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					Building the Professional
  Learning Community
     Essential Questions
       Essential Questions
• How do we build high quality essential
  questions?



• How does sharing our work help to build
  a professional learning community
  across the Diocese?
Questioning and Problem Posing


Having a questioning attitude.
Developing strategies to produce
needed data. Finding problems to solve.


                 How do you know?
      QUESTIONING WITH
         INTENTION
UNPRODUCTIVE QUESTIONS:
 1. Verification questions the answers to that are
 already known to you or to the student:
     “What is the name of...........?”
     “How many times did you .......?”
        QUESTIONING WITH
           INTENTION
UNPRODUCTIVE                QUESTIONS:
 2.    Closed questions that can be answered
      "yes", "no" , or "I can".
      “Can you recite the poem?”
      “Can you tell us the name of .....?”
      “Who can remember.....?”
         QUESTIONING WITH
            INTENTION
UNPRODUCTIVE QUESTIONS:
    3. Rhetorical questions in which the answer
         is given within the question:
   "In what year was the War of 1812?"
   "Since when has Mikhail Gorbachev
     had his birth mark?"
    "So how much is 3 x 4: twelve. OK?"
    "Who can name the three basic parts of
     a plant? Root, stems and leaves, right?"
        QUESTIONING WITH
           INTENTION
UNPRODUCTIVE QUESTIONS:
  4. Defensive questions that cause
      justification, resistance and
      self-protection:
     "Why didn't you complete your homework?"
     "Why would you do a thing like that?"
     "Are you misbehaving again?"
      QUESTIONING WITH
         INTENTION
UNPRODUCTIVE QUESTIONS:
     5. Agreement questions the intent of
     which is to seek agreement with
     your opinion or answer
    "This is really the best solution, isn't it?
    "Let's do it my way, O. K.?”
    "We really should get started now,
    shouldn't we?”
QUESTIONING WITH
       INTENTION:
1. Are invitational:
        Approachable voice,
              Plurals,
         Tentativeness,
         Invitational stems
2. Positive presuppositions
    3. Complex levels
A Credible Voice




An Approachable Voice
        PLURALS
"What are some of your goals?”
"What ideas do you have?"

"What outcomes do you seek?"

"What alternatives are you
considering?
       TENTATIVENESS

“What might be some factors that
would cause……?”

 “In what other ways could you
  solve this problem?”

"What hunches do you have that may
explain this situation?”
  INVITATIONAL STEMS:
“As you recall….”
“As you anticipate…….”
“As you envision……”
“Given what you know about…….”
   PRESUPPOSITIONS:
 Hidden meanings below the
    surface of language.
For example:
“Why would you include that in
 your map?”
         LIMITING
     PRESUPPOSITIONS
 “DO YOU HAVE AN OBJECTIVE?”
“WHY WERE YOU UNSUCCESSFUL?”
 “IF ONLY YOU HAD LISTENED.”
    EMPOWERING
  PRESUPPOSITIONS
 “WHAT ARE SOME OF THE
GOALS THAT YOU HAVE IN
MIND FOR THIS MEETING?”
 EMPOWERING
PRESUPPOSITIONS
“AS YOU CONSIDER YOUR
  ALTERNATIVES WHAT
SEEMS MOST PROMISING?”
   EMPOWERING
 PRESUPPOSITIONS

    “WHAT PERSONAL
LEARNINGS OR INSIGHTS
WILL YOU CARRY FORWARD
TO FUTURE SITUATIONS?”
   QUESTIONS TO ANALYZE
          TEXT
Applying past knowledge to new situations:
 How does the passage relate to events or
 experiences that you have had? How does
 knowing the findings of the scientist help you
 to understand the physical world?
Questioning and posing problems: What
 problems led the scientist to pursue
 experimentation?
Thinking about thinking How did the author
 cause you to think? to feel?
    REACH FOR COMPLEX
        THINKING


• AFTER LOOKING AT THE DATA,
  WHAT QUESTIONS DID THE DATA
  RAISE FOR YOU?


         HABIT OF MIND: QUESTIONING AND
         PROBLEM POSING
        DATA ANALYSIS


• What additional information might be
  helpful for us to gather in order to
  understand the information better?


