Stress Prone and Stress Resistant Personalities

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					      Chapter 6: Stress-Prone and
     Stress-Resistant Personalities
As I examined my own position, I realized that the
 preliminary period of my persecution was
 drawing to a close. Whatever lay ahead, I would
 have to redouble my efforts to frustrate my
 persecutors’ attempt to incriminate me. As long
 as they did not kill me, I would not give
 mood was not one of fear and defeat, but one of
 resolution.                  - Nien Cheng
Personality is thought to be comprised of
  – traits
  – characteristics
  – behaviors
  – expressions
  – moods
  – feelings
    (as perceived by others)

The complexity of one’s personality is
 thought to be shaped by:
  – genetic factors
  – family dynamics
  – social influences
  – personal experiences
     Personality Types & Stress
   Type A behavior
   Codependent personality
   Helpless-hopeless personality
   Hardy personality
   Type R personality (sensation
             Type A Behavior

   time urgency
   polyphasia
   ultra-competitiveness
   rapid speech patterns
   manipulative control
   hyperaggressiveness and free-floating
   Hostile aggression – #1 CHD predictor
    Social Influences – Type A

 Material wealth
 Immediate gratification
 Competitiveness
 People as numbers
 Secularization
 Atrophy of the body and right brain
 Television watching
    Codependent Personality Traits
   ardent approval seekers
   super-overachievers
   crisis managers
   devoted loyalists
   perfectionists
   martyrs/manipulators
   “victims”
   reactionaries
   inferiority/inadequacy
     Codependent Personality
 External referencing
 Lack of emotional boundaries
 Impression management
 Mistrust of one’s own perceptions
 Martyr syndrome
 Lack of spiritual health
        Codependents Fears

 Fear of rejection
 Fear of the unknown
 Fear of failure

     Need   to be needed
    Helpless-Hopeless Personality

   a.k.a.
      Learned Helplessness
      The Theory of Attribution
      Locus of control
Learned Helplessness Develops:

 When individuals experience uncontrollable
  life events.
 When individuals believe they can do
  nothing to change the outcome of the
 When individuals develop inappropriate
  expectations that outcomes of future events
  will also be beyond their control.
          Learned Helplessness
   Motivational deficits
    – apathy, listlessness, “giving up”
   Cognitive deficits
    – decreased ability to learn new responses
   Emotional/Affective deficits
    – depression, lowered self-competence
           Learned Helplessness
Internal/External Global/Specific         Stable/Unstable

“I control what      “This event has      “Things will
happens to me.”      huge effects.”       always be like
       “The world      “This event has
     controls what    limited effects.”          “Things can
   happens to me”                                   change.”

     Personal            Pervasive        Relatively permanent
            Learned Helplessness
   When a bad thing happens, do you think it will just be a
    bad day?
   Do you succeed because you are smart? Lucky this time?
    Or because things just happened to work out?
   Do you fail because you are stupid? Because life is unfair?

 “I failed the test because I’m stupid – I can’t pass any
  tests.” (internal-stable-global)
 “Everyone who took the exam with me failed: that test was
  unfair – I’ll pass other tests.” (external-unstable-specific
         Hardy Personality:
    A Stress Resilient Personality

   Commitment
   Control
                    The 3 “C’s”   C
   Challenge
           Hardy / Type A

Resilient people may have many “Type
 A” traits……but MINUS feelings of

Resilient people enjoy life and hurry in
 order to experience more. They love
     Type “R” personality:
       sensation seekers
Zuckerman identified the sensation-
seeking personality, as those
people who seek thrills and
sensations but take calculated risks
in their endeavors; they appear to
be dominated by an adventurous
    The Bottom-Line Defense
Basic elements of high self-esteem:
  – connectedness
  – uniqueness
  – personal power
  – models / mentors
     » Be OK with the fact that there are
       some things over which we have NO
          Raise and/or Maintain
   No criticism
   Positive reinforcements and affirmations
   Avoid “should haves”
   Focus on internal self
   Avoid comparisons
   Diversify
   Improve connectedness
   Avoid self-victimization
   Know your value!
how you perceive yourself

 how you value yourself

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