Presentations / Public Speaking
A Few Tips and “Pointers”
"It usually takes me more than three weeks to
prepare a good impromptu speech."
When given a topic, steer your topic to
specific personal experiences and examples
that you are knowledgeable on and that you
have a desire to share with other people;
– Define the purpose / objective of your speech;
– Choose a specific illustration, experience or
– Other Points.
Define the purpose and objectives
Stop, stay calm and cool in order to formulate
Get your goal clearly in focus by defining
your purpose or viewpoint;
Decide your starting and finishing points;
State the reason why you are speaking on
– - "I believe that ....... the reason being....."
- "My experience shows ...... because ........."
Choose a Specific Experience
Speaking about personal experiences will
give you courage and confidence;
Helps you to be clear, convincing and
Just tell about a specific event, example or
– When, why, where it happened;
– What caused it to happen;
– Who was involved;
– How it happened.
Summarize by stating or restating your overall
speech purpose, main points or beliefs;
Don't try to cover too much: be short, succinct and to
– P Point "The point I want to make is ..........“;
– R Reason -"The reason I say this is ............“;
– E Example - "For example ..." "My experience....“;
– P Point "In summary my point is .......“.
Anxiety / Fear / Panic / Terror
"There are two types of speakers: those that
are nervous and those that are liars"
Number one fear of general population. Death is #7;
Fear is normal. Proper preparation and practice can
remove the majority anxiety;
Your body is trying to give you a physiological edge;
Techniques to reduce anxiety.
1. Know the room - Arrive early and walk around the
room; Speaking area, audience, your seat;
2. Know the audience – Personally and
3. Know your material - Practice until you can
present it with ease;
4. Learn how to relax – Breathing techniques, facial
5. Visualize yourself speaking - Visualizing yourself
as successful will bring success.
6. Realize people want you to succeed - All
audiences want interesting, stimulating, informative
and entertaining talks;
7. Don't apologize for being nervous - Your listeners
probably won’t noticed your nervousness;
8. Concentrate on your message - not the medium
- Nerves dissipate if you focus on your message
and your audience
9. Convert into positive energy - Harness it, and
transform it into vitality and enthusiasm.
10. Gain experience - Experience builds confidence.
“The speaker who stands and talks at ease is
the one who can be heard without weariness.
If his posture and gestures are so graceful
and unobtrusive, that no one notices them, he
may be counted as truly successful."
Dr. Ralph C. Smeadly
Founder of Toastmasters International
Five Steps to Good Body Language
1. Rid yourself of distracting mannerisms;
2. Build self-confidence by being yourself;
3. Let your body mirror your feelings;
4. Build self-confidence through preparation;
5. Use your everyday speaking situations
– Facial Expressions;
– Eye Contact.
1. Distracting Mannerisms
Physical manifestations of simple
nervousness commonly done unconsciously.
– Gripping or leaning on the lectern
– Finger tapping
– Lip biting or licking
– Toying with coins or jewelry
– Adjusting hair or clothing
– Head wagging
Videotape yourself to evaluate
– Body movement;
– Facial expressions;
– Eye contact.
Review of tape in four stages
– Watch and hear;
– Have others watch.
2. Building Self-confidence
Being Yourself - emphasis should be on the
sharing of ideas, not on the performance;
Large vs. small audiences
– Larger audiences, amplify your natural behavior;
– Be authentically yourself,
– Amplify just enough so that the audience can see
3. Body Mirrors Feelings
Your enthusiasm for the subject will be
evident in your physical movements;
By involving yourself in your message, you'll
be natural and spontaneous without having to
consciously think about what you are doing or
To become an effective speaker get rid of
Speak from the heart and to the soul.
4. Body Language - Self-confidence
Nothing influences a speaker's mental
attitude more than the knowledge that he or
she is thoroughly prepared;
Be aware of your speaking style
– How you speak;
– Facial expressions of your listeners;
– Even if talking about yourself, prepare what to say
and how say it;
– As you practice, be aware of everything including
your gestures and walking patterns.
5. Facial Expressions - Everyday
Appropriate facial expressions are an
important part of effective communication;
Your face-more clearly than any other part of
your body-communicates to others your
attitudes, feelings, and emotions;
Remove expressions that don't belong on
your face. (Often subconscious);
Relax your inhibitions and allow yourself to
respond naturally to what you are saying,
your facial expressions will be appropriate.
Eye contact is the cement that binds
together speakers and their audiences.
Each listener wants to feel that you are
talking to him or her;
Effective eye contact is an important
– gauge the audience's reactions; and
– adjust your presentation accordingly.
Establish a personal bond with listeners.
– Maintain eye contact (about 5 to 10 seconds)
Then shift your gaze to another person;
– In large groups pick out one or two individuals in
each section of the room;
Monitor visual (non-verbal) feedback
– They may not be able to hear you. Speak louder;
– They may be bored. Use some humor, animation;
– They may be puzzled. Repeat and/or rephrase.
If your listeners will have on suits and
dresses, wear your best suit or dress;
Don't wear jewelry that might glitter or jingle
when you move or gesture;
Empty your pockets of bulky items and
anything that makes noise when you move;
During that initial segment, the audience will
be making critical judgments about you;
After your introduction, walk purposefully and
confidently to the speaking position.
Moving forces people to focus and follow you;
When introduced, be eager, not heading to
execution. Smile before you say your first
Be careful not to walk too much. Doing so will
work against you. Continuous pacing is
Have a "home" position. Other positions
should be relatively near the "home" position.
Never stand in front of any visual aid;
When standing still, remember to maintain
good posture. Stand up straight;
Your body speaks very loudly;
A married verbal and nonverbal message
puts forth a command presence.
Make gestures lively and distinct to convey
the intended impressions, yet slow and broad
enough to be clearly visible without being
Every gesture has three parts:
– Approach - Your body begins to move in
– The Stroke - The gesture itself;
– The Return - This brings your body back to a
Make natural, spontaneous gesturing a habit.
Ahs and Uhms
Before you begin to speak, think about the
words you want to use;
When you find yourself saying uhs and ums,
stop yourself and repeat the sentence, this
time replacing the ahs and uhms with silence;
Use the pause as an effective technique.
Allow your mind to catch up and think about
what you want to say next.