The Northeast

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					The Northeast



   Standard 8.6
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
The shift, beginning in England in the 18th century, from making goods by
                    hand to making them by machine.
           Pair Share

What was the Industrial Revolution?

 How did the Industrial Revolution
     change life in America?
   The Industrial Revolution             new machines started doing the work that
                                               people used to do by hand

 200 years                                                               the first
  ago huge                                                              factorie
   events                                                                 s were
                                                                         built to
changed                                                                   house
  the way                                                               machines
people lived                                                             and the
                                                                          people
                                                                           who
the production                                                           worked
      of                                                                   them
manufactured
    goods                                                                people’s
  increased                                                                lives
 dramatically                                                           started to
                                                                             be
       rural (countryside) populations decreased as people moved        controlled
                                                                         by clocks
                               to factories
     cities grew                               pollution                    and
                                                                          factory
                                               started                     bells
                                The Northeast
                     how the Northeast of the American people from
8.6 Students analyze the divergent pathsdeveloped in the early 1800s. 1800
   to the mid-1800's and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the
   Northeast, in terms of:
      the influence industrialization and technological developments on the region,
1. Describe how of industrializationand technology changed the Northeast.
1.
   including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped
   human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction)
2. Analyze how obstacles to, andin transportation changed life in the Northeast.
2. the physical advancements the economic and political factors in (e.g., Henry
   Clay’s American System), building a network of roads, canals and railroads
3.     the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the U.S. and
     growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g., Irish
     immigrants and the Great Irish Famine)
4.     the lives of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools
     and churches to advance black rights and communities
5.     the development of the American education system from its earliest roots,
     including the role of religious and private schools, Horace Mann's campaign for
     free public education, and its assimilating role in American culture
6.     the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of
     Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony)
7.     common themes in American art as well as Transcendentalism and individualism
     (e.g., writings about and by Emerson, Thoreau, Melville, Alcott, Hawthorne,
     Longfellow)
                                      The
               has a unique         Northeast

    geograph                                                Suffrage
       y                                                    Movement
that was               immigrants
changed by                                      education

 - industrialization
                                      Black
 - technology
                                    Americans
 - big cities
 - roads
 - canals
 - railroads
                                 The Northeast
                     how the Northeast of the American people from
8.6 Students analyze the divergent pathsdeveloped in the early 1800s. 1800
   to the mid-1800's and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the
   Northeast, in terms of:
      the influence industrialization and technological developments on the region,
1. Describe how of industrializationand technology changed the Northeast.
1.
   including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped
   human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction)
2. Analyze how obstacles to, andin transportation changed life in the Northeast.
2. the physical advancements the economic and political factors in (e.g., Henry
   Clay’s American System), building a network of roads, canals and railroads
3. Explain why for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to thechanged
3. the reasons people from Europe came to America and how they U.S. and
     growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g., Irish
      life in the United States.
     immigrants and the Great Irish Famine)
4.     the lives of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools
     and churches to advance black rights and communities
5.     the development of the American education system from its earliest roots,
     including the role of religious and private schools, Horace Mann's campaign for
     free public education, and its assimilating role in American culture
6.     the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of
     Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony)
7.     common themes in American art as well as Transcendentalism and individualism
     (e.g., writings about and by Emerson, Thoreau, Melville, Alcott, Hawthorne,
     Longfellow)
                                           The
               has a unique              Northeast