   HABIT OF MIND: GATHERING DATA THROUGH
   ALL THE SENSES
  QUESTIONS TO ANALYZE
TEXT USING HABITS OF MIND
Applying past knowledge to new situations:
 How does the passage relate to events or
 experiences that you have had? How does
 knowing the findings of the scientist help you
 to understand the physical world?
Questioning and posing problems: What
 problems led the scientist to pursue
 experimentation?
Thinking about thinking How did the author
 cause you to think? to feel?
          Group Activity
• Form a group of four people

• Analyze the questions and identify one
  question that you think meets the
  criteria that we have just learned and
  one that needs improvement. Modify
  the one that needs improvement.
Essential Questions
 What is an Essential Question?
• As you start to plan for a unit or a series
  of lessons, you need to ask:

  – What are the big ideas the students need to
    engage with?
  – What are the key concepts?
  – What is it that I hope they will remember well
    beyond this particular study?
  – At what level of the taxonomy do you want the
    stduents to be engaged?
The Three Story Intellect
       There are one-story intellects, two
       story intellects, and three-story
       intellects with skylights. All fact
       collectors, who have no aim beyond
       their facts, are one-story men.
       Two-story men compare, reason,
       generalize, using the labors of the
       fact collectors as well as their own.
       Three-story men idealize, imagine,
       predict--their best illumination
       comes
       from above, through the skylight.
                       Oliver Wendell Holmes
The Three Story Intellect




   Complete Identify   Observe
   Count      List     Recite
                                 Input
   Define     Match    Select
   Describe   Name     Scan
The Three Story Intellect




   Compare    Distinguish   Analyze
   Contrast   Explain       Synthesize
                                             Process
   Classify   Infer         Make analogies
   Sort       Sequence      Reason
   Complete Identify        Observe
   Count      List          Recite
                                              Input
   Define     Match         Select
   Describe   Name          Scan
The Three Story Intellect

   Evaluate   Predict             Hypothesize
   Generate   Speculate           Forecast
   Imagine    If/then             Idealize         Output

   Judge      Apply a principle

   Compare    Distinguish         Analyze
   Contrast   Explain             Synthesize
                                                   Process
   Classify   Infer               Make analogies
   Sort       Sequence            Reason
   Complete Identify              Observe
   Count      List                Recite
                                                    Input
   Define     Match               Select
   Describe   Name                Scan
Essential Questions as an
        Organizer
                                                             Essential Questions


                                                             Unit Title or Theme




     Essential Question           Essential Question                                              Essential Question
             #1                           #2                                                             #3




 Activity 1.1   Activity 1.2   Activity 2.1   Activity 2.2       Activity 3.1      Activity 3.2      Activity 3.3      Activity 3.4   Activity 3.5
       Levels of Questions
• Over Arching: Big ideas across subjects
  and time

• Within the Unit: Focus on the big ideas
  within the particular unit

• To guide the lesson level learning: guide
  the learner purposefully and more
  specifically
     Checklist for Essential
           Questions
 (use some—not necessarily all)
• Does the question require the student to use
  multiple sources to make a new synthesis or
  evaluation?

• Does the question help to expand the student’s
  thinking as it goes from unit to unit or year to
  year?

• Can the question be applied for multiple units or
  contexts?

• Can the question be used as an assessment?
• Does the question require the student to
  take a position or make a judgment or take
  a stance in order to answer the question?

• Does the question ask the student to
  produce new understanding rather than
  reproduce what is already in the text?

• Is the question flexible enough that
  students of different levels of performance
  can answer with accuracy and appropriate
  developmental depth?
  Levels of Questions in World
            Languages
• Essential Questions
• How does communication help us to understand and
  appreciate diversity? EQ
• How can we communicate effectively with people who
  speak the target language? EQ

• Guiding Questions
• How do I greet and introduce myself to others?
• How do I describe myself, my origin and my
  personality?
• How do I express information using numbers?
• How do I describe what I like to do?
                      Snow
• What is snow?

• How does it affect
  people?

• How does it affect
  me?


