Digestive System Terminology by cuiliqing

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									Digestive System Terminology
            Digestive System
• Referred to by many titles: Digestive Tract,
  and the Gastrointestinal System/Tract, a title
  which refers directly to two of its major
  organs.
• Many parts:
• Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: oral cavity,
  pharynx, esophagus, and stomach
• Lower GI tract: small and large intestines
• Accessory organs: salivary glands, liver,
  gallbladder, pancreas
                      PHARYNG-
   STOMAT-
 OR-
                          GASTR-

           ESOPHAG-
                         ANTR-


                         COL(ON)-

DUODEN-
                         COL(ON)-

COL(ON)-
                           JEJUN-

                          ILE-

CEC-
                         SIGM-


             AN-         RECT-

                        PROCT-
            PALAT
            -
GINGIV-
                    UVUL-


 LABI-               GLOSS-
                      LINGU-

SIAL-



                            CHOLEDOCH-/CHOLEANGI-
HEPAT-


                            CHOLEDOCH-

CHOLE-
                                 PANCREAT-
CYST-


                               ABDOMIN-
 PYLOR-                        LAPAR-
                               CELI-




APPENDIC-
Combining Forms for the Oral Cavity
Mouth, opening STOMA-    stomatogastric pertaining to the
Greek          STOMAT-   mouth and stomach
                         stomatoglossitis inflammation of the
                         mouth and tongue
Mouth, opening OR-       oral
Latin                    orolingual pertaining to the mouth
                         and tongue
Lip Greek     CHEIL-     cheilitis inflammation of the lips
                         cheilostomatoplasty plastic surgery
                         of the mouth and lips
Lip Latin     LABI-      labiodental pertaining to the lips and
                         teeth
                         labiogingival pertaining to the lips
                         and gums
                         labioglossopharyngeal pertaining to
                         the lips, tongue and pharynx
Tooth/Teeth   DONT-     anodontia                oligodontia
Greek                   exodontics               orthodontist


Tooth/Teeth   DENT-     dentist                  dentogenesis
Latin                   dentitis
Gum (of the   GINGIV-   gingivalgia pain in the gums
mouth)                  gingivectomy removal of (part of) the gum
                        gingivitis inflammation of the gum
                        gingivoglossitis inflammation of the gums and
                        tongue
Tongue        GLOSS-    glossopyrosis a burning sensation of the tongue
Greek                   hypoglossal situated under the tongue
                        subglossal beneath or concerning the area
                        beneath the tongue

Tongue Latin LINGU-     sublingual beneath or concerning the area
                        beneath the tongue
                        linguogingival pertaining to the tongue and
                        gingiva/gums
Other Comb. Forms for the Upper GI Tract
Esophagus          ESOPHAG-   esophagoscopy visual examination of the
                              esophagus
                              periesophagitis inflammation of the tissues
                              around the esophagus
                              esophagogastroanastomosis a joining of the
                              esophagus and the stomach
Stomach Greek GASTR-          gastroptosis                 gastrectasis
                              gastroenteritis
Upper orifice of   CARDI-     cardiospasm achalasia (failure to relax) of the
the stomach                   esophagus
                   cardia
Pylorus            PYLOR-     cardiopyloric pertaining to the cardiac and
                              pyloric ends of the stomach
                              pyloroduodenitisi nflammation of the mucosa
                              of the pyloric outlet of the stomach and
                              duodenum
                              pylorostenosis abnormal narrowing or
                              stricture of the pyloric orifice
              Viscus, Viscera
• General term for an internal organ
  (evisceration)
• Combining form from Greek
  – SPLANCHN-
     • splanchnemphraxis obstruction of any internal
       organ
     • splanchectopia dislocation of a viscus or of the
       viscera
Combining Forms for the Lower GI Tract
(Small)     ENTER-    enterorrhaphy
intestine             enterectasis
                      enterectomy

Duodenum    DUODEN-   duodenectasis chronic dilation of the duodenum
(12)                  duodenitis inflammation of the duodenum
                      duodenoenterostomy the formation of a passage
                      between the duodenum and the intestine