  geography               grew quickly
                           because of                            Suffrage
                                                                 Movement
                     immigrants
that was                                             education
changed by                                 Black
                from Europe              Americans
 - industrialization
 - technology - cause and
 - big cities        effect
 - roads          - larger cities
 - canals         - Irish Potato
 - railroads         Famine
                 - Revolutions in
                   Germany
                                 The Northeast
                     how the Northeast of the American people from
8.6 Students analyze the divergent pathsdeveloped in the early 1800s. 1800
   to the mid-1800's and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the
   Northeast, in terms of:
      the influence industrialization and technological developments on the region,
1. Describe how of industrializationand technology changed the Northeast.
1.
   including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped
   human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction)
2. Analyze how obstacles to, andin transportation changed life in the Northeast.
2. the physical advancements the economic and political factors in (e.g., Henry
   Clay’s American System), building a network of roads, canals and railroads
3. Explain why for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to thechanged
3. the reasons people from Europe came to America and how they U.S. and
     growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g., Irish
      life in the United States.
     immigrants and the Great Irish Famine)
4. Describe of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools
4. the lives what life was like for Black Americans.
   and churches to advance black rights and communities
5.     the development of the American education system from its earliest roots,
     including the role of religious and private schools, Horace Mann's campaign for
     free public education, and its assimilating role in American culture
6.     the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of
     Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony)
7.     common themes in American art as well as Transcendentalism and individualism
     (e.g., writings about and by Emerson, Thoreau, Melville, Alcott, Hawthorne,
     Longfellow)
                                            The
               has a unique               Northeast

  geography              grew quickly
                          because of                               Suffrage
                                                                   Movement
                                    was home to free
                     immigrants
that was                                               education
changed by                                  Black
                from Europe               Americans
 - industrialization
 - technology - cause and           who
 - big cities        effect         - escaped
 - roads          - larger cities     slavery
 - canals         - Irish Potato    - started
 - railroads         Famine           schools
                 - Revolutions in   - started
                   Germany            churches
                                    - advanced
                                      rights
                               The Northeast
                     how the Northeast of the American people from
8.6 Students analyze the divergent pathsdeveloped in the early 1800s. 1800
   to the mid-1800's and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the
   Northeast, in terms of:
      the influence industrialization and technological developments on the region,
1. Describe how of industrializationand technology changed the Northeast.
1.
   including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped
   human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction)
2. Analyze how obstacles to, andin transportation changed life in the Northeast.
2. the physical advancements the economic and political factors in (e.g., Henry
   Clay’s American System), building a network of roads, canals and railroads
3. Explain why for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to thechanged
3. the reasons people from Europe came to America and how they U.S. and
   growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g., Irish
    life in the United States.
   immigrants and the Great Irish Famine)
4. Describe of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools
4. the lives what life was like for Black Americans.
   and churches to advance black rights and communities
5. Describe early American education.
5. the development of the American education system from its earliest roots,
   including the role of religious and private schools, Horace Mann's campaign for
   free public education, and its assimilating role in American culture
6. Explain the importance of the women’s suffrage movement.
6. the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of
   Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony)
7. Not covering
7. common themes in American art as well as Transcendentalism and individualism
   (e.g., writings about and by Emerson, Thoreau, Melville, Alcott, Hawthorne,
   Longfellow)
                                          The
               has a unique             Northeast

  geography                grew quickly
                            because of             started American            Suffrage
                                                                               Movement
                                      was home to free
                      immigrants
that was                                                        education
changed by                                   Black
                from Europe               Americans
 - industrialization                                       such as
 - technology - cause and            who
 - big cities        effect                                 - Horace Mann
                                      - escaped
 - roads          - larger cities                           - religious
                                        slavery
 - canals         - Irish Potato                              schools
                                      - started
 - railroads         Famine                                 - private
                                        schools
                  - Revolutions in    - started                schools
                     Germany            churches            - public schools
                                      - advanced            - assimilating
                                        rights                 role
                               The Northeast
                     how the Northeast of the American people from
8.6 Students analyze the divergent pathsdeveloped in the early 1800s. 1800
   to the mid-1800's and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the
   Northeast, in terms of:
      the influence industrialization and technological developments on the region,
1. Describe how of industrializationand technology changed the Northeast.
1.
   including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped
   human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction)
2. Analyze how obstacles to, andin transportation changed life in the Northeast.
2. the physical advancements the economic and political factors in (e.g., Henry
   Clay’s American System), building a network of roads, canals and railroads
3. Explain why for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to thechanged
3. the reasons people from Europe came to America and how they U.S. and
   growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities (e.g., Irish
    life in the United States.
   immigrants and the Great Irish Famine)
4. Describe of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools
4. the lives what life was like for Black Americans.
   and churches to advance black rights and communities
5. Describe early American education.
5. the development of the American education system from its earliest roots,
   including the role of religious and private schools, Horace Mann's campaign for
   free public education, and its assimilating role in American culture
6. Explain the importance of the women’s suffrage movement.
6. the women's suffrage movement (e.g., biographies, writings, and speeches of
   Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony)
7. Not covering
7. common themes in American art as well as Transcendentalism and individualism
   (e.g., writings about and by Emerson, Thoreau, Melville, Alcott, Hawthorne,
   Longfellow)
                                         The
               has a unique            Northeast           gave birth to the

