Measuring the Internet in South East Asia Michael.Minges@itu.int When you measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something The Internet in South East Asia about it, but when you cannot Bangkok, 21-23 November 2001 express it in numbers your knowledge about is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind.” —Lord Kelvin Overview Conventional comparisons Useful ICT indicators Defining access to ICT Frameworks Sources Conclusions The SE Asia Digital Divide I Singapore Brunei Malaysia Thailand Philippines ASEAN Indonesia Telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants Viet Nam 2000 Cambodia Lao P.D.R. Fixed Mobile Myanmar 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Source: ITU. The SE Asia Digital Divide II Singapore 24.9% Malaysia 15.8% Thailand 3.8% ASEAN 8 2.3% Philippines 2.0% Indonesia 0.9% Vietnam 0.3% Internet users as % of population 2000 Laos 0.1% Cambodia 0.1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Source: ITU. How many Internet users? Who knows… Singapore: Internet users as % What is a user? of population, mid-2000 Regular surveys are 36% 43% only conducted in 32% Singapore In other countries, estimates based on 14% subscribers That such an important indicator Nielsen*NetValue IDA Nielsen** should be so Note: * Used in last month. ** Total universe. unmethodological is Source: ITU adapted from sources shown. Internet subscribers Per 100 inhabitants, 2000 Not all countries Singapore compile (Thailand & Malaysia Philippines) Thailand ASEAN 8 “Free” access Philippines distorts (Singapore) Indonesia How to account for Vietnam Users access-on-demand Cambodia Subscribers and pre-paid cards? Laos 0.0% 1.0% 100.0% Source: ITU. Internet pricing Cambodia Laos Vietnam MEDIAN Philippines Indonesia Thailand ISP charge Malaysia Telephone usage Telephone rental Singapore $0 $10 $20 $30 $40 $50 30 hours of Internet access, US$, October 2001 Source: ITU adapted from ISPs / PTOs International Internet bandwidth 656.74 1'870 1'898 Per subscriber Per capita 1'448 1'360 31.53 903 816 625 442 470 9.77 7.22 5.11 1.62 0.62 0.57 0.56 m nd 8 a a es os sia e si di or a N La in la ne tn ay bo EA ap pp ai e al do m AS ng Th Vi ili M Ca In Si Ph Bits per second Definition: ICT Universal Service Universal service to Singapore Telephone PC Information & % of households Internet Communication 2000 100% Technology is 98% defined as 80% household access to 60% 61% the Internet 40% 50% Problem is, only Singapore has the 20% information 0% rvey on Infocomm Usage in Households 2000 tp://www.ida.gov.sg/Website/IDAContent.nsf/dd1521f1e79ecf3bc825682f0045a340/fa305 6969a7951c8256ab7000c7eca?OpenDocument Household telephones % of households with a telephone, 2000 Singapore# 98% Malaysia* 66% Thailand# 28% Philippines* 13% Indonesia* 11% Vietnam* 8% Laos* 3% Cambodia* 1% 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Note: # = Census data. * = Derived from residential fixed telephone lines. Source: ITU. Definition: ICT Universal Access Access to ICT n Physical ownership / availability n Affordability n Skills “There will always be segments of any society that will not want to avail themselves of technology…” “In essence, the real difference between the info- poor and the info-rich is the inequality of physical and financial access to ICT and in the actual usage of sources of information in a particular society.” Source: www.nitc.org.my/resources/AccessEquity.pdf Sizing the market Market segmentation in Malaysia, 2000 Offices In Source: Postel. school Warnet 16% 28% Source: NITA. 50% High No School access Others Relig- 18% 14% 32% ous Only schools primar Univ- 11% No y ersities formal 14% <6 edu- >65 years 5% cation years 4% Potential Internet Users in Indonesia 4% 4% Total: 61 million 29% of 2000 population Frameworks Growing number of indexes for measuring “e-readiness” Problem is many use same indicators How useful are they? Mosaic comparison Pervasiveness Singapore 4 Malaysia 3 Thailand Sophistication 2 Dispersion 1 0 Organizational Absorption Connectivity Market research Statistical agency Telecom regulator Indonesia Statistics Indonesia POSTEL www.bps.go.id www.postel.go.id Malaysia Department of Statistics √ CMC √ www.statistics.gov.my www.cmc.gov.my Singapore Statistics Singapore √ IDA √ www.singstat.gov.sg www.ida.gov.sg Vietnam General Statistical Office DGPT Cambodia MPTC Thailand √ PTD Philippines NTC √ Laos National Statistical Centre MCPTC Malaysia & Thai 2000 Census % of households with durable appliance Are the following items AC 10.3 available for use by members of this Household: Motor car 25.1 G Radio / Hi-fi G Television Telephone 27.7 G Video / VCD / DVD G Fixed Telephone Line Motor cycle 64.5 G Mobile phone G Personal Computer (PC) Refrigerator 73.5 G Internet Subscription Radio 77.2 Source: Question B7. Population and Housing Television 91.5 Census Malaysia 2000 Source: Thailand 2000 Census www.nso.go.th/pop2000/pop2000.htm Telephone distribution in Thailand 80% 76% 70% % of households with telephone 60% By region, 2000 50% 40% 36% 28% 30% 22% 21% 20% 12% 10% 0% Bangkok Central THAILAND Southern Northern North- eastern Source: Thailand 2000 Census www.nso.go.th/pop2000/pop2000.htm Key indicators Number of fixed telephone subscribers Homes with a fixed telephone subscription (%) Estimated Internet users Internet subscribers - Dial-up Internet subscribers - Leased line Internet subscribers - DSL Internet subscribers - Cable modem Internet subscribers - Other broadband Internet subscribers Homes with an Internet subscription (%) International Internet Bandwidth (Mbps) - International outgoing Internet Bandwidth (Mbps) - International incoming Internet Bandwidth (Mbps) Total dial-up Internet traffic (minutes) Number of Personal Computers Homes with a Personal Computer (%) Market research for Singapore INTERNET USAGE STATISTICS FOR THE MONTH OF OCTOBER 2001 Number of Sessions per Month 15 Number of Unique Sites Visited 40 Time Spent per Site 21:33 Time Spent per Month 8:35:04 Time Spent During Surfing Session 33:30 Duration of a Page viewed 00:36 Active Internet Universe 871,938 Current Internet Universe Estimate 2,120,318 Conclusions Access to ICT is not the same thing as use. Regulators should mandate ICT availability but can only encourage use. Regulators must work with national statistical agencies to include questions about ICT availability in annual household surveys. Regulators must use statistics to gauge ICT development in the country and evolve strategies for enhancing access.