Berlin in May and when American airmen dropped atomic bombs by liaoqinmei


									    Berlin in May 1945, and when American airmen dropped atomic bombs on                             and to build subsidiary plants using American-style techniques overseas, which
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki three months later.                                                       they did energetically in the 1920s. The depression and World War II interrupted
    World War II killed about 3 percent of the world's 1940 population, some 60                      the emergence of American business on the world scene, but after 1945 American
million people, including large numbers of civilians. It was a war of movement, mainly               business enjoyed a double windfall. Industry elsewhere lay in ruins and the
because of new technologies such as the tank and aircraft. So armies and civilians came              American government was prepared, as never before, to undertake management
in routine contact, with sometimes horrible consequences, especially in China, and in                of the world economy.
Eastern Europe where the Soviet and German armies fought. The Germans and their                        Remembering the fiascos of peacemaking in 1919, the Allies in World War II
accomplices also murdered about 6 million Jews. Most of the fighting, and especially              insisted upon unconditional surrender so they could dictate terms to Germany and
the dying, took place in eastern China and the western USSR. The USSR lost perhaps 25             Japan. The Allies quickly quarreled, but nonetheless managed to reconstruct a
million to the war, two-thirds of them civilians, Poland lost 6 million (half of whom             stable order very quickly. The Americans did most of the managing. They sponsored
were Jews), Germany 4.5 million, Japan 2.4 million, Yugoslavia 1.6 million, and China             and bankrolled a new slate of international institutions intended to make sure that
maybe 15 million, although that figure is only a guess. The Americans, whose factories            the disasters of depression and world war did not recur. The United Nations was
did so much to win the war, lost 290,000 in battle and 400,000 in all, about the same as          expected to look after issues of world politics. Agreements and institutions were
Britain and Greece, rather less than France.                                                      hatched to attend to the world's financial system (the Bretton Woods Agreement
                                                                                                  giving rise to the International Monetary Fund or IMF, and the World Bank),
                                                                                                  international trade (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs, forerunner of the
                                                                                                  World Trade Organization), health (World Health Organization), and much more.
   The United States emerged from World War II as the first global superpower.                    The point was to succeed where the League of Nations had failed: to check
   Imperial Rome and China had held unrivaled sway regionally, but never before had               nationalism, autarky, militarism, and other evils by enrolling countries in a set of
   any state exercised such global reach. The United States had the world's biggest               clubs with rules. This new regime was intended to reglobalize the world, but in a
   navy, it had (briefly) a monopoly on nuclear weapons, it had (briefly) about half the          less anarchic way than had happened between 1870 and 1914, so that the
   world's industrial capacity, and all the world owed its bankers money. It also enjoyed         resentments that experience generated would not erupt again.
   great prestige. Some of these advantages were simply the result of victory and the                  Domestic policy in the United States and most of its allies followed this general
   prostration of the other major powers: the United States had not had its cities                goal: it was designed to soften the blows inherent in participating in the
   flattened, its industries blown up, its population decimated. But others derived from          international economy. This took various forms, but usually involved commitments
   longer-term processes dating back to the 1800s. The United States had become the               to full employment and/or unemployment insurance, pensions, and subsidies for
   world's largest industrial power around 1890, and for the next forty years was the             farmers and some other primary producers (often the coal or oil industries). It
   "tiger" of the world economy, growing at five to seven percent per year. The key to            obliged the state to regulate social and economic life, raise taxes to levels formerly
   American power, amply demonstrated in World War II, was the efficiency of its                  reached only in wartime, and cultivate the arts of economic management. As
   heavy industry, symbolized by the moving assembly line, which made production                  ancient states had rested on an alliance between throne and altar, and could not do
   faster and cheaper. Henry Ford installed the first electrified assembly line in a car          without their high priests, modern ones came to depend on an alliance between
   factory in 1912. His workers hated it, and he had to pay double the going rate to keep         cabinet and boardroom (government and business), with economists increasingly
   them. This allowed them to become his customers as well: two months' wages could               serving as the high priests.
   buy a Model-T Ford. The symbiosis of mass production methods and a                                  So the United States, with a little help from its friends, organized a new
   comparatively well paid labor force amounted to a social contract (sometimes called            international regime based ultimately on American economic and military power,
   Fordism) that undergirded American democracy after World War I. As millions of                 but mediated by a set of international agreements and institutions. It was, in some
   workers became consumers, businesses enjoyed larger and larger production runs,                ways, an extension of the wartime cooperation after 1941, and in other ways a
   lowering their costs further. Cheap energy and mass production made U.S. industrial            reaction to the depression and its autarkic policies. It was, in essence, a search for
   firms the most competitive in the world. This allowed them to export successfully              security from the horrors of 1914-45 in a form compatible with American traditions
                                                                                                  and preferences.
