20060724_阮惠嵐_Research on Cognitive Load Theory and Its Design Implications for E-learning

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					   Research on Cognitive Load Theory and Its
   Design Implications for E-Learning



Van Merriënboer, J.J.G., & Ayres, P. (2005). Research on cognitive load theory
and its design implications for e-learning. Educational Technology, Research and
Development, 53(3), 5-13.

                                                   Advisor : Ming-Puu Chen
                                                   Reporter : Hui-Lan Juan
Outline

   Brief description of assumptions regarding
    memory systems and learning processes.
   Different types of cognitive load.
   Design implications for (adaptive) e-learning.
Cognitive Load Theory

   Working memory with a very limited capacity
    when dealing with novel information.
   Long-term memory is not to limitations.
   Schemata are used to organize and store
    knowledge.
   Schemata may become automated if they
    are repeatedly and successful applied.
Different types of cognitive load

   Intrinsic cognitive load 內在認知負載
       Working memory load may be affected by the
        intrinsic nature of the learning tasks themselves.
       It is determined by the interaction between the
        nature of the materials being learned and the
        level of expertise of the learner.
Different types of cognitive load (cont.)

   Extraneous cognitive load外在認知負載
       It is associated with process that are not directly
        necessary for learning and can be altered by
        instructional interventions.
Different types of cognitive load (cont.)

   Germane cognitive load 增生認真負載
       It is associated with process that are directly
        relevant to learning, such as schema
        construction and automation.
Contributions to the special issue

   There is a shift in focus from studying
    written material to working on online
    learning tasks.
   Recent studies focus on short laboratory
    experiments and more on real course.
   Instructional methods that work well for
    novice learners may have no positive or
    even negative effects when learners acquire
    more expertise.
Dealing with high-element-interactivity
materials: intrinsic cognitive load

   Many e-learning applications are built
    around complex learning tasks, which are
    characterized by a large number of
    interacting elements.
   The contribution to this special issue:
       “The Impact of Sequencing and Prior Knowledge on
        Learning Mathematic Through Spreadsheet Applications”
Dealing with learners’ motivation to
learn: Germane cognitive load

   Increasing the variability of practice is one
    effective way to provoke students to
    generalize and discriminate cognitive
    schemas, which is a schema construction
    process associated with germane cognitive
    load.
   Several other instructional manipulations
    that stimulate students’ effortful schema
    construction processes
Dealing with learners’ motivation to
learn: Germane cognitive load (cont.)

   The contribution to this special issue:
       “A motivational perspective on the relation between mental
        effort and performance: optimizing learners; involvement
        in instructional conditions.”
       “Cognitive load and learning effects of having students
        organize pictures and words in multimedia environments:
        the role of student interactivity and feedback.”
       “Enabling, facilitating and inhibiting effects of animations in
        multimedia learning: Why reduction of cognitive load can
        have negative results on learning.”
       “The function of annotations in the comprehension of
        scientific texts: cognitive load effects and the impact of
        verbal ability.”
Dealing with Expertise Development:
toward adaptive e-learning

   Expertise reversal effect
   This suggests that a good instructional strategy for
    teaching problem solving starts with the
    presentation of worked examples and smoothly
    proceeds to independent problem solving if learners
    acquire more expertise.
   The contribution to this special issue:
       “Instructional design for advanced learners: establishing
        connections between the theoretical frameworks of
        cognitive load and deliberate practice.”
       “Rapid dynamic assessment of expertise to improve the
        efficiency of adaptive e-learning.”
Discussion

   Three new lines of CLT research
       A first category of studies develops methods that
        help learners to deal with the high intrinsic
        complexity of learning tasks.
       A second category of studies develops methods
        that encourage learners to invest effort in
        learning.
       The third category of studies develops dynamic
        instructional methods to adapt instruction to
        learners’ individual needs.
Discussion (cont.)

   CLT is becoming more and more useful for
    the design of large courses and e-learning
    programs that are characterized by a high
    level of interactivity.

				
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