effective communicationq Wikispaces by liaoqinmei

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									Effective Communication
                Ground Rules
• Please switch off your mobiles.
• Make it an interactive session.
• Brainstorming session


• Above all
•                Lets agree to Disagree
                      Index
•   Effective Communication
•   Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
•   Facial Expression
•   Body Language
•   Listening Skills
•   Dressing Sense
•   Managing the conflict
•   10 positive interactivity
           Communication

• Find Out what your Listener wants
• Know what you want to say
  – Control Fear
  – Stop Talking and Listen
  – Think before you talk
  – Believe in your message
  – Repeat Major Points
  – Find Out what your Listener wants
• Communication: A Definition

 Communication is the process of exchanging
 information by the use of words, letters,
 symbols, or nonverbal behavior.
   Improved          Quicker      Stronger
                     problem
  stakeholder                     decision
                      solving
    response                       making




 Enhanced
                  Effective          Increased
professional    Communication        productivity
   image




                                   Steadier
   Clearer                          work
 promotional        Stronger         flow
  materials         business
                  relationships
  Types of communication




Verbal       Non - Verbal
Steps in the Communication Process

•   Sender
•   Message
•   Channel
•   Receiver
•   Feedback
      Basics of Effective Communication


   It matters not so much what you say as it does
      how you say it.
• Your communication style is a SET of various
  behaviors and methods of relaying information
  that impact all facets of life.
      Basics of Effective Communication


   It matters not so much what you say as it does
      how you say it.
• Your communication style is a SET of various
  behaviors and methods of relaying information
  that impact all facets of life.
       Basics of Effective Communication


• Learning all communication styles is important in order to
  avoid communicating in less effective ways and in order
  to recognize those styles in others so as to be able to
  deal with them.
• People are not difficult. They only seem difficult to the
  extent that we do not have the skills to deal with what
  they bring to the table. It is our lack of knowledge that
  makes the situation difficult.
Passive, Aggressive, and Assertive
         Communication



Understanding Verbal Communication
              Styles
            Passive Communication


• Allowing our own rights to be violated by failing to
  express our honest feelings.
• The goal of being a passive communicator is to avoid
  conflict no matter what.
• Little risk involved – very safe.
• Little eye contact, often defers to others’ opinions,
  usually quiet tone, may suddenly explode after being
  passive too long.
       Examples of Passive Communication

•   “I don’t know.”
•   “Whatever you think.”
•   “You have more experience than I. You decide.”
•   “I’ll go with whatever the group decides.”
•   “I don’t care. It doesn’t matter to me.”
•   “Yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes, yes. . . NO!”
           Aggressive Communication

• Protecting one’s own rights at the expense of others’ rights –
  no exceptions.
• The goal of the aggressor is to win at all costs; to be right.
• Does not consider actions a risk because this person thinks
  they will always get their way. It is risky in terms of
  relationships
• Eye contact is angry and intimidating; lots of energy; loud and
  belittling; never defers to others, or at least does not admit to;
  manipulative and controlling. Often uses violence or verbal
  abuse.
    Examples of Aggressive Communication




• “I don’t know why you can’t see that this is the right way
  to do it.”
• “It’s going to be my way or not at all.”
• “You’re just stupid if you think that will work.”
• “ “Who cares what you feel. We’re talking about making
  things work here.”
           Assertive Communication


• Protecting your own rights without violating the rights of
  others.
• The goal of the assertive person is to communicate with
  respect and to understand each other; to find a solution
  to the problem.
• Takes a risk with others in the short run, but in the long
  run relationships are much stronger.
• Eye contact maintained; listens and validates others;
  confident and strong, yet also flexible; objective and
  unemotional; presents wishes clearly and respectfully.
 Examples of Assertive Communication


• “So what you’re saying is. . . .”
• “I can see that this is important to you, and it is
  also important to me. Perhaps we can talk
  more respectfully and try to solve the
  problem.”
• “I think. . . I feel. . . I believe that. . . .”
• “I would appreciate it if you. . .”
• Let me understand your thoughts on this…
         Which is the Best Style?