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     This postwar arrangement nudged the world toward reglobalization. It raised the        superpower). Mao's forces had shown themselves more committed and heroic in
speed limits on the cosmopolitan web, as information, money, goods, and technology          fighting the Japanese, and usually abstained from the reckless abuse of peasant
all began to move around much faster than before 1945. Thanks to its power and              populations that the Guomindang troops engaged in. The Communists offered a
prestige, the United States achieved a high degree of political and military cooperation    program that bore strong resemblance to that of the Taipings nearly a century
among its friends. U.S. allies found the rewards of taking part in this arrangement         before: peasants should dispossess landlords, women should be free from male
usually outweighed the irksomeness of American arrogance. Thanks to the new rules,          oppression, Confucian hierarchy should be replaced by social equality, discipline
the efficiency of its industry, and some occasional help from the government, U.S.          and morality should prevail—and foreigners should go home. It replaced the
businesses after 1945 spearheaded a rapid— but partial—economic reglobalization.            idiosyncratic syncretic theology of the Taipings with an ideology that
     Stalin mistrusted the whole enterprise. He remembered that the United States,          accommodated Marxist principles, as refracted through Lenin's writings and Soviet
Britain, and Japan had tried to quash the Bolshevik Revolution by intervening in the        experience, to Chinese realities. Whereas Marx had complained of the "idiocy of
Russian Civil War. He suspected that in World War II the Americans and British had          rural life," and the Soviets had ruthlessly exploited the USSR's peasants, Mao pro-
delayed opening a second front (originally promised in 1942 but only delivered in June      claimed that peasants (of which China had many, including Mao's parents), and not
1944 with the D-Day landings in France) so as to let the USSR bear the brunt of fighting    merely proletarians (of which China had few), could be a revolutionary class. With
the Germans. His ideological training told him that capitalism was communism's              this program, good military organization, excellent lieutenants, a little help from
mortal foe. And he was by nature mistrustful to the point of paranoia.                      Stalin and a lot from Guomindang ineptitude, Mao won control over mainland
     He wanted a postwar order that ensured that the USSR would never relive the            China (not Taiwan) by October 1949.
rigors of 1941—45. His highest priorities were a weak Germany and the creation of                The Chinese Revolution briefly created a Communist bloc of a size to rival the
pliant buffer states between the USSR and Germany. He did not care about                    American-led one. It showed its strength in the Korean War (1950-53) when Chinese
safeguarding the world economy from depression, since he could not expose his               armies fought successfully against an American-led coalition, leaving Korea divided.
planned economy to its chaotic swings anyway. When the Americans showed an                  But the Chinese and Soviets never achieved smooth cooperation. They had doctrinal
inclination to rebuild Germany and Japan in their quest for a revitalized world             differences about Marxism. They had a history of intermittent Russo-Chinese
economy, this looked to Stalin like conspiracy against the USSR. Stalin had the largest     friction dating back to the 1680s. They both had strong nationalist leanings and
army in the world in 1945, and because much of it was in Eastern Europe, he was able to     favored economic autarky. They had conflicting ideas about how to confront the
get the pliant buffer states he wanted, including the eastern third of Germany. He          capitalist enemy: Stalin and, after his death in 1953, his successors took a cautious
joined the United Nations in 1945 but refused to take part in the institutions erected to   approach, whereas Mao thought there were enough Chinese that he could afford to
manage the world economy, and declined to accept any share of the money that the
                                                                                            risk nuclear attack by the Americans. This cavalier position understandably scared
United States offered to Europe for reconstruction through the Marshall Plan, begun in                                     **
                                                                                            the wits out of the Soviets.
