Standing weight shifts in lateral/A-P directions
                                      2. Lower body weakness                               LB exercises with resistance; emphasize hip and
                                                                                           knee flexion; hip ab/dduction.


13. Tandem Stance                     1. Poor static and dynamic COG control               Standing A-P weight shifts and transfers;
                                                                                           reduced BOS activities.
                                      2. Lower body weakness                               LB exercises with resistance (body/theraband)
                                                                                           emphasize hip ab/dductors
                                      3. Poor gaze stabilization                           Practice focusing on visual targets in front of,
                                                                                           and at head height during standing and moving
                                                                                           activities.


14. Stand on One Leg                  1. Poor static and dynamic COG control               Standing A-P weight shifts and transfers;
                                                                                           reduced BOS activities
                                      2. Lower body weakness                               LB exercises with resistance (body/theraband)
                                                                                           emphasize hip ab/dductors
                                      4. Poor gaze stabilization                           Practice focusing on visual targets during
                                                                                           standing and moving activities.

Key: A-P = Anterior-posterior direction; BOS = Base of Support; COG = Center of Gravity; LB = Lower Body; U = Upper.

				
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