  geography         was home to free           started American            Suffrage
                                                                           Movement
that was                               grew quickly
                      Black
changed by                              because of        education       which was about
                    Americans
                                                                          women
 - industrialization
 - technology who                      immigrants      such as             - wanting to
 - big cities                                                                vote
                  - escaped      from Europe                               - Sojourner
 - roads
                    slavery                            - Horace Mann         Truth
 - canals
                  - started                            - religious         - Elizabeth Cady
 - railroads                      - cause and
                    schools                              schools             Stanton
                  - started          effect            - private           - Susan B.
                    churches      - larger cities         schools            Anthony
                  - advanced      - Irish Potato       - public schools    - Elizabeth
                    rights           Famine            - assimilating        Blackwell
                                  - Revolutions in        role             - Lucretia Mott
                                     Germany                               - Lucy Stone
                                                                           - Seneca Falls
                                                                             Convention
 1790 Samuel                     1807 Robert        1812 War of 1812
 Slater makes                    Fulton’s           forces Americans to
 first factory                   steamship starts   make factory goods




1790        1795          1800           1805       1810          1815           1820




 1825 Erie Canal opened      1840s Famine in               1848 Seneca Falls
 – joins Northwest to        Ireland force Irish           Convention –
 Northeast                   immigration                   women’s rights




1825      1830            1835         1840         1845          1850           1855
 1831 William Lloyd        1830s steam power               1848 Revolutions in
 Garrison starts           allow factories to              Germany force
 abolitionist newspaper    be built anywhere               German immigration
  In the Northeast,             New kinds of transportation
The Industrial Revolution was a process in which
  businessmen started tools, and steam the way people and
machines replaced handto        changed and other
  build factories.              goods moved around the USA.
kinds of power replaced human and animal power.




New inventions and machines      New farming machines meant that
allowed farmers to make more     workers had to leave the farms and
food with fewer workers.         find work in the growing cities.
 Problems in Europe        Quickly growing cities, a Second Great
 forced Irish and          Awakening, and the Age of the Common
 Germans to the USA.       Man make many want reform.




Reform movements were groups     During the early 1800s American
of people who wanted to change   artists and writers started focusing
society for the better.          on America instead of Europe.
                  The Erie Canal links Buffalo and       land is
                 Albany (on the Hudson River). This
                 allows goods to move between the
                                                          rocky
                   Northeast and the Northwest.         and bad
                                                           for
                                                        farming



               Good
                          Buffalo   .             . .
                                             Albany
                                        Erie Canal
                                                      Lowell


             farming in
                the
                                          New York .
            Northwest
 Roads and canals built
throughout the North to
   increase business.

                                                      A famine in Ireland
                                                       and revolutions in
              While the Northeast built                 Germany led to
                factories, the South                   millions of people
               focused on slave based                    coming to the
                      farming.                            Northeast.


                                               ATLANTIC OCEAN
Geography of the
   Northeast
               The Geography of the North
                                          What kinds of things could people
  Is this good land for farming?
                                             do here to make a living?
                                                                      People in
                                                                         the
                                                                     northeast
                                                                    wanted the
    Fast                                                            government
  flowing                                                             to spend
rivers and                                                           tax money
waterfalls                                                            building
   power                                                               roads,
   early                                                              bridges,
factories.                                                               and
   Would the people that live here want                              railroads.
    the government to raise taxes to
         build roads and canals?
             People in the Northeast wanted to spend money
               investing in cities, factories, and business.
           Pair Share

 How did the American North and
South develop (grow) differently in
        the early 1800s?