1947. Stalin used the tool he had, the Red Army, to consolidate control over Eastern
                                                                                                 So, ten years after they had become allies in socialist solidarity, China and the
Europe, which included removing much of its industry to the USSR. The Americans,
                                                                                            USSR had a falling out: this was the beginning of the end for the USSR. In 1968-69,
meanwhile, used the tool they had, money, to rebuild Western Europe's industry and
                                                                                            their armies clashed along their long frontier. Henceforth, the Soviets felt they had
thereby create bonds that assured voluntarily pliant states, especially Britain and West
                                                                                            to station a good chunk of their military forces along the Chinese border. Then, in
Germany. The U.S.-Soviet rivalry became the Cold War, in full career by 1948.
                                                                                            the early 1970s, China played the American card, initiating diplomacy with the
     Chinese peasants and Soviet physicists improved Stalin's position in the Cold War
in 1949. First, his physicists, with help from his spies, provided him with an atomic
                                                                                              In 1957, Mao told Premier Nikita Khrushchev: "We shouldn't be afraid of atomic missiles. No matter
bomb, ending the American monopoly-—a long stride toward military parity. Then, in
                                                                                            what kind of war breaks out—conventional or thermonuclear—we'll win. As for China, if the
October, a peasant army directed by the Chinese Communist Party, itself led by Mao          imperialists unleash war on us, we may lose more than 300 million people. So what? War is war. The
Zedong, defeated the Guomindang in a civil war and reunified China. In World War II         years will pass and we'll get to work producing more babies than ever before." Khrushchev
the Japanese had claimed they were going to stamp out communism in China, but they          Remembers: The Last Testament, trans, and ed. Strobe Talbott (Boston, 1974), 255. Or so
                                                                                            Khrushchev claimed: he had reasons to disparage Mao.
inadvertently helped bring it to power (as Hitler inadvertently helped make the USSR a

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                                                                                               vicious, and unpopular war. By the mid-1980s, almost no one believed in the Soviet
United States that left the Soviets feeling encircled. All this added to military costs that   dream any more.
their economy could ill afford to bear. By the 1970s, they had approached the limits of             With both finances and legitimacy crumbling, the leader who took over in 1985,
what their command economy could achieve. They had shifted most of the peasantry               Mikhail Gorbachev (born 1931), desperately allowed more freedom of information
into urban employment while mechanizing most agriculture. They had put women to                and expression, hoping to revive the economy by exposing Soviet society to new
work outside the domestic sphere on a large scale (obliging Soviet women to shoulder           ideas and technologies. A fire in a nuclear reactor at Chernobyl in 1986, initially
the double burdens of wage work plus domestic work, a powerful disincentive to                 covered up by Soviet officials, became an embarrassing international disaster,
childbearing). Both these shifts raised productivity significantly. But these were cards       sprinkling radiation throughout the northern hemisphere—and underscoring the
that could only be played once. The Soviet system discouraged technical and                    necessity of a more open society. But openness let the genie of minority—and
organizational innovation because there was no competitive market for goods, no                Russian—nationalisms out of the bottle and Gorbachev was not prepared to stuff it
rewards for innovators. So the Soviets extended an industrial system built on coal and         back in. He had been only thirteen years old when German troops left Soviet soil,
steel, the cutting edge of the 1870s, instead of constantly reinventing it. This made it       and he did not feel the visceral attachment to the buffer states of Eastern Europe
technically and financially difficult to maintain a formidable military-industrial             that all his predecessors had. In i953, 1956, and 1968 Soviet troops had quelled
complex. Soviet agriculture missed out on crop-breeding developments, remained                 uprisings in Eastern Europe. As late as 1981, when Polish workers led an uprising in
stagnant, and by the late 1970s could not feed the Soviet population.                          Gdansk, Soviet authorities ruthlessly pressured the Polish government to suppress
     In the 1960s and 1970s, Soviet rulers responded to these weaknesses by becoming a         it. But Gorbachev saw things differently, and his views narrowly prevailed over hard-
major exporter of Siberian oil and gas to Western Europe. Moreover, cheap oil helped           liners who wanted to rely on trusted policies of repression at home and adventurism
bond the Eastern European satellites, who could not afford world prices, to the Soviet         abroad. In 1989, Gorbachev refused to intervene to prevent East Germans from
empire. When world oil prices tripled in 1973 and again in 1979, the USSR briefly              fleeing to West Germany, and soon the entire set of buffer states had slipped from
became a giant oil sheikdom, able to import consumer goods, new technology, and,               the Soviet orbit. Then in 1991 the USSR itself fell apart, largely because its Russian
gallingly, American grain. This bubble burst when oil prices collapsed in 1984-86,             component sought greater authority, and its other fourteen constituent republics
undermining Soviet finances. The Soviet economy had become less autarkic, and found            acquired their independence from Moscow. The Soviets lost the Cold War for the
itself once again vulnerable to the whiplash of international price fluctuations.              same reason the Axis lost World War II: they could not create an interactive,
      Soviet political legitimacy suffered too. New contacts and communications                cooperative, innovative, international economy to match the American-led one.
