Docstoc

APA Paper Format sample

Document Sample
APA Paper Format sample Powered By Docstoc
					HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                               1




                     How to Format a Paper in APA:

                  Helpful Hints for EHSL Research Paper

                         Johanna K. McCormick

                        Portland State University

                 CI-510 Engaging the High School Learner

                            August 11, 2011
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                                2

                                              Abstract

You will not need to include an abstract for this assignment; however, if you did, please

do so by inserting it after the title page. Your abstract page should already include the

page header (previously described). On the first line of the abstract page, center the word

―Abstract‖ (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks). Beginning with

the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not

indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions,

participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include

possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your

findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced. Your abstract should

be between 150 and 250 words. You may also want to list keywords from your paper in

your abstract. Place it immediately following your abstract paragraph. To do this, center

the text and type Keywords: (italicized) and then list your keywords. Listing your

keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.

                     Keywords: APA, format, heading, citation, serialization
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                              3


                              How to Format a Paper in APA:

                          Helpful Hints for EHSL Research Paper

        Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11")

with 1-inch margins on all sides. Paragraph tabs should be set at one-half inch. APA

recommends using 12–point Times New Roman font.

        Include a page header at the top of every page. To create a page header, insert

page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left.

APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using

signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones

(1998) has found.

        APA Style uses a unique headings system to separate and classify paper

sections. There are 5 heading levels in APA. Regardless of the number of levels,

always use the headings in order, beginning with Level 1. The format of each level is

illustrated in Table 1.

        Thus, if the article has four sections, some of which have subsection and

some of which don’t, use headings depending on the level of subordination. Section

headings receive Level 1 format. Subsections receive Level 2 format. Subsections of

subsections receive Level 3 format. See Table 2 an additional example of headings.

        When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This

means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear

in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the

reference list at the end of the paper.
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                                  4

       If you are referring to an idea from another work but not directly quoting the

material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to

make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-

text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the

end of the paper.

       If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year

of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the

quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of

publication in parentheses.

          According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style,

           especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

          Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199);

           what implications does this have for teachers?

       If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year

of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

          She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p.

           199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

       Place direct quotations longer than 40 words (or over three lines) in a free-

standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a

new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a

new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of

any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                               5

double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing

punctuation mark:

       Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first

       time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many

       students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

       If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make

reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA

guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)

          ACCEPTABLE: According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation

           format for first-time learners.

          ACCEPTABLE: APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners

           (Jones, 1998).

          FAVORED: APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners

           (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

       When referencing a work by two authors, use both authors in the signal

phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and"

between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the

parentheses.

          Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...

          (Wegener & Petty, 1994)

       When referencing a work by three to five authors, list all the authors in the

signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.

          In-text/signal phrase: Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, and Harlow, (1993)
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                               6


          Parenthetical citation: (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

          In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by

           "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

          (Kernis et al., 1993)

       Periods and commas when used with a quote go inside the quotation marks in

APA style. Additional punctuation, such as a colon, semicolon, or question mark, may go

outside the quotation marks unless they are part of the original quote:

              Jones asked if ―everyone was having a good time?‖

              Did Jones care if ―everyone was having a good time‖?

       While you should always be clear about the sex identity of your participants (if

you conducted an experiment), so that gender differences are obvious, you should not use

gender terms when they aren't necessary. In other words, you should not use "he," "his"

or "men" as generic terms applying to both sexes.

       APA does not recommend replacing "he" with "he or she," "she or he," "he/she,"

"(s)he," "s/he," or alternating between "he" and "she" because these substitutions are

awkward and can distract the reader from the point you are trying to make. The pronouns

"he" or "she" inevitably cause the reader to think of only that gender, which may not be

what you intend.

       To avoid the bias of using gendered pronouns:

          Rephrase the sentence.

          Use plural nouns or plural pronouns - this way you can use "they" or "their."

          Replace the pronoun with an article - instead of "his," use "the."
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                                7


          Drop the pronoun - many sentences sound fine if you just omit the

           troublesome "his" from the sentence.

          Replace the pronoun with a noun such as "person," "individual," "child,"

           "researcher," etc.

       Your instructor for this particular class allows the use of “he or she," "she or

he," "he/she," "(s)he," "s/he," or alternating between "he" and "she" as long as

subject-verb agreements and pronoun references are logically and correctly

maintained. Be aware of these common errors:

          Incorrect. We must make sure a student like Hortence doesn’t cut

           themselves off from others.

          Correct. We must make sure students like Hortence don’t cut themselves

           off from others.

          Incorrect. A struggling student needs opportunities to choose for

           themselves.

          Correct. Struggling students need opportunities to choose for themselves.