• All styles have their proper place and use.
• Assertive communication is the healthiest.
  – Boundaries of all parties are respected.
  – Easier to problem-solve; fewer emotional
    outbursts.
  – It requires skills and a philosophy change,
    as well as lots of practice and hard work.
  – When both parties do it, no one is hurt in
    any way and all parties win on some level.
 NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION

Nonverbal Communication in
Organizations
      NON-VERBAL
     COMMUNICATION
  The study of non-verbal communication
examines how messages are communicated
through physical behaviour, vocal cues and
           spatial relationships.
 The total impact of a message breaks down
 like this:

• 7 percent verbal (words)   Hello!!




• 38 percent vocal (volume, pitch, rhythm, etc)

• 55 percent body movements
  (mostly facial expressions)
Nonverbal Communication in
Organizations

•   ���� Environment

•   ���� Body placement

•   ���� Posture

•   ���� Gestures

•   ���� Facial expressions and movement

•   ���� Clothing, dress, appearance
• Effective communication is the
  combined harmony of verbal and
  nonverbal actions.

• Nonverbal communication consists of
  body movement, facial expressions and
  eye movement.
Major areas of nonverbal behaviors
 are:

• Eye contact


• Facial expressions


• Gestures
• Posture and body orientation




• Proximity


• Para linguistics
EYE CONTACT
         EYE CONTACT
• The eyes can give clues to a person’s
  thoughts.

• When someone is excited, his pupils
  dilate to four times the normal size.

• An angry or negative mood causes the
  pupils to contract.
         EYE CONTACT
• Good eye contact helps the audience
  develop the interest in the speaker.



• Eye-contact helps regulate the flow of
  communication and reflects interest in
  others.
         EYE CONTACT
• Direct eye-contact conveys interest,
  warmth, credibility and concern.

• Shifty eyes suggest dishonesty.



• Downward gaze may be a sign of
  submissiveness or inferiority.
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
   FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
• You have 80 muscles in the face that
  can create more than 7,000 facial
  expressions.
•The facial muscles produce the varying
facial expressions that convey information
about emotion, mood, and ideas.
•Emotional expressions are one primary
result of activity by the facial muscles.
     FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
There are six categories of facial
 expressions:
  • Happiness
  • Sadness
  • Anger
  • Disgust
  • Surprise
  • Fear
     FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
 HAPPINESS




“Whoever is happy will make others happy too.”

                               -Mark Twain
  FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
SADNESS




“Sadness dulls the heart more than the
grossest sin”
             -Author Unknown
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
ANGER




“Anger is one letter short of danger”
                   Author Unknown
  FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
DISGUST

A disgusting expression
on the face is considered
negative and should be
avoided in formal
gatherings.
  FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
SURPRISE




The eye-brows and the eyes
are most affected in an expression of
surprise.
   FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

FEAR



There is nothing to fear, but fear itself.
                     GESTURES




•Recognizing attitudes conveyed through Body Language
•Right postures to adopt at the Work Place and postures to avoid
•Pick up non-verbal signals from a customers body language
•Facial expressions can enhance or detract verbal communication
•Setting standards of Body Language to drive Customer Delight at
the Public Office
            GESTURES
• Gestures communicate as effectively as
  words, sometimes even better.

• Gestures support the verbal
  communication.

• They sometimes detract from what you
  say.
            GESTURES
 There are some negative gestures
 which should be avoided:

• Pointing at people- It is perceived as
  accusatory.
• Fiddling with your items-It gives the
  impression that you are nervous.
• Dragging the feet-It implies lethargy.
• Head Down- It suggests timidity.
           GESTURES
• Drooping shoulders- It implies
  weariness and lethargy.
• Weak handshake-It implies meek and
  ineffectual personality.
• Shifty eyes- It suggests nervousness.
• Arms crossed on the chest- It is a
  defensive gesture.
           GESTURES

• Hands in pockets- Shows disrespect,
  and that you have something to hide.
• Covering your mouth- It suggests you
  are lying.
• Shaking feet or legs- It shows
  indifference and disinterest.
Avoid these hand gestures
Use these hand gestures
  POSTURE AND
BODY ORIENTATION
             POSTURE
• Body posture can be open or closed.