Jejunum     JEJUN-    jejunostomy surgical creation of an opening into
                      the jejunum.
                      duodenojejunostomy surgical creation of a
                      passage between the duodenum and the jejunum

Ileum       ILE-      ileocolic pertaining to the ileum and colon.
                      ileitis inflammation of the ileum
                      ileocolostomy an anastomosis between the ileum
                      and the colon
 Combining Forms for Accessory Organs
Liver    HEPAT-        hepatology
                       hepatomegaly
                       hepatectomy
Pancreas PANCRE(AT)- pancreolysis destruction of the pancreatic
                     tissues
                     pancreatolith pancreatic stone
                     pancreatoduodenostomy surgical anastomosis
                     of the pancreatic duct with the duodenum
Spleen   LIEN-         lienomalacia splenomalacia, softening of the
         SPLEN-        spleen
                       lienopancreatic relating to the spleen and
                       pancreas
Appendix APPENDIC-     appendicitis
                       appendectomy
                       appendalgia
                       appendicectasis
Gallbladder CHOLECYST- cholecystolithiasis
                       cholecystectomy
                       cholecystitis

Duct          -DOCH-     silaodochitis; sialodochoplasty
                         choledochocele
Bile duct     CHOLEDOCH- choledochal pertaining to the
                         common bile duct
                         choledochectomy removal of (part
                         of) the common bile duct
                         choledocholithiasis formation of
                         calculi in the common bile duct
Bile vessel   CHOLANGI-   cholangiography
                          cholangioma
                          cholangiolitis
Colon       COL-,    colostomy
            COLON-   coloileal
                     colonopathy
Sigmoid     SIGM-    sigmoiditis inflammation of the
colon                sigmoid colon
                     sigmoidopexy fixation of the
                     sigmoid colon by suturing it to the
                     presacral fascia
Cecum         CEC-   cecoptosis displacement or falling
(blind) Latin        of the cecum
                     cecorrhaphy suture of the cecum
                     cecectomy removal of (part of) the
                     cecum
Cecum       TYPHL-   typhlitis
(blind)              typhlectasis
Greek
Rectum      RECT-        colorectal pertaining to the colon and the rectum
Latin                    rectostenosis stricture of the rectum
                         rectorrhaphy proctorrhaphy
                         rectocystotomy an incision of the bladder through the
                         rectum, usually to remove a stone
Rectum or   PROCT-       proctoscopy visual examination of the rectum
Anus                     proctology the phase of medicine dealing with
Greek                    treatment of diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus
                         proctosigmoidoscopy visual examination of the
                         rectum and sigmoid colon by use of a sigmoidoscope



Anus (ring) *AN-         anoscope speculum for examining the anus and
Latin                    lower rectum
                         anorectal pertaining to both the anus and rectum
                         anoplasty reconstructive surgery of the anus
Sphincter   SPHINCTER-   sphincter ani sphincter of the anus
muscle                   sphincterismus a spasm of the sphincter ani muscles
                         sphincteritis inflammation of the sphincter
Abdominal Cavity      CELI-       celioenterotomy an incision through the
Greek                             abdominal wall to access the intestines
                                  celiogastrostomy the surgical formation of a
                                  permanent gastric fistula through the abdominal
                                  wall
                                  celiotomy



Abdomen            LAPAR-         laparoenterotomy an opening into the intestinal
(operations                       cavity by incision through the loins
through abdominal                 laparogastrostomy the surgical formation of a
wall), flank Greek                permanent gastric fistula through the abdominal
                                  wall

Abdomen Latin         ABDOMIN -   abdominocentesis
                                  abdominoplasty
(Abdominal)           VENTR-      ventrotomy-- celiotomy
Cavity, belly Latin               ventrofixation
         Processes or Conditions
Digest           PEPS-,     peptogenic/peptogenous producing
                 PEPT-      peptones and pepsin,promoting
                            digestion.
                            dyspepsia painful digestion