Why was New England a great place
  for the American Industrial
          Revolution?
                                                          in the early 1800s the
The Industrial Revolution in New                            South developed a
                                                           slave-based farming
England                                                          economy
   in the
                                                                    rivers gave
Northeast,                                                           power for
 factories                                                           the early
  started                                                            factories
                                                                        poor
                                                                     farmland
 there were                                                        made it easy
four reasons                                                       for people to
   why the                                                             leave
  factories                                                        farming and
  started in                                                           start
     the                                                            working in
 Northeast                                                             cities

               the Northeast had many fine harbors to transport goods
               there were rich businessmen who had money to invest in
                                     new factories
Questions                          Notes:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
                                 The Northeast
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
               1. Geography
________________________________________________________
                  A. long cold winters – not good for year-round
________________________________________________________
                     farming
________________________________________________________
                  B. hills and mountains
________________________________________________________
                  C. fast-flowing rivers and streams
________________________________________________________
                     i. not good for transportation
________________________________________________________
                     ii. good for water-powered factories
________________________________________________________
                     iii. good harbors for transporting resources
________________________________________________________
                          and manufactured goods
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Summary:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
The Industrial
 Revolution
          Pair Share

 What was life like before the
   Industrial Revolution?

How did the Industrial Revolution
change the way people in America
             lived?
   Life before the Industrial Revolution
                                                                     there was a
 before the                                                           small upper
 Industrial                                                          class of rich
Revolution                                                           people and a
 nine out of
                                                                       very large
  every ten
                                                                      lower class
people lived
and worked
on farms in
  America                                                              rural people
                                                                      grew most of
   ordinary
                                                                     their own food
 people used                                                        and seldom had
their hands to
                                                                      to leave their
 make things
                                                                          homes
 they needed
                   people did not travel much and didn’t know about the world

                 there was no public education and few people could read or write
            Pair Share

  How was textile made before the
Industrialization? How did this change
   after the Industrial Revolution?

  How did machines change the way
      people in America lived?
  Textile Manufacturing (making cloth)                                before the
                                                                      Industrial
  the textile                                                        Revolution,
 industry was                                                        poor farmers
   the first                                                          could get
  industry to                                                        extra money
    become
industrialized                                                        by making
                                                                       things at
                                                                        home
 merchants
(businessmen)                                                        fibers would
  could buy                                                          be spun into
 wool or flax                                                         yarn using
and take it to                                                         spinning
   people’s                                                             wheels
    homes
                 merchants would take the yarn to other people’s homes who
                              would make the yarn into cloth
                 these home based cottage industries were the first to be
                          replaced in the Industrial Revolution
Questions                          Notes:
________________________________________________________
               2. Industrial Revolution
________________________________________________________
                  A. started in England in late 1700s
________________________________________________________
                  B. factory system brings workers and machines
________________________________________________________
                     together in one place
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
  Revolution in the Textile                                                    these
  Industry                                                                   machines
                                                                             used water
    new                                                                     power to run
  machines
  made the
 making of                                                                 the spinning
cloth faster                                                                    mule
                                                                            allowed one
                                                                           person to do
  moving                                                                     the same
  water                                                                      amount of
                                                                            work 3,000
turned belts                                                                    hand
that worked                                                                   spinners
 the factory                                                                 used to do
  machines

        the new machines put the cottage industries out of business

  in 1812 in England a group of people who lost their jobs in cottage industries called
      themselves Luddites and tried to start a revolution by breaking machines
Factories and Growth of Industrial Cities
                                                                            factories
 in the late                                                               produced
 1700s and                                                                manufactured
early 1800s,                                                                  goods
  factories
  began to
appear along                                                              this changed
    river                                                                 life as people
                                                                           had to leave
 workers                                                                  home every
  needed                                                                  day to earn a
 housing                                                                      living
near to the
 factories

                cities grew as the rural (country) population decreased

       for the first time in history, people’s lives were regulated   by clocks
The Industrial Revolution comes to the USA                    the English kept the
                                                              plans for factories a
   the Industrial Revolution                                        secret
  came to America by spying

