Climate Effects on Monumental Buildings by liaoqinmei

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									                    Climate Effects on Monumental Buildings
                                             Esra YALDIZ
                    Engineering Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture
                                            Konya, Turkey

Abstract
Climate is the act of all atmospheric events such as rainfall, temperature, wind, air pressure and
humidity etc. In recent years, the alterations about natural environment and climate observed in
Turkey negatively affected the monumental buildings, the cultural riches of the country that they have
been worn out by various natural effects for a long time. However, since monumental buildings have
great importance due to their identity of transferring old era information to the future generations, there
should be taken special precautions against deteriorations on the monumental buildings.
Climate-related deteriorations on the monumental buildings resulted from temperature differences
between summer-winter and day-night, water movement at the building due to capillarity, abrasive
effects of rain water, salt and some chemicals involved in water, particles carried by wind and air
pollution.
In this study, the deteriorations occurred on the monumental buildings due to climate changes will be
investigated for Turkey and the deterioration effects on construction materials will be discussed.
Keywords: Monument, Climate, Climate Impacts, Monumental Buildings, Turkey


Introduction
Architecture can be described as the sum of the social, economic, political and cultural developments.
The places people live in also live for years. The representatives of architectural heritage each has its
own architectural, historical and cultural message have undertaken a social duty to give cultural
messages to their environments and future generations. Architecture taking place at the intersection
zone of technique and art is the physical and permanent sign of social and economic life culture and
national structural culture. Therefore, Turkey has many riches and should be evaluated in terms of
cultural meaning within all protection and sustaining studies (Akıncıtürk, 2002).
The historical monuments sustained from past to present have worn out due to various effects and
disappeared in short periods due to lack of good care. The deteriorations on the construction materials
have occurred not only because of the years but also mostly due to the environmental factors. One of
the most important factors giving shape to the architecture is natural environment and the other is
material of construction. The buildings are unfavorably affected from changing natural environment
and climate conditions. Climate can be defined as the whole atmospheric events such as rainfall,
temperature, wind, pressure and humidity that cause certain damages on the monumental buildings
for years.
The historical and cultural riches of nations are the values assigning the power, richness and identity
of them. Anatolia became the host of many nations throughout the history and accommodated many
historical-cultural heritages until today. Each historical building and cultural value is an expression of
accumulation and a bridge from past to present (Tavukçuoğlu, 2000). Today, there are many historical
buildings such as caravansaries, Turkish baths, madrasas, mosques, bridges and civilian architecture
examples in various parts of Anatolia. They have been constructed using stone and wood i.e. natural
construction materials, however, serious deteriorations are observed on them today.
In this context, the deteriorations occurred on the historical monumental buildings of Turkey were
determined using the “observation method” by considering the natural factor “climate”.

Climate in Turkey and Climatic Effects on Monumental Buildings
Turkey lies at the mild zone of Northern Hemisphere between 36° - 42° Northern latitudes and 26°-45°
Eastern meridians where four seasons are lived during the year.

What is Climate? Climate in Turkey
According to climate scientists, climate is the entire atmospheric events on any location of the world in
any instant depending on the atmospheric circulations on the world (Türkeş, 2000). The basic
observable and measurable parameters of climate are temperature, rainfall, relative humidity,

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solarization period and magnitude, pressure, wind velocity and direction, evaporation etc.. Climate can
be also defined as the average weather conditions not changing for long years in a wide ceratin region
on the world (Şensoy, 2008).
Although Turkey takes place between mild climate zone and subtropical climate zone, different climate
types occur in Turkey due to the seas surrounding its three sides, the layout of the mountains and the
variety of the geographical shapes. The coastal zones face with mild climate by the effect of seas
which can not be felt at the inner zones due to the locations of the mountains preventing this entrance
(Atalay, 1997). Therefore, the inner zones of Turkey have continental climate properties (Şensoy,
2008).