undermined the Soviet social contract. The USSR had always justified daily hardships           They remained too wedded to the autarkic economy Stalin had built, which could
with extravagant promises of a rosy future. This seemed plausible for a while, especially      not sustain global political competition for long. The reason they lost the Cold War
when the economy grew briskly. Ordinary citizens by the r95os knew they were                   peacefully was that Gorbachev prevailed over his elders and rivals.
materially better off than their parents and grandparents, and if they had to accept                Yet the Cold War was not all competition. Although locked in struggle, the
tight political control, that seemed acceptable to many. This was the social contract of       United States and the USSR cooperated too. The Americans and the Soviets had a
the USSR. As long as the economy performed satisfactorily, it worked well enough that          strong mutual interest in preventing large-scale war. They succeeded in this,
after Stalin's death the repressive police state could relax somewhat. But after the 1970s     paradoxically, by building huge nuclear arsenals so that the costs of all-out war
it became increasingly obvious that the USSR's economy could not continue to deliver           became unacceptable to sane people, and happily no insane ones came to power.
the goods. When the tight grip on information was relaxed, some people learned—via             They also unwillingly shared information by spying on one another so effectively
travel, movies, or West German TV available in East Germany—the degree to which                that neither side could hide much from the other. By the 1980s, spy satellites could
they were doing without. New information changed their frame of reference: it no               detect anything on the ground larger than a beer keg. The Americans and Soviets
longer seemed so relevant that they were better off than their grandparents when they          checked the belligerence of their most reckless generals, politicians, and overseas
were visibly worse off than Germans or Italians. To make matters worse, the Soviets            clients, allowing only proxy wars fought in poor regions (Angola, Southeast Asia)
invaded Afghanistan in 1979 to shore up a client dictator, but ended up fighting a long,       where defeat or victory mattered—to them at any rate—mainly in terms of prestige.
                                                                                               From the late 1950s, the two superpowers engaged in academic and cultural

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exchanges. In the 1970s, such cooperation intensified, trade links developed, and            bureaucratic empire. The Ottoman Empire vanished forever. It had lost most of its
leaders even revived the practice of summit meetings that Stalin and Roosevelt had           Balkan territory before 1914 to the surging nationalisms of Greeks, Serbs, and
inaugurated.                                                                                 Bulgarians. It lost its Arab lands in the 1919 peace settlement, which awarded them
     And of course the pressures of the Cold War encouraged unusually close                  to France and Britain through the League of Nations. A similar parceling out of
cooperation among the United States and its allies. Not only did it underwrite the           Turkish territory was planned, but the Turkish nationalist revolution, led by
international institutions mentioned above, the United States oversaw the                    Mustafa Kemal (1881—1938), prevented that. Kemal happily accepted the end of
reconstruction of Japan and permitted access to American markets for Japanese                empire, preferring to found a Turkish nation-state, but he refused to let Kurds (a
business. It created numerous military alliances in Europe, South Asia, and East Asia. It    large minority in eastern Turkey) go their way, bequeathing a vexing problem to
financed academic exchanges on an unprecedented scale. Its corporations set up shop          modern Turkey. The Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved into four separate
in dozens of countries and it allowed foreign firms to operate in the United States.         European states in 1919, each with its own restless ethnic minorities (bits of the
Indeed, this sort of cooperation was a big part of what made the American side more          empire were also awarded to other nearby states). So the initial burst of
formidable than the Soviet one. The Soviets, for their part, despite their rift with the     decolonization created only a few new states before it ended, and left plenty of
Chinese and the uprisings in Eastern Europe, organized an economically loose but             problems for the future. Three of the new states (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary)
militarily tight cooperation among their allies. And several states of Western Europe,       became Soviet satellites in the late 1940s, and thus had to achieve independence a
led by former rivals France and Germany, formed the European Economic Community              second time in 1989—90.
