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					Любомир Тодоров Сандов II Група
Ф.Н 43799.

Rebuilding the Ancient World
    Computer modeling is no longer just used to make movies. Archaeology is a field that is also
using computer modeling. Computer modeling gives archeologists a way to take all of their data
and theories and make a three-dimensional picture. They are able to reconstruct ancient buildings
that have been ruins for hundreds of years. Not only does computer modeling allow them to make
a three-dimensional picture of the structure, it makes it easy for them to go back and change the
picture when they receive new information. In order to understand the importance of computer
modeling to archaeologists, we must first understand computer modeling.

   I
    To get the full concept of a computer model, first think of a photograph of an object. A
photograph looks identical to the object but instead it is flat, two-dimensional. Also, a photograph
may appear to be a very accurate representation of the real world, but in many ways, it is not.
From a photograph, one cannot tell the true dimensions or, more importantly, how that object
interacts with the other objects around it. Sometimes the dimensions may be distorted depending
on the angle at which the picture was taken. For instance, imagine yourself sitting directly in front
of a computer and you are taking a picture of it. The picture will show how tall and wide the
computer is, but it will not show the depth of how far back the computer extends. A computer
model is able to overcome many of the limitations present in using photographs. A computer
model resembles a photograph, but it is three-dimensional. The aim of a computer model is to
represent the real world as accurately as possible. Computer models do this in two ways: it can be
a static computer model or a dynamic computer model. Static computer models are used to
represent a specific instance of the world at a given moment in time. Dynamic computer models
are used to show how events unfold over a period of time.
    II
    Computer modeling is beneficial to archaeology because it provides a way to represent data
 three dimensionally for the purposes of publishing results, recording and research. This gives
 archaeologists the opportunity to recreate buildings that no longer exist. Computer models also
 give archaeologists the flexibility of designing and re-modifying models, as new information is
 gathered. Also different models of the same buildings can be built and compared. These
 differently designed models could represent how the building looked at different periods of time
 or different theories of how the building may have looked.
Любомир Тодоров Сандов II Група
Ф.Н 43799.
   III
   There are many computer applications that are available to make computer models. A few
applications currently used to reconstruct ancient builds are Autodesk's AutoCAD (Computer
Aided Drafting), CART (Computer Aided Recording Tool), and Kinetix's 3D Studio Max.
AutoCAD and 3D Studio Max provides a user-friendly way to develop three-dimensional
drawings on the computer. CART on the other hand converts coordinate information into three-
dimensional CAD model without the user having to do any of the drafting manually. It does this
by reading a database containing points and related information and takes that information and
turns it into a CAD model that is fully linked to the database that drew it. There are two
components to the CART system. The first component is automatic drafting software that takes
a database containing points and other information about those points and generates an
AutoCAD model. The second component is a suite of tools to build the database from different
data sources available. Some examples of data sources used to build such a database are survey
data, plane-table measurements, hand measurements using running dimensions, paper drawings,
photographs, and previous CAD models. The CAD model produced is composed of unique
objects and each of these objects has at least one link to a database that provides more
information about the object.

  IV
   Through the use of these types of tools many different projects have been implemented to
reconstruct ancient builds. Such an example is The Pompeii Forum Project at the University of
Virginia's Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities. The project is aimed at creating
three dimensional computer models of ancient structures that were found in the center of the
city, called the forum. In the year 62 AD, a devastating earthquake shook the city of Pompeii,
destroying its beautiful buildings and landmarks. The city was rebuilt after the earthquake, but
on August 24, 79 AD, another disastrous event buried the city of Pompeii, destroying their
civilization once again. The eruption of Mt.Vesuvius completely destroyed the city, but by using
computer modeling, archeologists hope to create an account of the city life between the time of
the earthquake and the complete destruction of the city by the volcanic eruption. By
reconstructing these structures located in the forum, the researchers are hoping to discover how
the citizens of Pompeii may have rebuilt the city. Unfortunately, the reconstruction of the forum
has been a challenging task because the form and face of the forum is believed to have changed
with each political incarnation of the city. Luckily, the remains of the forum provide some
visual history from when Mt. Vesuvius erupted. The main goal of the project is to provide the
first systematic documentation of the architecture and decoration of the forum and to interpret
this evidence as it pertains to the city's urban history.
Любомир Тодоров Сандов II Група
Ф.Н 43799.

  V
    Issues have arisen from the usage of computer modeling to reconstruct ancient structures. One
of the most pressing issues affecting computer modeling today is the inability for a person
looking at the model to differentiate real data from data reconstructed based on theory or
imagination. One possible solution to this problem is the usage of different colors and textures to
distinguish between the real data and reconstructed data. Similar to the previous issue,
archeologists have a difficult time clearly representing the types of materials used in their
computer representations. To address this issue objects in the computer model are painted with
artificial colors and textures.