                        Figure 1. Türkiye Climate Zones (Atalay, İ.,1997)

Although Turkey is located in large Mediterranean geographical location where climatic conditions are
quite temperate, the diverse nature of the landscape and the mountains lying parallel to the coasts
result in significant differences from one region to other in terms of climatic conditions. While the
coastal areas face with mild climates, the Central Anatolia Plateau experiences the extremes of hot
summers and cold winters with limited rainfalls. Turkey receives most of the rainfall in winter season.
In this season, mean temperature is usually below 5°C and there occurs quite less evaporation.
However, summer rainfall is very limited and can not respond the water losses resulted from increased
temperature and evaporation. . But summer rainfall is very limited and could not be enough to remove
water deficit resulted from increased temperature and evaporation. (Şensoy et al 2009)
The Aegean and Mediterranean coasts have cool, rainy winters and but hot and moderately dry
summers. The Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of rainfall and is the only region of
Turkey that receives rainfall throughout the year. (Şensoy et al. 2009) In the middle zone of our
country in terms of temperate climatic features a structure showing has. In general, the domain in the
Mediterranean macro-climate of our country in the winter and summer months under the influence of
different air masses remains. Turkey is geographically divided in to 7 different regions. These
Marmara, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, East Anatolia and Southeast Anatolia
is. Temperatures in Turkey with different values in different regions of rainfall also stands out against
our. The highest temperature in Turkey, the Mediterranean region in and Southeastern Anatolia low
values in our area are being found in the Inner and Eastern Anatolia. Turkey in terms of precipitation,
differences between regions and within the edge region is a country showing. Except in the eastern
Black Sea Turkey Section features a semi-arid climate is compared with. Highest rainfall in the eastern
part of the Black Sea region to the least rainfall in the Central Anatolia region is found. İn Turkey,
Temperatures inland from the coast to the west to east indicates a decrease.

Effects of Climate on Monumental Buildings Examples From Turkey
Climate is the act of all atmospheric events such as rainfall, temperature, wind, air pressure and
humidity etc. In recent years, the alterations about natural environment and climate observed in
Turkey negatively affected the monumental buildings, i.e. the cultural riches of the country, that they
have been worn out by various natural effects for a long time. The traditional architecture in Turkey
has been formed with natural construction materials such as stone, adobe, brick, timber etc.
Therefore, the variations in natural environment and climate conditions in Turkey have caused
unfavorable effects on architectural buildings during and after the periods of Seljuks and Ottomans.
The monumental buildings deteriorated due to the temperature differences of seasons and day-night,
capillary movement of water inside the building, salts and other harmful chemicals, air pollution, etc.
Turkey from 7 geographical region for the 4 different climate seen in the first monumental buildings
connected to vary by region which can deteriorations.




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Deteriorations on Stone-Based Construction Materials Due to Climate
Both in Turkey and other countries, natural stones have been used as the construction materials of
many historical and cultural buildings and monuments. When the atmospheric contaminants join
together with the atmospheric factors such as rainfall, smog, humidity, wind, temperature and sun light
etc., they affect the natural stones used for the construction of monumental buildings in various
manners and cause damages and deteriorations differing with respect to the type of stones (Gökaltun,
1999).
The intervention decisions about the conservation of stones in historical buildings start with the
identification of the present conditions of the buildings. These conditions cover the determination of
geological characteristics of the area on which the building was constructed, the climatic conditions,
the effects of air pollution and natural disasters as well as the condition of the use of the building
during its lifetime and the interventions carried out during this period (Talu 2005).
The weathering of stone takes place due to chemical, physical, mechanical, and biological processes.
Physical weathering breaks stones into smaller pieces. The types of physical weathering include salt
crystallization, freezing-thawing cycles, thermal expansion, and loads, rot pressure of plants and
microorganisms, etc. (Shaffer 1972)
In general, the causes of deteriorations on the stone material due to climate can be classified as
“Temperature Effects”, “Atmospheric Effects” and “Deteriorations Due to Living-Beings”.
A. Temperature Effects
Stone has become the widely used construction material in ancient buildings due to its enormous
resistance against natural conditions when compared to other construction materials. However, stone
also wears out and deteriorates in the course of time because of some reasons, and also it is broken
into pieces. Good or bad status of the stones used for the construction of the old buildings affects the
protection and utilization of the building (Küçükkaya, 2004). The stone material of the old buildings
mostly deteriorates due to temperature differences and solar effects.
Thermal Expansions: The temperature changes between day-night and seasons bring about volume
changes such as expansion and shrinking. Moreover, continuous temperature changes cause the
cracks and breaks on stones as a result of the material fatigue (Küçükkaya, 2004). (Photographs 1-2)
Varying expansion amounts are the other effects of temperature on the stone material due to
temperature differences between the inward and outward of stone material. The thermal expansions
do not occur only because of hot weather but also freezing plays a great role on expansion. Since the
volume of water increases after freezing process, the frozen water in cracks presents a cotter effect,
enlarges the cracks and causes to have broken pieces of stones. When this event takes place for
several times, the broken upper layers of stones will be observed. Freezing-thawing process has a
significant effect on the deterioration of stones used at the regions facing with daily and seasonal
temperature differences.