(EEC) in the 1950s, intended among other things to prevent the United States and the              Ireland, or at least most of it, also won independence from Britain after World
USSR from fully dominating Europe. The EEC gradually embraced both more countries            War I. Irish agitation for freedom dated back centuries, motivated by economic
and more responsibilities. By the 1990s, now called the European Union, it functioned        grievance and Catholic-Protestant friction, but during World War I Irish
as something of a superstate, exerting strong pressures on members to conform in             nationalists took advantage of Britain's heavy commitment in France and organized
matters of economic, agricultural, and migration policy, and weaker pressures in             a rebellion in 1916. British troops suppressed it, but after the war the British
matters of the environment, education, or technical standards. Thus, the Cold War,           government decided that maintaining a grip on Ireland would be too costly. So after
while on the surface an affair of relentless competition, furthered cooperation and          much negotiation the Republic of Ireland was born in 1922, leaving only the small
integration, mostly on the American side, but also within the Soviet bloc and even           territory of Northern Ireland, with its majority of Protestants, in British hands. This
between the two blocs.                                                                       arrangement too left many problems for the future.
                                                                                                  A second and larger burst of decolonization came between 1943 and 1975,
                                                                                             liberating most of the world's colonies. The key to this process was the political
                                                                                             restructuring of colonial societies. Original efforts at resistance to industrial
While the great powers engaged in hot and cold wars, they lost their empires. By 1914,       imperialism had been violent and often suicidal. The struggle required new
the industrial powers had acquired dominion over most of the globe, and in the 1930s,        weapons. Africans, Indians, and others took advantage of the opportunities made
Japan and Italy extended their empires into China and Ethiopia respectively. But as          available by the new communications and transport technologies. Some studied in
early as 1918, the world's empires began to unravel under the strains of total war, the      Europe or the United States and learned about political struggles elsewhere. They
impact of nationalisms, the diffusion of information in general, and the arts of political   formed political pressure groups, the first of note being the Congress (now the
mobilization in particular. By i960, the technological and military gaps separating the      Congress Party), founded in India as early as 1885. These groups tried to harness the
weakest from the strongest were greater than in 1914, but even the weakest were              bonding power of nationalism, which worked well in ethnically homogenous
becoming well enough organized to convince their colonial masters that imperialism           colonies such as Vietnam or Korea. Elsewhere nationalists forged transethnic
did not pay.                                                                                 political alliances, trying to create a nation where none had existed before. This was
     World War I had broken up the Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires            especially important in Africa, where ethnic fragmentation prevailed, partly a result
in western Eurasia. The Bolsheviks quickly reconstituted the Russian one, equipping it       of divide-and-rule policies of colonial states. Anticolonial intellectuals made
with new ideology and accepting different borders, but restoring centralized                 common cause across the world from the 1920s. The depression made life harder in

                                             4                                                                                            301
most colonies, raising rebellious sentiments higher. Colonial economies generally had a      weaknesses of France—and of Britain. In response to quarrels over the financing of
vulnerability that well-organized anticolonial nationalists could exploit. State revenues    the Aswan Dam project, Egypt's leader, Colonel Nasser, seized the Suez Canal,
depended on exports of crops or minerals, which passed through the bottlenecks of            hitherto managed by the British. Britain, France, and Israel mounted a surprise
railroad lines and ports. So, when railway men or dockers went on strike, the colonial       attack on Egypt, but the United States threatened to cut off the oil and dollars that
state risked insolvency, a fact eagerly exploited by nationalists from the 1930s on.         kept Britain and France afloat, forcing a humiliating withdrawal. France and Britain
     In many ways, World War II set the stage for the final drama. Millions of men from      needed full American support to withstand the challenges posed by anticolonial
India, Indochina, Africa, and elsewhere had their horizons broadened by overseas             nationalism, and they clearly did not have it. Partisans of African independence
military service. They learned modern military skills. They heard American and British       took note and took heart, redoubling their efforts. By 1963, almost all of Africa had
propaganda explain that the war was fought for freedom. Some of them, especially in          acquired its freedom, though in Mozambique and Angola nationalists had to fight
India and North Africa, heard Japanese and German propaganda tell them that the hour         on until 1975 against Portugal.
