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First Ladies for Women & Children: A Historical Factsheet from 1789 to Present

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First Ladies for Women & Children: A Historical Factsheet from 1789 to Present Powered By Docstoc
					                 FIRST LADIES FOR WOMEN & CHILDREN:
            A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW FROM 1789 TO PRESENT



                            Smashwords, Inc. Edition

                      Copyright © 2011, by Naira R. Matevosyan

                              ISBN: 978-1-4580-2473-2




 This e-book is licensed for your personal enjoyment only and may not be re-sold or
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Note: This is a free-view sample, only. The complete document is available for purchase.
                                        CONTENTS:

PREFACE                                 3     Frances Clara Folsom Cleveland       21
FROM 1789 TO PRESENT:                   5    Caroline Lavinia Scott Harisson       22
   Martha Dandridge Custis Washington 6      Ida Saxton McKinley                  23
 Abigail Smith Adams                   6     Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt         23
 Dolley Payne Todd Madison             6     Helen (Nellie) Lousie Herron Taft    24
   Martha (Patsy) Jefferson Randolph   7     Ellen Louise Axson Wilson            26
 Elizabeth Kortright Monroe            8     Edith Bolling Galt Wilson            26
 Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams        9     Florence Kling De Wolfe Harding      27
   Emily Tennessee Donelson            10    Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge          29
 Sarah Angelica Singleton Van Buren    10    Lou Henry Hoover                     30
 Anna Tuthill Symmes Harrison          11    Anna Eleanor Roosevelt               31
 Letitia Christian Tyler               11    Elizabeth Virginia Wallace Truman    34
 Julia Gardiner Tyler                  12    Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower         35
 Sarah Childress Polk                  12    Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy       36
 Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor         13    Claudia (Lady Bird) Taylor Johnson   38
 Abigail Powers Fillmore               13    Thelma (Pat) Catherine Ryan Nixon    40
 Jane Means Appleton Pierce            14    Elizabeth Ann Bloomer Warren Ford    41
 Harriet Lane                          15    Rosalynn Smith Carter                43
 Mary Ann (Todd) Lincoln               16    Nancy Davis Reagan                   44
 Eliza McCardle Johnson                17    Barbara Pierce Bush                  45
 Julia Boggs Dent Grant                17    Hillary Rodham Clinton               47
 Lucy Ware Webb Hayes                  18    Laura Lane Welch Bush                50
 Lucretia Rudolph Garfield             19    Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama     53
 Mary Arthur McElroy                   20   AFTERWORD                              55
 Rose Elizabeth Cleveland              21   WORKS CITED                            56
PREFACE:
The story of maternal-child health (MCH) in the United States parallels major changes not only in
medical field, but also in politics, and the society. Colonial Americans continued European practices
of obstetrics and midwifery, while child healthcare remained largely undifferentiated from adult
treatments. Nowadays, the country still faces complex issues and challenges in MCH, such as, vertical
infections (HIV, ToRCH), gestational diabetes, postpartum depression, smoking or illicit substance
use during pregnancy and postpartum, among others.
       The Millennium Development Goal 5 was to achieve a 75% reduction in maternal mortality
ratio from 1990 to 2015. Yet, in April 2010, the United States ranked 39th with 16.7 maternal death
per 100,000, being behind of many European Countries, Canada, the United Arab Emirates, among
others [Hogan, 2010].
       Good health for women and children is crucial in addressing many social and even political
crises. MCH was, and remains the paramount foci that impacts the country's economics,
unemployment, poverty, education, welfare, mental and physical disability rates, and even defense.
Taking time away from economic activities to care for sick family members, lacking in good
motherhood because of suboptimal health issues, owing health care bills, and finally, the
unthinkable loss of a mother or a child wreaks havoc on the fragile social and economic resources of
families. In other words, the poorer is the MCH, the vulnerable is the country.
       Each presidential tenure gets unique portfolio of challenges, the “bad breath of their time”,
and crises in MCH. The historical contributions of First Ladies in healthcare, and welfare of women
and children range from donations of personal funds, and visitations to sick ( Martha Washington,
Harriet Lane, Lucy Hayes); women's rights advocacy (Abigail Adams, Louisa Adams, Abigail Fillmore,
Lucretia Garfield, Caroline Harrison, Eleanor Roosevelt, Hillary Clinton); establishing orphan asylums
(Dolley Madison); abolitionism (Letitia Tyler, Julia Tyler); supporting healthcare of invalid children
(Harriet Lane); emancipation proclamation (Mary Lincoln); prevention of cruelty to children ( Julia
Grant). Likewise, they are known for promoting literacy in girls        ( Emily Donelson); promoting
preventive healthcare of children (Edith Roosevelt); women`s suffrage, promoting prenatal care and
nutrition (Nellie Taft); Maternal and Infancy Act (Florence Harding, Nellie Taft); advocacy for
physical fitness, and wellness of women, and inspiring the Girl Scouts movement (Lou Hoover, Florence
Harding, Bess Truman); supporting the Red Cross (Edith Wilson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Bess Truman);
advocacy to fight polio (Mamie Eisenhower); promoting the role of women in politics, government,
and science (Florence Harding, Hillary Clinton); provisions of nurseries and childcare to imprisoned
women (Florence Harding). They are remembered for promoting women's reproductive rights,
maternal-infant health programs, establishing volunteer-driven family planning centers, and
alleviating birth defects (Eleanor Roosevelt); promoting national health insurance plan (Elizabeth
Truman); promoting voluntarism for hospitals, nursing homes and childcare centers (Pat Nixon),
raising mental health awareness (Rosalyn Carter); founding Head Start ( Lady Bird Johnson);
promoting elementary education (Laura Bush); raising awareness about breast cancer (Betty Ford,
Laura Bush); fighting against substance abuse (Nancy Reagan, Betty Ford); addressing issues like
AIDS, and teen pregnancy, provision of meals and after-school care to homeless children (Barbara
Bush); advocacy for Universal Health Coverage, and establishing State Children's Health Insurance
Program (Hillary Clinton); raising awareness about heart diseases in women, and multidisciplinary
approach to women’s health (Laura Bush); solving the epidemic of childhood obesity, supporting
healthy nutrition in schools (Michelle Obama); or promoting the sense of art and camelot in women,
and changing the public acceptance of the image from the First Lady to Queen ( Jacqueline Kennedy).
       First Ladyship is a tough job, as there is no job description. It is not an official position,
neither Ladies get paid for it; and there is nothing about it in the U.S. Constitution. First Ladyship is
a style, signature, and enormous but unseen political power. It is one of the nation's most curious
institutions. For two centuries First Ladies wield an unseen power in the White House, a power
unique to them.
       Women profiled in this overview are diverse economically, politically, spiritually, and in their
hallmark and “imprints”. These female innovators, entrepreneurs, social reformers, politicians,
diplomats, and life-long confidantes of Presidents, also are similar in many ways. Some of them
share identical fate, such as loosing their spouses in Presidential tenure (Anna Harrison, Mary Lincoln,
Lucretia Garfield, Ida McKinley, Jacqueline Kennedy, Edith Wilson, Florence Harding, Eleanor Roosevelt), living