• Interested people pay attention and
  lean forward.

• Leaning backwards demonstrates
  aloofness or rejection.
             POSTURE
• A head held straight up signals a
  neutral attitude.


• A head down is negative and
  judgmental.

• A head tilted to the side indicates
  interest.
            POSTURE
 Some negative postures should be
 avoided:

• Rigid Body Posture-Anxious/ Uptight
• Hunched Shoulders –Lacks interest/
  Feeling inferior
• Crossed Arms-Protecting the body/
  Negative Thoughts
What impression do the following people give
you?
What impression do the following people give
you?
         PROXIMITY




Proximity is the distance people
maintain between themselves while
talking.
              PROXIMITY
    DISTANCE ZONES
•   Intimate Zone- No more than18 inches
    apart (mother and baby)
•   Personal Distance-18 inches to 4 feet.
    (Casual and personal conversations).
•   Social Distance-4-12 feet (impersonal,
    business, social gatherings)
•    Public Distance-More than 12
    feet( Public speaking)
           PROXIMITY
• Space/Distance as an indicator of
  intimacy-The more we get to know
  each other the more we are permitted
  into each other's personal space
• Space/Distance as an indicator of
  status- Executives, presidents of
  colleges, government officials have
  large offices with big space...
  secretaries have small space
      PARALINGUISTICS
• Para linguistics are what accompany
  your words to make up for its true
  meaning.

• Paralanguage refers to the vocal aspect
  of communication.
      PARALINGUISTICS
 Components of Para linguistics are:

• Rate of speed- When a speaker
  speaks too fast, he is seen as more
  competent.

• Pitch-Pitch should be changed in
  accordance with the context of spoken
  words.
      PARALINGUISTICS
• Volume- It refers to loudly we
  speak.Loud people are perceived as
  aggressive or over-bearing. Soft-spoken
  voices are perceived as timid or polite.

• Fillers- Words like “umhh” “ah””aaa”
  are used to gather thoughts.
   Remember
Its Fun to be Good !
Let ‘Em Hear you are
      Listening
Listening
                   TWO
                   AND
                   ONE



  Nature has intended us to LISTEN twice

            as much as we speak!
• Decide to be a better listener .

• Remember - hearing is only physical , listening is
intellectual.
There are four basic components to effective listening

listening with empathy
listening with openness
listening with awareness
listening actively
Listening with Empathy


Sometimes we do not listen to others because
  we are not interested in what the other person is saying
  we do not understand what the other person is saying
  we do not agree with the other person
Listening with Empathy



To listen with empathy, try to identify what needs the other
person is trying to meet
Ask yourself these questions:



    What need is this person’s emotion(s) coming
    from?

    What danger is the person experiencing?

    What is he or she asking for?
Listening with Empathy



  Sometimes we do not listen because
    we do not want to hear what is being said
     we feel threatened by the content
     we fear being wrong
     we cannot believe that an unlikable person has
     something to say that is worth considering
 Listening with Openness


 To listen with openness, imagine you are a
 detective trying to get all the facts. You are
 trying to find the truth.

View the information from the perspective of the other
person.
Consider the other person’s background, culture,
history, etc.
Listening with Awareness


There are two components to listening with awareness:
   being aware of conflicts between what is being said
   and your own knowledge base
   being aware of conflicts between the content of the
   message and the body language of the speaker
   (tone, voice inflections, stance, etc.)
Recognizing that conflicts can be a tool for making the
verbalized message more accurate.
Active Listening



Active listening means to be verbally involved with the
communication.
Active listening helps us to keep our minds focused on
the communication.
The three elements of active listening are
   paraphrasing
   clarifying
   feedback
More types of Listening


      • Informative Listening
     • Relationship Listening
     • Appreciative Listening
        • Critical Listening
    • Discriminative Listening
           Barriers to listening