       an                                                              machines
 Englishman                                                            made the
    named                                                             English so
Samuel Slater                                                       rich that they
  memorized                                                             made it
the plans for a                                                       against the
  factory and                                                         law to take
    came to                                                         machines out
    America                                                              of the
                                                                        country
once the US
   started                                                           he copied the
factories the                                                        English plans
   country                                                            and opened
became very                                                             the first
     rich                                                              factory in
                                                                      Pawtucket,
            within a few years over 100 workers, mostly women and    Rhode Island
                children aged 7-14, were working in Slater’s Mill
Questions                          Notes:
________________________________________________________
               2. Industrial Revolution
________________________________________________________
                  A. started in England in late 1700s
________________________________________________________
                  B. factory system brings workers and machines
________________________________________________________
                     together in one place
________________________________________________________
                  C. brought to America by Samuel Slater
________________________________________________________
                  D. built first factories in New England (water-
________________________________________________________
                     powered by rivers)
________________________________________________________
                  E. Lowell, Massachusetts
________________________________________________________
                     i. America’s first factory town
________________________________________________________
                     ii. first workers are “Lowell Girls”
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
           Pair Share

  What were the two parts of the
       “American System”?

Why did people in the Northeast like
 the “American System”? Why did
       southerners hate it?
  Henry Clay’s “American System”                      it was a plan to make the
                                                    United States a stronger nation
      the                                                                   the
government                                                               American
 had to pay to                                                          System was
     make                                                               a plan that
improvements in                                                         was pushed
  the nation’s                                                            through
transportation                                                          Congress in
    system                                                               the early
                                                                           1800s
   congress
passed a tariff                                                           canals were
    (tax) on                                                                made to
   Imported                                                               increase the
   Goods to                                                                speed with
  protect the                                                             which goods
  factories in                                                                were
New England by                                                            transported
     making       Southern slave plantation owners hated the tariff (tax) to the coast
imported goods
                 they believed northern factory owners were getting rich     by 1850
more expensive
                                    at their expense                      canals were
   American
                                                                          replaced by
                they feared the government would try to end slavery         railroads
Questions                          Notes:
________________________________________________________
               2. Industrial Revolution
________________________________________________________
                  A. started in England in late 1700s
________________________________________________________
                  B. factory system brings workers and machines
________________________________________________________
                     together in one place
________________________________________________________
                  C. brought to America by Samuel Slater
________________________________________________________
                  D. built first factories in New England (water-
________________________________________________________
                     powered by rivers)
________________________________________________________
                  E. Lowell, Massachusetts
________________________________________________________
                     i. America’s first factory town
________________________________________________________
                     ii. first workers are “Lowell Girls”
________________________________________________________
                  F. Henry Clay’s “American System”
________________________________________________________
                     i. tariff (tax) on imports to help US business
________________________________________________________
                     ii. taxpayers should build roads and canals
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
   Positive and
Negative effects of
industrialization
Questions                          Notes:
________________________________________________________
               2. Industrial Revolution
________________________________________________________
                  A. started in England in late 1700s
________________________________________________________
                  B. factory system brings workers and machines
________________________________________________________
                      together in one place
________________________________________________________
                  C. brought to America by Samuel Slater
________________________________________________________
                  D. built first factories in New England (water-
________________________________________________________
                      powered by rivers)
________________________________________________________
                  E. Lowell, Massachusetts
________________________________________________________
                     i. America’s first factory town
________________________________________________________
                     ii. first workers are “Lowell Girls”
________________________________________________________
                  F. Henry Clay’s “American System”
________________________________________________________
                     i. tariff (tax) on imports to help US business
________________________________________________________
                     ii. taxpayers should build roads and canals
________________________________________________________
                  G. positive effects
________________________________________________________
                     i. made America richer
________________________________________________________
                     ii. changed American life – urbanization and
________________________________________________________
                         consumerism
________________________________________________________
                  H. negative effects
________________________________________________________
                     i. bad for workers – started trade unions
________________________________________________________
                     ii. made cities dirty and dangerous
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Transportation
  Revolution
                                      •depended on existing      •smoother ride
Geography
            • corduroy roads
                                      river system               •most flowed No/So,
            • westward movement                                  not E W
                                      •NYC to Great Lakes        •hard to travel
            • Nat. Rd from OH to IL                              upstream