       Clarity and conciseness in writing are important when conveying research in APA

Style. You don't want to misrepresent the details of a study or confuse your readers with

wordiness or unnecessarily complex sentences. Be specific rather than vague in

descriptions and explanations. Unpack details accurately to provide adequate information

to your readers so they can follow the development of your research or study. Balancing

the need for clarity, which can require unpacking information, and the need for

conciseness, which requires condensing information, is a challenge. Study published

articles and reports in your field for examples of how to achieve this balance.
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                              8


       You should even be careful in selecting certain words or terms. Within the

social sciences, commonly used words take on different meanings and can have a

significant effect on how your readers interpret your reported findings or claims. To

increase clarity, avoid bias, and control how your readers will receive your

information, you should make certain substitutions:

          Use terms like "participants" or "respondents" (rather than "subjects") to

           indicate how individuals were involved in your research.

          Use terms like "children" or "community members" to provide more detail

           about who was participating in the study.

          Use phrases like "The evidence suggests ..." or "Our study indicates ..." rather

           than referring to "proof" or "proves" because no single study can prove a

           theory or hypothesis.

       As with the other stylistic suggestions here, you should study the discourse of

your field to see what terminology is most often used.

       The English language is somewhat vague about the presentation of numbers.

Therefore, most styles present rules for using even common numbers, such as when

to write a number as a word and when to write it as a numeral. Precise measures

are always presented as numerals in the metric system in APA style.

       1. Spell out common numbers under 10. "Use figures to express numbers 10 and

           above and words to express numbers below 10" as long as the numbers below

           10 do not express precise measurements and are not grouped with numbers

           above 10 (APA, 2009, p. 111).
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                            9

     2. Spell out common fractions, common expressions, and centuries (one-half,

        Fourth of July, twentieth century).

     3. Spell out all numbers beginning sentences (Thirty days hath September . . .).

     4. To make plurals out of numbers, add s only, with no apostrophe (the 1950s).

     5. When numbers below 10 must be mixed with numbers above 10 in the same

        sentence they should be written as numerals. For example, write "the students

        trying out for the soccer team included 5 girls and 16 boys."

     6. Use words and numerals with two numbers in series (five 4-point scales).

     7. Use combinations of numerals and written numbers for large approximate

        sums (over 3 million people).

     8. Use numerals for numbers 10 and above, for exact statistical references,

        scores, sample sizes, and sums (multiplied by 3, or 5% of the sample).

     9. Use metric abbreviations with physical measure (4 km) but not when written

        out (many meters distant).

     10. Use the percent symbol (%) only with figures/illustrations/tables (5%) not

        with in-text written numbers (―five percent‖ or ―15 percent‖ or ―5 to 15

        percent‖).

     11. Put a leading zero before decimal fractions less than one (e.g., 0.25 km),

        unless the fraction can never be greater than one, as with statistical

        probabilities (e.g., p < .01).

     12. Ordinal numbers follow the same rules as other numbers. Spell out ordinals

        below 10: first, second, . . . ninth. Use numerals for ordinals 10 and above:

        10th, 43rd, 99th, and so on. Exception—the twentieth century.
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                               10

       13. Use numerals for all numbers "that denote a specific place in a numbered

           series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a list of four or numbers"

           (APA, 2009, p. 115). Write Grade 6 (but sixth grade); Trial 5; Table 6; page

           71 (do not cap page); chapter 8 (do not capitalize ―chapter‖); 2, 4, 6, and 8

           words in a series.

       14. Use numerals for all "numbers that represent time; dates; ages; sample,

           subsample, or population size; specific numbers of subjects or participants in

           an experiment; scores and points on a scale; exact sums of money; and

           numerals as numerals" (APA, p. 124).

       While bullets and were previously a “no-no,” they are now permitted when

listing items (also referred to as seriation).

       Two other options are available for lists as well. The first involves using

letters to identify items in a series within a sentence or paragraph: The three

choices for the question are (a) true, (b) false, or (c) don’t know.

       The second option involves numbering each item with an Arabic number

followed by a period and making each item its own paragraph:

       1. Job training and counseling to reduce unemployment.

       2. Resident-backed strategies to spur economic growth, reduce crime, and

           combat housing discrimination and homelessness.

       3. Mentoring programs for neighborhood youth.

       4. Financial and technical assistance for new businesses.
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                             11


       If the seriated or bulleted phrases continue the preceding paragraph’s

sentence, neither a capital letter to start the phrase or a colon is used. A period is

used at the end of the last item only. An example might be something

          like this

          or this

          or even this.

