Informatika Slovak University of Technology Faculty of Material Science

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					Slovak University of Technology
Faculty of Material Science and Technology in Trnava

                 Manager ethics

    Discrimination and Equal Opportunity
 What is discrimination?
 How can we identify discrimination as the
  cause of racial disparities?
 What policies have been implemented to
  reduce discrimination?
What is discrimination?
   Three elements:
     Factual   element: any distinction, exclusion or
     Prohibited grounds: race, colour, sex, religion,
      political opinion, national extraction, social
      origin and any other ground identified at the
      national level
     Negative effect on equality of opportunity and
      treatment (whether or not intended)
What is discrimination?
   Any discrimination whether it is
     In law or in practice
     Direct or indirect
Examples: Direct discrimination
   Job advertisement excluding applicants of
    a certain gender, age or complexion
   Practice of hiring only persons of a certain
   Exclusion from certain public sector jobs
    due to political opinion, religion or ethnic
Examples: Direct discrimination

   Exclusion of women to enter the police
    force or fire brigades
   Restricting working time of women, e.g.
   Restricting women’s access to certain
Indirect discrimination
   Apparently neutral law or practice which
    has a disproportionate negative impact on
    a particular group protected by the
    Convention or by national legislation, and
    which has no objective job-related
Indirect discrimination
 Height or language requirements that are
  unrelated to job
 Working time arrangements that impair
  equal opportunities of persons with family
 Exclusion from domestic worker from
  labour legislation
Prohibited grounds of discrimination:
   Sex/gender discrimination
   Race and colour
   National extraction
   Political opinion
   Social origin
   Religion
   Age
   Disability
   State of health
   Family responsibilities
   Sexual orientation
   Nationality
   Trade union affiliation
What is not discrimination?
   Inherent requirements of the job

   Measures affecting an individual who is
    suspected of or engaged in activities prejudicial
    to the security of the State

   Special measures of protection and assistance
The pay gap
   Productivity related differences

   Job availability

   Job selection

   Pay structure

   Perceived labour costs

   Lack of awareness
Permissible pay differences
 Based on objective differences in the work

 Based on non-sex-based factors such as:
   Seniority
   Education
   Qualifications
   Experience
   Productivity
Methods of wage determination:
   Legislation
   Public service wage classifications
   Collective agreements
   Wage directives from wage boards
   Custom and practice
   Individual contracts
The ILO and equality
   “All human beings, irrespective of race,
    creed or sex, have the rights to pursue
    both their material well-being and their
    spiritual development in conditions of
    freedom and dignity, of economic security
    and equal opportunity”
ILO principles of equality of
opportunity and treatment
between men and women

It is a matter of human rights.
It is a matter of social justice and poverty
It is a matter of social and economic
Gender mainstreaming
 It is the strategy of introducing a gender
  perspective in all areas and at all levels.
 Any policy, project, programme and
  activity must integrate the gender
  dimension as an integral component of the
  pursued strategy.
Common forms of discrimination

   Jobs or occupations with a female denomination

   Under-evaluation of certain jobs or occupations

   Invisibility of the qualities, tasks, skills & efforts

   Vertical & horizontal occupational segregation
Thank you for your attention.


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