the worse tragedy a woman can ever face- loosing a child (Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, Dolley
Madison, Louisa Adams, Anna Harrison, Peggy Taylor, Jane Pierce, Mary Lincoln, Lucy Hayes, Ida McKinley, Edith
Roosevelt, Ellen Wilson, Grace Coolidge, Eleanor Roosevelt, Mamie Eisenhower, Jacqueline Kennedy, Barbara
Bush), marriage in the White House (Julia Tyler, Rose Cleveland), death in the White House (Letitia Tyler,

Caroline Harrison, Ellen Wilson), or becoming Liberty Symbols on First Spouse Gold Coins (Abigail

Fillmore, Jane Pierce, James Buchanan, Mary Lincoln). These persons are also identical: they are women of

courage, virtue, and stamina.
       Much is spoken about their notable role in addressing social causes, nevertheless, less is
discussed about their contributions in healthcare of women and children. This historical factsheet
celebrates their enthusiasm, steadfastness, and achievements in women`s rights movement, and
establishment of MCH institution.




FROM 1789 TO PRESENT:

                     “The greater part of our happiness or misery depends
                       on our dispositions and not our circumstances” -
                            Martha Dandridge Custis Washington.
                                               


                                         CONTINUED:

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: First Ladyship is a tough job, as there is no job description. It is not an official position, neither Ladies get paid for it; and there is nothing about it in the U.S. Constitution. First Ladyship is a style, signature, and enormous but unseen political power. It is one of the nation's most curious institutions. Women profiled in this overview are diverse economically, politically, spiritually, and in their hallmark and “imprints”. These female innovators, entrepreneurs, social reformers, politicians, diplomats, and life-long confidantes of Presidents, also are similar in many ways. Much is spoken about their notable role in addressing social causes, nevertheless, less is discussed about their contributions in healthcare of women and children. This historical factsheet celebrates their enthusiasm, steadfastness, and achievements in women`s rights movement, and establishment of MCH institution. FROM 1789 to present.