  VI
    The Pompeii Forum Project is not the only project of its kind. There are many projects using
computer modeling to reconstruct ancient structures. Some examples are reconstruction of the
Theater of Dionysus and the Corinth Computer Project, aimed at reconstructing the ancient city
of Corinth.
   Computer modeling has become very important to the field of archaeology. The many tools
now available allow archeologists to turn data collected into three dimensional images that can be
better studied and analyzed. Even if structures are poorly preserved, different interpretations can
be made to represent different theories. This enables archeologists to compare different designs of
the structures. These models help to better understand how the inhabitants at that time may have
lived. These advantages benefit everyone-archeologists, scholars and the general audience. This
computer technology has had a great impact on the field of archaeology as well as on anyone who
is interested in learning more about ancient cities.
Любомир Тодоров Сандов II Група
Ф.Н 43799.
Еxercise
  In the beginning of every paragraph you will find a number. Put a heading in the
beginning of every of the numbered paragraphs.

 Example:
 I-Computer program
Любомир Тодоров Сандов II Група
Ф.Н 43799.
Answers:
1 -What is a Computer Model?
  -Computer Model.
2 -Why Archaeology is Using Computer Modeling?
  -Archeology and Computer Modeling.
3 -Computer Aplications Available to Create Models.
  -Programs in Help of Archeology.
  -Programs Which are Used.
4 -Pompeii Forum Project.
  -Pompeii Project.
5 -Issues Concerning the Use of Computer Modeling.
  -Issues of Computer Modeling.
6 -Other Projects That Use Computer Modeling.
  -Conclusion.
Любомир Тодоров Сандов II Група
Ф.Н 43799.
Computer- Any device capable of processing information to produce a desired result. No matter
how large or small they are, computers typically perform their work in three well-defined steps:
(1) accepting input, (2) processing the input according to predefined rules (programs), and (3)
producing output.
Archaeology- The study of ancient cultures, people and periods of history.
Data- Plural of the Latin datum, meaning an item of information
Three-dimensional- A computer simulation of a physical object in which length, width, and
depth are real attributes-a model, with x-, y-, and z-axes, that can be rotated for viewing from
different angles.
Photograph- A picture formed by means of the chemical action of light on film, and then
transferred to specially prepared paper.
Two-dimensional- Existing in reference to two measures, such as height and width-for
example, a two-dimensional model drawn with reference to an x-axis and a y-axis, or a two-
dimensional array of numbers placed in rows and columns.
Distorted- To twist or pull something out of its usual shape.
Angle- The amount of distance between the directions of two lines or surfaces where they meet.
Limitation- The action or process of limiting somebody something or being limited.
Aim- A purpose of intention.
Computer model- The use of computers to describe physical objects and the spatial
relationships among them mathematically. CAD programs, for example, are used to create on-
screen representations of such physical objects as tools, office buildings, complex molecules, and
automobiles.
Application- A program designed to assist in the performance of a specific task, such as word
processing, accounting, or inventory management.
User-friendly- Easy to learn and easy to use.
Develop- To grow or cause somebody or something to grow gradually.
Coordinate- Any element in a group of references to a particular location, such as the
intersection of a certain row and column. In computer graphics and displays, coordinates specify
such elements as points on a line, the corners of a square, or the location of a pixel on the screen.
In other computer applications, coordinates specify cells on a spreadsheet, data points on a graph,
locations in memory, and so on.
Draft- To make preliminary written version of something.
Database- A file composed of records, each containing fields together with a set of operations
for searching, sorting, recombining, and other functions.
Suite of tools- A set of predefined (and usually precompiled) routines a programmer can use in
writing a program for a particular machine, environment, or application.
Software- Computer programs; instructions that make hardware work.
Measurement- The activity or process of measuring something.
Running dimensions- In CAD programs, a means of specifying and possibly controlling the
measurements and spatial relationships of elements in a modeled object, such as using lines,
arrows, and text (that is, measurements) to indicate the length, height, and thickness of each of
the walls in a modeled room or house.
Drawing- A picture, plan or diagram made using a pencil or chalk or computer program.
Link- To connect two elements in a data structure by using index variables or pointer variables.
Project- A piece of work , that is organized carefully and designed to achieve a particular aim.
Issue- An important topic for discussion or argument.
Usage- The way in which something is used; the extent to which something is used.

				
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posted:10/31/2011
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