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Edward Chance Tolman Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism Time Line of Tolman’s Life Born in Newton, 1911: Earned BS Mass. April 14, 1886 from Mass. Institute Died Nov. 19, 1959 of Tech. in electrochemistry 1912: Introduced to Gestalt psychology 1915: Earned Doctorate from Harvard-retroactive inhibition Tolman’s Career 1915: Began teaching at 1932: Wrote Purposive Northwestern Univ. Behavior in Animals and 1918: Began teaching at Men. Univ. of Calif. Berkeley. 1937: Presented 1923: Returned to Presidential address to Giessen in Germany to APA. Pres. Of APA. study Gestalt psychology. 1940: Chairman of 1930: Studied the role of Lewin’s Society for the reward in experiments of Psychological Study of maze running with rats. Social Issues. 1942: Published Drives Toward War Tolman’s Career con’t. 1946: Tolman’s latent 1957: Received APA learning experiments award for distinguished criticized by Spence and scientific contributions. Lippitt. 1958: Wrote Behavior 1948: Wrote “Cognitive and Psycholgidcal Man; Maps in Rats and Men” Essays in Motivation and 1949: Wrote “There is Learning More than One Kind of 1959: Received honorary Learning”. LL.D.-Univ. of Calif. The Blocked-Path Study Rat is released into maze. development of Has several routes in cognitive maps. which to choose from. Cognitive maps look at relationships between Allowed to run freely goals and behaviors as until it has learned maze. well as knowledge of the Barriers are placed in environment. some paths. Rats develop series of Paths vary in length. expectations with respect to behavior-sign Conclusions is that significant relationships. learning involves An Expectations Study Everything behaves as if they have expectations. Example: A banana is placed under a cup in full view of a monkey. When the monkey is not looking, the banana is replaced with lettuce. The monkey turns the cup over expecting to find a banana. When it does not, it becomes agitated. A Place Learning Study Cognitive Map of the Area *Mental representation of a physical environment where goals are reached. *Internal representation of relationships between behavior and goals. Related Expectancies Directed Behavior A Latent Learning Experiment Rats spent several There is delayed nights in mazes with- learning which is out being fed. called latent. ½ found their way to Latent learning shows the goal box without distinction between reinforcement. performance and They develop learning. cognitive maps without rewards. Four Summary Principles Behavior is purposive Behavior is cognitive Emphasis on molar aspects of behavior Reinforcement establishes and confirms expectancies Contributions Tolman is best remembered for being a pioneer in cognitive psychology. Cognitive maps were a precursor to concepts of spatial memory and spatial thinking. Created a cognitive theory of learning. He was well known for his experiments using rats and maze running. “In the end the only sure criteria is to have fun. And I have had fun.” Tolman Edward Chace Tolman-another neobehaviorist- deliberately gave behaviorism a different twist; he gave it a purpose (Lefrancois, 2000).
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