Developmental Disabilities

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					 Developmental
Disabilities
  By: Evelyn W. Stone, RN.,BSN.,
              M.Ed.
Developmental Disability refers to disabilities
  affecting daily functioning in three or more
  of the following areas…

•   Capacity for independent living
•   Economic self sufficiency
•   Learning
•   Mobility
•   Receptive and expressive language
•   Self-care
•   Self-direction
Causes
• Brain injury before,         • Poor diet and
  during or after birth          healthcare

• Growth or nutrition          • Drug misuse during
  problems                       pregnancy, including
                                 drug intake and
• Abnormalities of               smoking
  chromosomes or genes
                               • Child abuse can also
•   Babies born long             have a severe effect on
    before the expected          the development of a
    birth date – also called     child, specifically the
    extreme prematurity          socio-emotional
                                 development
Mental health issues (dual diagnoses)
•    The high likelihood of encountering
     traumatic events throughout their lifetime
1.   Abandonment by loved ones
2.   Abuse
3.   Bullying and harassment
•    Social restrictions
1.   Lack of education
2.   Poverty
3.   Limited employment opportunities
4.   Limited opportunities for fulfilling
     relationships
5.   Boredom
Abuse
• Physical abuse     • Constraint and
                       restrictive
• Neglect              practices

• Sexual abuse       • Financial abuse

• Psychological or   • Legal or civil abuse
  emotional abuse
                     • Systemic abuse

                     • Passive neglect
Physical Abuse:

• Physical force that results in
  injury, pain or impairment

• Violence that may result in
  bodily harm
Physical Indicators of
Physical Abuse:
• Injuries
• Bruises to the arms, legs or other
  body parts
• Patterns of indicators – unexplained
  falls
• Sprains
• Burns
• Abrasions on arms, legs, or torso
• Internal injuries evidenced by pain
Behavioral Indicators of
Physical Abuse:
• Explanation of the injury do not fit
  with the injury
• Family members provide different
  explanation of how it happened
• History of similar injuries
• Victim is taken to different medical
  facilities for treatment
• Delay between onset of injury &
  seeking medical care
Emotional Abuse:

•   Infliction of emotional suffering
•   Fear
•   Actions that lead to fear of violence
•   Deprivation
•   Loss of dignity
•   Intimidation
•   Powerlessness
Why Emotional Abuse?

• The perpetrator wants to mold
  the individual into who he or
  she thinks that individual should
  be.

• Turn the victim into who they
  are
Psychological Abuse:

• Willful infliction of mental
  anguish

• Humiliation

• Verbal or nonverbal conduct
Behavioral Indicators:

• Isolates themselves from others

• Problems sleeping

• Exhibits depression and confusion

• Exhibits unusual behavior – Sucking,
  biting, rocking
Sexual Abuse:
• Any form of degradation,
  manipulation, force or control of sex

• Forced in to having sex with the
  abuser

• Goes hand & hand with physical
  abuse

• Forced to have sex with others
Financial Abuse:
• The abuser uses money as a means
  of controlling the victim

• Uses finances to gain power and
  dominance over the victim

• Required to do illegal acts for money

• Victim may be forced to work and
  perpetrator uses the money
Financial Abuse
(continued)
• Perpetrator may forbid the victim to
  work

• The abuser may put bills in the
  victim’s name

• Perpetrator refuse to work

• Victim’s money is used by the
  perpetrator
Challenging Behavior
“Culturally Abnormal Behaviors”
1.    Self Injurious behaviors
     > hitting     >biting    >head butting

2.    Aggressive behavior
     >hitting others >screaming >spitting >kicking

3.    Inappropriate sexualised behavior
     >public masturbation    >groping

4.    Behavior directed at property
      >throwing objects >stealing

5.    Stereotyped behaviors
       >repetitive rocking >echolalia     >elective
      incontinence
Causes of Challenging
Behavior
• Biological

• Social

• Environmental

• Psychological
Services and Support
• Education and       • Employment
  Training              support

• At-home and         • Day services
  community support
                      • Advocacy
• Residential
  accommodation

• Employment
  support
Conclusion

• Remember there are many
  causes of DD

• Abuse is an issue for those who
  are vulnerable

• Remember the advocacy group
  if there are suspension of
  neglect or abuse
Other Services

•   Nurse Assistant classes
•   Mental Health Hab Tec classes
•   Mental Illness
•   Medication Aide
•   Medication Administration
•   Blood Borne Pathogens
•   Behavior Management
•   Developmental Disabilities
Other Services

• There are more classes
  available.
• We have a calendar of
  Continuing Education for the
  year.
• Private Consultation for starting
  a mental health facilitator
Contact Instructor:

Evelyn Stone, RN., BSN., M.Ed.
1008-F Big Oak Court
Knightdale, NC 27545
(919) 266-7051
Email: stn_vlyn@yahoo.com

				
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posted:10/31/2011
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