had come to cast off the shackles of colonial rule. Moreover, World War II completely             The next stage of decolonization came with the collapse of the USSR, described
destroyed the empires of Italy and Japan, soon freeing Ethiopians, Libyans, and Koreans      above. Several small islands and enclaves remain colonies, dependencies, or UN
from foreign control. It also weakened the finances and resolve of France, Holland, and      trust territories today, although their combined population is tiny. China remains
Britain. In the course of the war Syria and Lebanon became fully independent from            an empire of sorts, controlling Muslim and Tibetan populations that, if free to
France. And, after decades of boycotts, strikes, and marches against British rule, in        choose, would certainly go their own ways. So does Indonesia, an archipelago in
World War II Indians made considerable blood sacrifice on behalf of the British,             which several populations would probably prefer to be free from Javanese control.
rendering it possible for them to negotiate their independence in 1947.                      But, unmistakably, the Age of Empire created by the great inequalities forged in the
     Elsewhere after the war, France, Holland, and Britain tried to reassert colonial        eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is now past. The subordination of the weak to
control, notably in Southeast Asia where the Japanese army had driven them out in            the strong takes other forms.
1941—42. But rising nationalisms in Southeast Asia now required a stronger                        The dismantling of empires since 1918 created well over a hundred new
commitment than the colonial powers could make. The Dutch gave up in Indonesia in            countries. Most of them remained weak and subservient to powerful outsiders. The
1949, turning the country over to men who had honed their political and military skills      political skills that hastened decolonization did not easily translate into good
in cooperating with the Japanese occupiers. Vietnamese forces humiliated the French in       government. Transethnic unity proved elusive once the imperial master was gone.
1954, but because the anticolonial nationalists were also Communists, the United States      Successful industrialization required investment, skills, and markets that often
gradually made France's war its own. This led to a long and bloody struggle before the       scarcely existed. Rapid population growth made it hard to maintain living
Americans gave up in 1975.                                                                   standards, especially in Africa. The most economically successful ex-colonies were
     In Africa, the war mattered too, if less so than in Asia. Again, the underlying issue   both among the most brutally ruled (South Korea) and most gently (Cyprus, Hong
was the development of political organization, skill, and commitment on the part of          Kong). They owed their good fortune to their comparatively well educated
anticolonial nationalists. They raised the costs of continued imperialism beyond the         populations, to ethnic solidarity that made nationalism a force for unity (Cyprus
level that France and Britain could stomach. At first, as in Southeast Asia, the colonial    excepted), and in some cases to their strategic location that inclined the United
powers tried to strengthen their control, and invested in new infrastructure and eco-        States to favor them. A prosperous and stable South Korea and Taiwan, for example,
nomic development schemes. In this they sought cooperation from among the                    helped in the struggle against communism in East Asia, so financial assistance and
educated elite, and also the blessing of the United States, which had its doubts about       access to American markets suited American interests there.
continued European colonialism, at least where Communists were not involved.                      The de-Sovietized states after 1991 fared poorly too. Their economies shrank by
     But events overtook these plans. A nasty and increasingly unpopular war in Algeria      10-30 percent as their industries proved uncompetitive internationally. Uzbekistan,
(1954-62) finally convinced France to give up its empire in Africa. Algerian and             for example, had specialized in growing the world's lowest quality cotton, which
Moroccan manpower had become essential to the French colonial forces due to the              after 1991 found few buyers. Many ex-Soviet states had little coal or oil of their own
scarcity of young Frenchmen, so with the loss of its North African colonies France could     and after 1991 missed Soviet energy subsidies. Russia itself collapsed economically,
not resist mounting pressures for independence. The Suez crisis in 1956 exposed further      in sharp contrast to the experience of Japan, Britain, France, Portugal, and Holland,

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each of which enjoyed record prosperity after dismantling empires. The Soviet years
had saddled all the successor states with acute environmental problems, latent (and
now resurgent) ethnic struggles, and singularly stodgy political elites. Of the former
Soviet satellites, Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic seemed the best candidates
to emulate South Korea and Taiwan, able to harness nationalism, create a stable polity
with some legitimacy, and haltingly embark on the road to prosperity.

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