Photograph 1. Spillages due to capillary water      Photograph 2. Capillary cracks on the walls of
absorption and thermal expansions on         the    Tol Madrasa in Karaman-Ermenek District in
exterior walls of Aksaray Sultan Han in Central     Mediterranean Region (cracks are not evident
Anatolia (Archive of M.Yıldız)                      due to low temperature differences)
Solar Effect: The colors of stones change in the course of time due to the temperature differences
between day and night. The faded stone surface takes a matt and pale appearance which is more
frequently seen in natural construction stones. Sometimes the color changes occur as vein shaped
dark spots (Küçükkaya, 2004). (Photographs 3-4-5-6).




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Photograph 3. Nevşehir Damat İbrahim Paşa            Photograph 4. Discoloration in Aksaray Zinciriye
Complex in Central Anatolia                          Madrasa due to water absorption




Photograph 5. Color change on the stone
surface due to capillary water absorption in         Photograph 6.  Color change at Sivas Buruciye
Amasya Gök Madrasa in Black Sea Region               Madrasa due to dense sunlight effect


B. Atmospheric Effects
Atmospheric movements and humidity are the unfavorable factors against protection purposes of
monumental buildings. Even the stone material is resistant against bad weather conditions, it also
goes through deterioration after a certain time period and sometimes disappears. Seriously large
damages can occur on soft stones due to the particles carried by winds, and stones can fracture and
break into pieces as a result of stresses sourced by temperature differences, freezing-thawing and
humidity events. The contaminated atmosphere, water and organisms bring about chemical melting on
stones, and usually the thin dust layer gets thick by forming a dirty layer on the stones and affects the
whole structures of the stones (Küçükkaya, 2004). The atmospheric effects causing the deterioration
of stone material used for monuments should be discussed under separate subtitles of “Water and
Humidity”, “Wind”, “Salts” and “Air Pollution”.
Water and Humidity: Humidity is one of the most important harmful factor against stone-made
constructions as for every construction materials. Limestone dissolves by the effects of rain water and
carbon dioxide. Additionally, the acid rains threatening stones are carried by rain water whose
capillary rise inside the building causes harmful effects on the construction materials. The soil between
groundwater level and earth surface holds water by capillarity where this event is called as “surface
water” or “capillary water” that can not be removed by using any drainage system (Günay 2002). The
humidity rising up the building can cause serious damages on the structure. At the same time, the
salts hold by the building itself can result in florescence and some other effects damaging the
chemical and physical structures of the walls (Ahunbay 1999). Many historical buildings from Seljuks
and Ottoman Periods have faced with that kind of problem due to humidity. (Photographs 7-8-9-10-11-
12).