• Hearing what you want to hear called selective listening
• Thinking of what you are going to say next
• Distractions such as co-workers, noise, side
  conversations etc.
• Thinking about the previous customer call
• Worrying about the next customer call or work in general
• Stress
• Getting involved emotionally (instead of logically)
• Holding preconceived ideas about the caller’s inquiry
• Thinking about personal issues
• Boredom
• Making assumptions rather than asking questions
   Remember
Its Fun to be Good !
LUNCH BREAK
Managing Conflict in
  Organizations
Management ?
             What is Conflict?
• Many definitions, but several common themes
  – Parties must perceive conflict
  – Opposition or incompatibility
  – Some form of interaction
• Our definition: A process that begins when one
  party perceives that another party has negatively
  affected, or is about to negatively affect,
  something that the first party cares about. The
  process usually involves one party or group
  working for its own interests and in opposition to
  the interests of the other group or individual.
  Why Conflict Arises

Type “A” Personality


                  Vs.


                        Type “B Personality
       Type ”A” Personality

• Highly Competitive
• Strong Personality
• Restless when
  inactive
• Seeks Promotion
  Punctual
• Thrives on deadlines
• Maybe jobs at once
Type “B” Personality
          • Works methodically
          • Rarely competitive
          • Enjoys leisure time
          • Does not anger easily
          • Does job well but
            doesn’t need
            recognition
          • Easy-going
    Aggressive People
• Body language
  – Stiff and straight
  – Points, bangs tables to emphasize points
  – Folds arms across body
• Verbal language
  – “I want you to…”
                              Aggressive people
  – “You must…”               are basically
  – “Do what I tell you!”     insecure….. Try to
  – “You’re stupid!”          avoid them.
       Submissive people
• Body Language          • Verbal Language
  – Avoids eye contact     – “I’m sorry”
  – Stooped posture        – “It’s all my fault”
  – Speaks quietly         – “Oh dear”
  – Fidgets
                         Submissive people
                         have a great sense
                         of inferiority
       Assertive People
• Body language
  – Stands straight
  – Appears composed
  – Smiles
  – Maintains eye contact
• Verbal language
  – “Let’s”
  – “How shall we do this?”
  – “I think… What do you
    think?”
  – “I would like…”
 What Are Some of the
Common Types of Conflict
 Found in Organizations
        Today?
         Types of Conflict

•   Within an individual
•   Between two individuals
•   Within a team of individuals
•   Between two or more teams within an
    organization
       Causes of Conflict
• Conflict of aims- different goals
• Conflict of ideas- different
  interpretations
• Conflict of attitudes - different
  opinions
• Conflict of behavior- different
  behaviors are unacceptable
     Stages of Conflict
• Conflict arises
• Positions are stated and hardened
• Actions, putting into action their
  chosen plan
• Resolution???
    Preventing Conflict
• Assess positive and negative
  personality traits of people involved
• Determine personality type
  – Aggressive
  – Submissive
  – Assertive
• Assess if people are introvert or
  extroverts...
      Preventing Conflict
• Review past conflicts
• Assess communication skills of those
  involved
• Read body language of participants
      Preventing Conflict
• Try to reduce conflict
  – Realize that communication is colored by
    personal experience, beliefs, fear,
    prejudices
  – Try to be neutral
  – Plan the timing and place of the
    conversation
  – Realize that outside stress may add to
    confrontation
  – Eliminate/reduce external interruptions
         Preventing Conflict


• Manage the language used
  – Neutral vs. loaded words
  – Reduce technical language
  – Allow for cultural differences in language
  – Words may have different meanings for
    different people…ask them to elaborate
    Personalities who cause conflict

• Aggressor
• Passive
• Absentee
• Error prone
• Negative
  attitude
• Chatterbox
• Do nothing
  Personalities who cause conflict

• Unreliable
• Time waster
• Resentful person
 Ways of Responding to Potential Conflict

           High
                   Compete
                                                    Collaborate



Assertiveness of
                              Compromise
   Response




                   Avoid                           Accommodate
           Low
                   Low                                    High
                             Similarity of Goals
Thank You

								
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