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					Planning for Instruction

  Instructional Objectives
         Skill Hierarchy
      “How to make a pizza”

             Make pizza

Use oven     Make dough        Make sauce



     Read recipe       Measure ingredients

     Decode abbreviations
                   Objectives

   Explain the “structure” of instruction.
   Define an instructional objective.
   Identify the need for instructional objectives.
   Identify the components of a well-written
    instructional objective.
   Distinguish between poorly-written and well-
    written instructional objectives.
   Demonstrate how to write instructional
    objectives correctly.
            Structure of Instruction

Program: Agricultural Biotechnology
Course: Plant Biotechnology 3
Unit of Instruction: Plant Reproduction
Lesson: Genetics
Outcome: Students understand the process of gene-
  splitting in developing new varieties of plants
Objectives:
  1. Distinguish between DNA and RNA.
  2. Define gene splitting.
  3. Construct a model of DNA.
  4. Cross-pollinate two varieties of flowers.
     Define an Instructional Objective

 A description of a performance you want
  learners to be able to exhibit before you
  consider them competent.

 Describes result of instruction.
    Define an Instructional Objective

 Intended to let others know what you
  intend for your students to achieve.
    Intended outcomes

    Measurable

    Student-oriented
    I.D. the Need for Objectives

 Organization -- outline, guideline,
  road map (for both teachers and
  students)

 Planning for Instruction -- content,
  materials, methods, etc.

 Assessment -- did we accomplish?
     I.D. Components of an Objective


 Performance -- what should the learner
  be able to do? (most important)

 Conditions -- under what conditions
  should the learner be able to do it?

 Criterion -- how well must it be done?
      I.D. Components of an Objective


 Performance -- Ask: “What will the learner be
  DOING in demonstrating achievement of the
  objective?”
     Overt Performance – can be directly seen
         Psychomotor skills – weld a bead, etc.
     Covert Performance – can’t be directly seen (must
      use another action to display)
         Cognitive – identify (circle correct response)
         Affective - feelings
       Example of Applying a
          Performance

 What’s wrong with this objective?
  “The learner will understand the
  importance of writing objectives.”

 How will we know if the learner
  understands?
            Write Objective -- DOING
         Re-written Objective

 “The learner will write three objectives.”

 What performance is stated?
  write

 What is the main intent?
  include performance, conditions, & criteria for
  acceptance
     I.D. Components of an Objective

 Performance

 Condition -- Ask: “What are the
  condition(s) for completion of the
  objective?”
      Example of applying a condition

 Using your notes, correctly identify three types
  of interest approaches.

 What is the condition?
  Using your notes

 What is the performance?
  Identifying types of interest approaches
      I.D. Components of an Objective


   Performance
   Condition

   Criterion --
    – Ask: “How well should it done before I’m
      satisfied?”
    – Only impose criteria which are important
Types of Criteria


    Speed
   Accuracy
    Quality
   Others?
    Example of writing a criterion

 Speed -- “Within 30 seconds, identify ten
  breeds of sheep from slides.”

 Accuracy -- “Correctly identify ten breeds of
  sheep from slides.”

 Quality -- “Identify ten breeds of sheep using
  major descriptors from the National Sheep
  Registry.”
    How many objectives should
     comprise a problem area?



It depends upon the nature
      of the objectives

      Usually 3 - 10
               Key Points

 A meaningfully stated objective is one
  that succeeds in communicating your
  intent.

 Someone else should be able to use
  your plan to present the material and
  reach the same conclusion.
     Some Words Are Open to
       Many Interpretations!
 To know                To grasp the
 To understand           significance of
 To really              To enjoy
  understand             To believe
 To appreciate          To have faith in
 To fully appreciate    To internalize
       Words Open to Fewer
         Interpretations
 To write       To construct
 To recite      To build
 To identify    To compare
 To sort        To contrast
 To solve       To smile
    Where do objectives come
             from?
 Derived from two general sources:

     Personaldesires: accomplishing
     something on your own

     Externalneeds: the learning need
     behind the task
                   Objectives

   Explain the “structure” of instruction.
   Define an instructional objective.
   Identify the need for instructional objectives.
   Identify the components of a well-written
    instructional objective.
   Distinguish between poorly-written and well-
    written instructional objectives.
   Write instructional objectives correctly.

				
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posted:10/31/2011
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