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                                                 Photograph 8. Problems encountered due to
Photograph 7. Problems encountered due to
                                                 water and humidity at Ermenek Tol Madrasa in
water and humidity at Ermenek Tol Madrasa in
                                                 Mediterranean Region
Mediterranean Region




Photograph 9. Deteriorations due to soil water
capillarity in Kayseri Köşk Madrasa              Photograph 10. Deteriorations due to humidity
                                                 on the exterior facade of a house in Uşak City
                                                 existing in the Aegean Region




Photograph 11. Pores on the stone walls of       Photograph 12. Fractures due to humidity on the
Amasya Gök Madrasa                               walls of Amasya Gök Madrasa




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Photograph 13. Spillages of stone material at         Photograph 14.     Fragments        occurred    on
Ermenek Tol Madrasa                                   Amasya Torumtay Madrasa


Wind: The seed transport and placement in the cavities and joints of roofs and walls by the help of
wind factor sometimes causes to have trees (fig, ailanthus etc.) grown on the facades of many
neglected historical buildings. This event accelerates the deteriorations on the monumental buildings.
Additionally, if wind presents its harmful effects together with sea salts and sands, serious surface
weatherings will be inevitable on the monumental buildings. (Photographs 15-16).




Photograph 15. Surface weathering due to              Photograph 16.  Trees grown in Sahabiye
winds in Cappadocia Region                            Madrasa in Kayseri City of Central Anatolia by
                                                      the help of winds’ seed-transport

Water Soluble Salts: Salts are frequently met weathering factors on historical buildings whose each
humid structural member involves more or less salt amount that is soluble in their bodies
(Tavukçuoğlu, 2000). Water soluble salts are carried by water or any other ways to the pores and
cracks of the stones, and as a result of evaporation of water, the remaining salts accumulate on the
stone surface and at the capillary cracks of stone. The existence of water soluble salts in stone
buildings causes to have mineralogical and textural deteriorations little by little in the course of time.
(Photographs 17-18-19-20). Furthermore, salt crystallization is another primary effect resulting in
deteriorations on the buildings and monuments constructed with limestone (Gökçen, 2007).




Photograph 17. Salination due to dense rainfalls at    Photograph 18. Salination due to humidity at
Amasya Gök Madrasa in Black Sea Region                 Ermenek Tol Madrasa in Mediterranean
                                                       Region




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Photograph 19. Salination due to groundwater          Photograph 20. Salination on the walls of
effect at Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Madrasa in            Amasya Gök Madrasa in Black Sea Region
Central Anatolia

Deteriorations Due to Air Pollution: Air pollution is also one of the most significant factor affecting
the construction material of stone. Besides the considerable deteriorating effects of gas and ion
solutions carried to the surface of the buildings by the help of rain water, the atmosphere movements,
wind, rainfall and snow cause weathering on the outer surfaces of stones. (Küçükkaya, 2004).
Chemical weathering erodes the stones changing their compositions by chemical reactions such as
dissolution, hydrolysis and oxidation processes of the stone minerals. Chemical weathering is mostly
due to the effects of air pollution (Talu 2005)
The meteorological factors such as wind, relative humidity, fog, sun light and solar radiation cause to
have faded stones. ( Photographs 21-22-23).            The existence of dense or loose air pollution
considerably depends on the position and formation of the region on the world that air pollution is the
only factor on the brightness loss of limestone (Gökaltun 1999).




Photograph 21. Color change due to air pollution    Photograph 22. Color change due to sunlight
and sunlight effects on the wall surfaces of        and meteorological factors on the crown portal of
Aksaray Ağzıkarahan (Tavukçuoğlu, 2000)             Sivas Buruciye Madrasa




Photograph 23. Deteriorations due to climate on the stone structural members of Sırçalı Madrasa in
Central Anatolia




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C. Deteriorations Due to Living-Beings
Lichens and mosses appearing in winter months with increasing humidity related to climate speeds up
the deteriorations on monumental buildings. The non-removal of rain water from damaged roof covers
or any joints of the building lays the groundwork for the growing of mosses and plants on the building.(
Photographs 24-25) The elimination of these serious damages will be possible only by the regular
maintenance of the monumental building (Ahunbay 1999).
Biological weathering can be described as the disintegration of stone and stone minerals due to the
chemical and/or physical effects of an organism that change the stone color or slow down the decay
process of stone. In general, the biological weathering takes place by the help of plants, animals,
fungus, algae, bacteria, lichen etc. In nature, more than one process takes place and it is difficult to
verify the main causes of the weathering. The investigation of the causes of weathering types of
stones in historical buildings is an interdisciplinary work including the study of many researchers from
different disciplines as architectures, engineers, chemists, biologists, archeologists, art historians, etc.
(Talu 2005).




