Docstoc

Gastrointestinal_ Dermal and Eye ToxicityB

Document Sample
Gastrointestinal_ Dermal and Eye ToxicityB Powered By Docstoc
					Gastrointestinal, Dermal and
        Eye Toxicity
               Overview
• I. Gastrointestinal System
• II. Dermal System
• III. Eye
          I. Gastrointestinal System
   • Purpose:
       – Motility
       – Secretion
       – Digestion
       – Absorption
   • Small intestine



http://intensivecare.hsnet.nsw.gov.au/five/images/a
bdominalorgans.jpg
                Cholera
• Vibrio cholerae
• Toxins cause small
  intestine to secrete
  water
• Up to 20L of diarrhea
  in 24 hours
• Severe dehydration      http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_xHQgaq
                          FbFvE/RvmPdBrezkI/AAAAAAAA
  and circulatory         BSc/p_vIo3_Zzgg/s400/choleraag
  collapse.               ent.jpg
                              2007
• 53 Countries reported 177,963 cases
• 4,031 deaths
• 99% of cases came from Africa




    http://www.nathnac.org/travel/factsheets/images/cholera.gif
• Cholera
  Treatment:
  – Supportive fluids
  – Antibiotics
  – Vaccine-not
    available in U.S
           Food Poisoning
• Bacteria produce toxins
  – Staphylococcus aureus
  – E. coli
  – Bacillus
  – Salmonella
            E. coli O157:H7
• Particularly dangerous strain
• Produces Shiga toxin
• CDC estimates 70,000 cases annually in
  the United States.
• E. coli O157:H7 bacteria live in the
  intestines of cattle, chickens, deer, sheep,
  goats, and pigs.
• The animals are reservoirs
     Recent E. coli Outbreaks
• http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/outbreaks.html
         II. Dermal Toxicity
• Physical Barrier
• Prevents Dehydration
• Contains Phase I and II biotransformation
  enzymes
  Toxic Responses of the Skin
• A. Contact Dermatitis
• B. Chemical Burns
• C. Phototoxicity
  – Sunburns
  – phytophotdermatitis
• D. Chloroacne
• E. Hyper/Hypopigementation
A. Contact Dermatitis
Poison Oak
         B. Chemical Burns
Common Household Causes:
Bleach
Toilet Bowl Cleaner
Pool Chlorinators
Metal Cleaners

                           Ethylene Oxide
Mustard Gas
C. Phototoxicity-Sunburns
                Sunburn Damage
• Outer layer of
  the skin
• Tiny blood
  vessels
  underneath
• Elastic fibers in
  the skin
  – yellowish,
    wrinkled skin.

http://www.dangeroussunburn.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/sunburn.jpg
        Just Redness, Right?
• If severe:
  – Fever
  – Chills
  – Nausea and/or vomiting
  – Dehydration
  – Debilitating pain
  – DNA DamageCancer
   Preventing Sunburns (CDC)
• Stay out of the sun between 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.
• Use sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher, with
  UVA and UVB protection.
• Wear clothing to protect exposed skin.
• Wear a hat with a wide brim to shade the
  face, head, ears, and neck.
• Wear sunglasses that wrap around and
  block as close to 100% of both UVA and
  UVB rays as possible.
• Seek shade, especially during midday hours.
        C. Phototoxicity-
       Phytophotodermatitis
• Chemicals can be activated by sunlight
• Can cause redness, blisters, pigmentation
  changes
• Psoralens in lime and celery leaves and
  fruit are photoactivated
            D. Chloracne
• Viktor Yushchenko: Ukranian president
• 1000 times normal dioxin concentration
• Second highest levels ever measured in
  human
   E. Hyper/Hypopigmentation
• Autoimmune
• Heavy Metals
• Medications
IV. Eye Toxicity
             Eye Defense
• Eyelid
• Blink Response

• Not effective against accidental splashes!

• Effects range from irritation to permanent
  loss of vision due to congealed proteins,
  nerve damage, etc.
                 Cornea
• Transparent to allow light to pass through.
• Primary site of exposure.
• Damage can cause permanent loss of
  vision due to scarring.
        Lacrimating Agents
• Tear Gas
• Pepper Spray
• Onions




                 http://www.daviddarling.info/images/lacrimal_gland.gif
                Review
• I. Gastrointestinal System
• II. Dermal System
• III. Eye

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:3
posted:11/1/2011
language:English
pages:29