Rinse out, inject CLY(S)-   clysis (pl. clyses) injection of fluid into
fluid                       the body other than orally
                            proctoclysis hydration of patients using
                            a continuous infusion of fluids into the
                            rectum and colon
                            hypodermoclysis the treatment of
                            dehydration by injecting fluids into the
                            subcutaneous tissues
                             Senses
Taste             GEUS(T)-   ageusia absence of (the sense of taste)
                             dysgeusia perversion of the sense of taste
                             so that normal tastes are interpreted as
                             unpleasant
                             oxygeusia abnormally keen sense of taste
Sense of smell;   OSM-       osmodysphoria a deep-seated and
odor                         abnormal dislike of certain odors
                             parosmia any disorder or perversion of the
                             sense of smell; a false sense of odors or
                             perception of those that do not exist
                             pseudosmia an olfactory hallucination or
                             perversion of the sense of smell

Sense of smell    OSPHR-     osphresis the sense of smell
                             parosphresia/parosphresis parosmia
                             osphresiology the study of odors and the
                             sense of smell
                     Substances
Bile Greek   CHOLE-      cholepoiesis the production of bile
                         acholia absence or failure of secretion
                         of bile
                         hypercholia excessive secretion of
                         bile

Bile Latin   BILI-       biliary afflicted with biliousness
                         bilious full of bile
                         biligenesis the formation of bile


Flesh        CREAT-      creatorrhea the presence of
                         undigested muscle fibers in the feces,
                         seen in some cases of pancreatic
                         disease
Excrement, fecal   COPR-   coprolith hard, inspissated feces
matter Greek               coprology scientific study and analysis
                           of the feces
                           coprolalia the use of vulgar, obscene,
                           or sacrilegious language, seen in
                           schizophrenia and Tourette's syndrome
                           copremesis the vomiting of fecal
                           material


Excrement, fecal   FEC-    defecation evacuation of the bowels
matter Latin               fecaloid resembling feces

Excrement, fecal   SCAT-   scatoscopy the examination of feces
matter Greek               for diagnostic purposes
                           scatology scientific study and analysis
                           of the feces
Saliva Greek            PTYAL-   aptyalia
                                 hypoptyalism
                                 ptyalolithiasis

Saliva, salivary duct   SIAL-    sialogenous forming saliva
                                 sialoschesis suppression or
                                 retention of saliva
                                 sialoncus a tumor of a salivary
                                 gland



Ferment, enzyme,        ZYM-     zymogen a protein that
fermentation                     becomes an enzyme
                                 zymolysis the changes
                                 produced by an enzyme; the
                                 action of enzymes
           Terms: Processes
• metabolism: all energy and material
  transformations that occur within living
  cells. Two divisions:
     • catabolism the destructive phase of metabolism;
       the opposite of anabolism
     • anabolism the building of body tissues; the
       constructive phase of metabolism by which cells
       take from the blood nutrients required for repair or
       growth, and convert these inorganic chemicals into
       cell products or parts of living cells
         Terms: Processes
• peristalsis the movement by which the
  alimentary canal and other tubular organs
  that have both longitudinal and circular
  muscle fibers propel their contents; it
  consists of a wave of contraction passing
  along the tube for variable distances
• defecation the act of expelling feces
  through the rectum
                    Disorders
• phag- eat, swall
  – aphagia lit. without swallowing, inability to swallow
  – dysphagia difficult swallowing
• peps- digest
  – apepsia
  – dyspepsia
• geus-
  – ageusia
  – dysgeusia
  – heterogeusia
                     Disorders
•   emesis
•   anorexia/parorexia
•   colic
•   diverticula/diverticulosis/diverticulitis
•   dysentery
•   pyrosis
•   -odynia
•   -algia
•   -rrhea
               Surgical Terms
• a veritable “alphabet soup” – long terms, but easy to
  understand if you divide them into their components
• hepatocholangiostomy
• esophagogastroanastomosis
• esophagogastrostomy
• esophagojejunogastrostomosis
• cholecystojejunostomy
• jejunocecostomy
• jejunoileostomy
• duodenoileostomy

								
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