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Edward Chance Tolman

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									Edward Chance Tolman


Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism
     Time Line of Tolman’s Life
   Born in Newton,           1911: Earned BS
    Mass. April 14, 1886       from Mass. Institute
   Died Nov. 19, 1959         of Tech. in
                               electrochemistry
                              1912: Introduced to
                               Gestalt psychology
                              1915: Earned
                               Doctorate from
                               Harvard-retroactive
                               inhibition
               Tolman’s Career
   1915: Began teaching at        1932: Wrote Purposive
    Northwestern Univ.              Behavior in Animals and
   1918: Began teaching at         Men.
    Univ. of Calif. Berkeley.      1937: Presented
   1923: Returned to               Presidential address to
    Giessen in Germany to           APA. Pres. Of APA.
    study Gestalt psychology.      1940: Chairman of
   1930: Studied the role of       Lewin’s Society for the
    reward in experiments of        Psychological Study of
    maze running with rats.         Social Issues.
                                   1942: Published Drives
                                    Toward War
         Tolman’s Career con’t.
   1946: Tolman’s latent         1957: Received APA
    learning experiments           award for distinguished
    criticized by Spence and       scientific contributions.
    Lippitt.                      1958: Wrote Behavior
   1948: Wrote “Cognitive         and Psycholgidcal Man;
    Maps in Rats and Men”          Essays in Motivation and
   1949: Wrote “There is          Learning
    More than One Kind of         1959: Received honorary
    Learning”.                     LL.D.-Univ. of Calif.
The Blocked-Path Study
   Rat is released into maze.        development of
   Has several routes in            cognitive maps.
    which to choose from.           Cognitive maps look at
                                     relationships between
   Allowed to run freely            goals and behaviors as
    until it has learned maze.       well as knowledge of the
   Barriers are placed in           environment.
    some paths.                     Rats develop series of
   Paths vary in length.            expectations with respect
                                     to behavior-sign
   Conclusions is that              significant relationships.
    learning involves
        An Expectations Study
   Everything behaves as if they have
    expectations.
    Example: A banana is placed under a cup
    in full view of a monkey. When the
    monkey is not looking, the banana is
    replaced with lettuce. The monkey turns
    the cup over expecting to find a banana.
    When it does not, it becomes agitated.
        A Place Learning Study
   Cognitive Map of the Area
    *Mental representation of a physical
    environment where goals are reached.
    *Internal representation of relationships
    between behavior and goals.
   Related Expectancies
   Directed Behavior
    A Latent Learning Experiment
   Rats spent several         There is delayed
    nights in mazes with-       learning which is
    out being fed.              called latent.
   ½ found their way to       Latent learning shows
    the goal box without        distinction between
    reinforcement.              performance and
   They develop                learning.
    cognitive maps
    without rewards.
       Four Summary Principles
   Behavior is purposive

   Behavior is cognitive

   Emphasis on molar aspects of behavior

   Reinforcement establishes and confirms
    expectancies
              Contributions
   Tolman is best remembered for being a
    pioneer in cognitive psychology.
   Cognitive maps were a precursor to
    concepts of spatial memory and spatial
    thinking.
   Created a cognitive theory of learning.
   He was well known for his experiments
    using rats and maze running.
   “In the end the only sure criteria is to have fun.
    And I have had fun.”
                        Tolman

Edward Chace Tolman-another neobehaviorist-
  deliberately gave behaviorism a different twist;
  he gave it a purpose (Lefrancois, 2000).

								
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