                  First grade unit
                  Jacobs, 1997
             FLIGHT:
• What flies?
• How and why do things in nature fly?
• How does flight impact human beings?
• What is the future of flight?
Fourth Grade- six week
  interdisciplinary unit
         INTELLIGENCE
• What is intelligence?
• How has intelligence evolved?
• How is intelligence measured?
• Is intelligence solely a human
  phenomenon?
• How will intelligence be altered?
 11th grade-A.P.. Biology -
    interdisciplinary-four week unit
   For Science: Over Arching
           Questions
• What is matter? What is energy? And
  how do energy and matter Interact?
• How can scientific inquiry and
  experimental design be used to explain
  natural phenomena?
• How do models help us to understand
  scientific principles?
• What is the impact science has on
  society?
       Questions from Math
• Algebra:
• How does algebraic thinking help us efficiently
  represent relations, functions and patterns?
• How do we represent relationships between the
  known and the unknown?
•
• Ratio and Proportions:
• How do we use comparisons to establish
  relationships?

• Coordinate Geometry
• How do pictorial representations help us understand
  patterns, relations, and functions?
  Questions from Standards
• Big Idea: Modeling real world situations
  algebraically

• Essential Question: How are visual and
  physical models of a mathematical idea
  helpful for representing concepts and
  solving problems?
   Questions can be built from
           Standards
• TX standard 112.48
  – Science concept: knows how life on Earth is affected
    by its unique placement and orientation in our solar
    system

• Essential Question:
  – In what ways is life on Earth affected by its placement
    and orientation in the solar system?
  – How do we estimate whether scientists are being
    realistic when they consider life on another planet?
     Attributes of Professional
       Learning Communities
• Inquiry based
• Focused on student
  learning
• Goal and results
  oriented
• Collaborative
• Reflective
• Based on shared values
  and beliefs
• Committed to continuous
  improvement

                            Fullan, Murphy and Lick, Eaker, Dufour,
                            and Burnette, Glickman, Newmann,
                            Schmoker
      1                            2                     3                     4                 Organizational Process
      Initial Status            Prologue          Getting Started       Advanced Mapping         Established

PLC   Teachers tend to      Teachers are       Teachers become         Many teachers have        Teachers share data,
      either be isolated    exposed to the     part of the planning    the capacity for          analyze curriculum,
      in their practices    research about     process. Councils for   facilitating groups       instruction and
      or meet only          professional       teaching and            and shepherding the       assessment. Self
      within their grades   learning           learning are            process of studying       directed learning
      or courses. The       communities. The   established in the      curriculum,               groups take
      general mode is:      first learning     buildings and at the    instruction and           leadership in
      “close my door        community is       central level.          assessment.               learning and
      and do my thing”      established as a   Teacher leadership is   Curriculum                innovating on behalf
                            study group to     recognized with         decisions are made        of student learning.
                            practice being a   some form of            through a
                            group that is      incentive. Learning     collaborative
                            focused on         communities reach       process. Timelines
                            teaching and       beyond the school or    are met and the
                            learning.          district and learn      community
                                               from the TechPaths      maintains high
                                               world wide search as    standards for itself as
                                               well as conferences     well as for students.
                                               that are planned to
                                               foster networking
                                               around high quality
                                               maps, units, content,
                                               skills, assessments
                                               and lessons.
Your organization functions and
  grows through conversations……

The quality of those conversations
  determines how smart your
  organization is.
                              David Perkins,
                   King Arthur’s Round Table
                           2002 N.Y. Wiley
  Essential Questions to Guide
            the PLC
• What do we want our students to know
  and be able to do?

• What evidence do we have that they
  have learned that?

• What do we do when students have not
  learned it?
          Viable and Guaranteed
          Curriculum (Marzano)
• Action Step 1. Identify and communicate the content considered
  essential for all students versus that considered supplemental
  or necessary only for those seeking postsecondary education.
  Read Through to build CONSENSUS content and skills/ DIARY
  map

• Action Step 2. Ensure that essential content can be addressed
  in the amount of time available for instructions.

• Action Step 3. Sequence and organize the essential content in
  such a way that students have ample opportunity to learn it.
  DIARY map

• Action Step 4. Ensure that teachers address the essential
  content.

• Action Step 5. Protect the instructional time that is available.
Individual and Group
          • Intrapersonal

            – Reflective Practitioner
               • Maps as narrative


            – Cognitive Coaching
               • Maps as artifacts for
                 reflection after lesson
        Individual and Group
Inter-dependent:

• Consultation protocols

• Unit Study

• Map Study

• Study student work

• Curriculum Dialogue
       Individual and Group
Systems Thinking

Read Through Process:

• Across grades

• Across Buildings

• Across Departments

				
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posted:10/30/2011
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