            •Congress approved
            the funds                •gov’t officials came up
                                     with a plan to link E and
Politics




            • War of 1812 got in the W
            way
                                     •De Witt Clinton
            •mail
            •Congress approved
                                      •lowered the cost of       •cheaper shipping costs
            the funds
Economic




                                      shipping
                                                                 •river towns prospered
            •trade goods
                                      •made some towns
            •toll roads               richer
                Roads                          Canals                   Steamboats

            New Forms of Transportation 388-394
Body paragraph #1 American System
TS:
CD1: For example (improvement of)
CM:
CM:
CD2: Furthermore (protection of)
CM:
CM:
CS:
      Body paragraph #2 Roads
TS:
CD1: For example (economic significance)
CM:
CM:
CD2: Furthermore (political significance)
CM:
CM:
CS:
Body paragraph #3 Rivers and Canals
TS:
CD1: For example (economic significance)
CM:
CM:
CD2: Furthermore (political significance)
CM:
CM:
CS:
                  Introduction
Hook: (Grab the reader’s attention!)

Introduce the paragraphs’ ideas in 2-3 sentences

     •.

     •.



Thesis (subject + opinion = thesis)
Hook: (Grab the reader’s attention!)
Introduce the paragraphs’ ideas in 2-3 sentences
     •.
     •.
Thesis (subject + opinion = thesis)
                Introduction
                     Conclusion
Remind the reader of the thesis statement.

Review the paragraphs’ ideas in 2-3 sentences

      •.

      •.



End with a global statement (one sentence about
American History at this time).
Questions                             Notes:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
               3. Transportation
________________________________________________________
                   A. Canals
________________________________________________________
                      i. canals are man-made waterways
________________________________________________________
                      ii. very good for moving people and goods
________________________________________________________
                      iii. Erie Canal joins the West (Great Lakes) and
________________________________________________________
                          East (Hudson River to New York)
________________________________________________________
                   B. Roads
________________________________________________________
                      i. Congress pays for some roads
________________________________________________________
                      ii. some roads become toll roads (called
________________________________________________________
                          turnpikes)
________________________________________________________
                   C. Railroads
________________________________________________________
                      i. these start in the USA during this period
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Summary:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
 Immigration
During the early
     1800s
            Pair Share

 Why did so many Irish people leave
       Ireland in the 1800s?

What was life like in America for the
 Irish people who came here in the
            early 1800s?
Irish Immigration to the USA
Questions                           Notes:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
               4. Immigration
________________________________________________________
                  A. Irish Immigration
________________________________________________________
                     i. left Ireland because of Potato Famine
________________________________________________________
                     ii. lived and worked in cities on the East Coast
________________________________________________________
                  B. German Immigration
________________________________________________________
                     i. left Germany because of revolutions
________________________________________________________
                     ii. many had money and moved to the west to
________________________________________________________
                         start farms and businesses
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Summary:
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 Reform
Movements
Life in the Northern American Cities
Questions                             Notes:
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               5. Reform Movements (tried to make society better)
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                  A. Causes of the Reform Movements in the 1800s
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                      i. Political – Age of the Common Man and
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                           Declaration of Independence
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                      ii. Religious – Second Great Awakening
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                  B. The Reform Movements
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                      i. Abolition – end slavery
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                      ii. Suffrage – the vote and rights for women
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                      iii. Temperance – end alcohol
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                      iv. Prison Reform – improve prisons
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                      v. Education - Horace Mann
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                          a. Free Public Schools
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                          b. Teacher Training Colleges
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                  C. Effects of the Reform Movements
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                      i. Republican Party is founded to end slavery
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                      ii. Women had to wait until 1921 to vote
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                      iii. Education improves
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Summary:
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