Photograph 24. Deterioration due to roof water
at Ürgüp İbrahim Paşa Village                         Photograph 25. Florescences due to humidity
                                                      and wind effects on the crown door of Dündar
                                                      Bey Madrasa in Eğirdir District of Isparta City

Deteriorations on Wooden Type Construction Materials Due to Climates
Past to present, the wooden material used for house construction purposes of human-beings have
faced with deteriorations due to physical, chemical, biological, climatic and human-related reasons.
The most significant property of wooden construction materials is their changing volumes due to the
humidity traffic between wooden material and its environment in order to balance the humidity ratio of
itself with respect to its environment (Peker et al., 2006). In the scope of the research, the
deteriorations on wooden construction materials due to physical reasons were investigated under two
subtitles of “Water and Humidity” and “Atmospheric Effects”
A. Water and Humidity: Wooden construction materials are usually faced with deteriorations due to
ground water, rainfall, condensing water and water leakage from the water distribution system of the
building. The increasing self-humidity ratio of the wooden construction material unfavorably affects the
elasticity of the wooden material together with the resistance properties against deteriorations and
decays. Moreover, the humid wooden material will become an appropriate living environment for the
harmful organisms such as fungus, insect, etc. (Photographs 26-27)
B. Atmospheric Effects
In our study, the factors such as rainfall (precipitation, snow, hail), freezing event, solar radiation, air
pollution, wind and earthquakes were considered in the scope of atmospheric events. The wooden
structural members lose their resisting properties due to rainfalls. And when they are subjected to
solar radiation for long years, they encounter with various deterioration types such as weathering,
darkening, combustion, etc. Moreover, the wooden members under the influence of air pollution for a
long period of time also deteriorate in terms of fading (Photographs 28-29)




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                                                    Photograph 27. Deteriorations due to water
Photograph 26. The effect of humidity and water     effect at a historical mansion in Uşak City of
on the wooden material of a house construction      Aegean Region
in Cumalıkazık Village of Bursa City in Marmara
Rregion (Peker et al., 2006)




Photograph 28. Effects of atmospheric events
on the wooden material of a house construction      Photograph 29. Weathering, combustion and
in Cumalıkazık Village of Bursa City in Marmara     darkening at the wooden bay members of a
Region (Peker et al., 2006)                         house construction in ErmenekDistrict of
                                                    Mediterranean Region

Conclusion
Anatolia has become the host of many nations throughout the history and left many historical-cultural
heritages up to now. Today, there are many historical buildings such as caravansaries, Turkish baths,
madrasas, mosques, bridges and civilian architecture examples located in various regions of Anatolia.
They have been constructed using stone and wood i.e. natural construction materials that today
serious deteriorations are observed on them. These deteriorations have occurred not only because of
the age of the structures but also mostly due to the environmental conditions and factors. Climate can
be defined as the entire atmospheric events such as rainfall, temperature, wind, pressure and humidity
that cause certain damages on the monumental buildings in the course of time.
Living four different seasons in Turkey cause some problems against monumental buildings. The most
important factor related to the deteriorations encountered on the monumental structures of Turkey is
the “humidity” factor. In general, water and moisture act on structures as “rising from soil”,
“condensing” and “rain water”. The humidity factor also causes problems related to water soluble salts.
Consequently, the deteriorations related to climate conditions on the monumental buildings in Turkey
present regional differences and occur due to temperature differences between seasons and day-
night, the capillary movement of water within the structural members of the building, the weathering
effects of rain water, salts and various chemicals existing in water, particles carried by winds and air
pollution. But regional temperature and precipitation caused by a team consisting of differences in
structure translate it to different aspects of corruption that have been observed. For example, heavy
rainfall areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea region in the structure of water and moisture more
on source of corruption, while the temperature difference is more pronounced in the Central Anatolia,
East Anatolia Region in which such deterioration under the influence of the sun and air that have been
identified.



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