       This is just the tip of the iceberg when considering APA formatting and style

considerations. It is always best to check the APA manual itself or go online. The

instructor’s Wiki has several links to help you with the details. Table 3 offers a few

additional common mistakes to avoid.
     HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                          12


                                               References

ACSD. (2006). The solution: The ASCD high school reform proposal. [Online Forum

   Comment]. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/newsandissues/High%20

   School%20Reform %20One %20Page%20Summary.pdf

ASCD. (2010, November). Is it good for our kids? [Online Forum Comment]. Retrieved from

   http://www.ascd.org/news

   _media/Is_It_Good_for_the_Kids_Editorials/Is_It_Good_for_the_Kids_-

   _November_2010.aspx

Allen, J., & Allen, C. (2010). Escaping the High School 'Twilight Zone'. Education Week, 29(23),

   22-3. Retrieved from Education Full Text database

Berliner, D. (2006). Our Impoverished View of Educational Research. Teachers College

   Record, 108(6), 949-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00682.x

Bishop, J., Bishop, M., & Bishop, M. (2003). Make Middle-Schoolers Cool with School Success.

   The Education Digest, 69(4), 51-3. Retrieved from Education Full Text database

Bishop, J., Bishop, M., & Bishop, M. (2003). Making It Cool to Succeed in Middle School.

   Principal (Reston, Va.), 83(2), 60-1. Retrieved from Education Full Text database

Christodoulou, J. (2009). Applying Multiple Intelligences. School Administrator, 66(2), 22-6.

   Retrieved from Education Full Text database. Retrieved from

   http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com.proxy.lib.pdx.edu/hww/results/results_single_fulltext.j

   html; hwwilsonid=I1Q2OA50XG1VDQA3DIMSFF4ADUNGIIV0

Feden, P. (2006). Fiction High School: Where Things Have to Make Sense. Educational

   Horizons, 84(2), 79-85. Retrieved from Education Full Text database
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                              13


Table 1. APA Headings




Level Format

1      Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings

2     Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

3      Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period.

4      Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.

5      Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                                                                   14


Table 2. Additional Look at APA Heading Levels

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                   Methods (Level 1)

Site of Study (Level 2)

Participant Population (Level 2)

          Teachers. (Level 3) This is an example of a Level 3 heading. Notice that it

merges with the paragraph text.

          Students. (Level 3)

                                                    Results (Level 1)

Spatial Ability (Level 2)

          Test one. (Level 3)

          Teachers with experience. (Level 4) This is an example of a Level 4 heading.

Notice that it merges with the paragraph text and continues as long as the

paragraph needs.

          Teachers in training. (Level 4)

          Teachers in training: Pre-service. (Level 5)

          Test two. (Level 3)

Kinesthetic Ability (Level 2)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In APA Style, the Introduction section never gets a heading and headings are not indicated by
letters or numbers. Levels of headings will depend upon the length and organization of your paper.
Regardless, always begin with level one headings and proceed to level two, etc.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HOW TO FORMAT A PAPER IN APA                                                                                15


Table 3. Common APA Errors or Pitfalls
(Note: This is a poor APA table, since APA frown on vertical lines)
to/two/too                           Difference between em-dash and           Possessives
their/there/they’re                  hyphen.                                Be careful that you use
socioeconomic                            em-dash — ***                      apostrophes appropriately.
                                         hyphen -                              The student’s work should
                                     Middle-class students are…                    be submitted today.
                                     Gerbils are often—if not                  Students’ work should be
                                     always—cute critters.                         submitted today.
                                     first-grade class                         Whatever the students
                                     middle-class family                           have worked on should be
                                     two-way street                                submitted today.
                                     5- to 10-minute ride
                                     5 to 10 minutes before…
                                     one-size-fits-all technique
Periods and commas when used         Semicolons (;)                         Colons (:)
with a quote go inside the           Use a semicolon when you link          Use a colon after an independent
quotation marks in APA style.        two independent clauses with no        clause when introducing a list.
Additional punctuation, such as a connecting words. For example:              The catering facility offers the
colon, semicolon, or question        I am going home; I intend to stay         following entrees: fried catfish,
mark, may go outside the             there.                                    grilled chicken, pan-seared
quotation marks unless they are      It rained heavily during the              salmon, and sirloin steak.
part of the original quote.          afternoon; we managed to have          Use a colon after an independent
                                     our picnic anyway.                     clause when introducing a
                                     They couldn't make it to the           quotation.
                                     summit and back before dark;             My teacher’s remark on my
                                     they decided to camp for the              final essay was very
                                     night.                                    complimentary: ―This essay
                                     You can also use a semicolon              coherently analyzes musical
                                     when you join two independent             trends of the late 20th
                                     clauses together with a                   century.‖
                                     conjunctive adverb (however,           Use a colon between two
                                     moreover, therefore,                   independent clauses when you
                                     consequently, otherwise,               want to emphasize the second
                                     nevertheless, thus, etc.) For          clause.
                                     example:                                 I don’t understand why
                                     I am going home; moreover, I              everyone shops at that store:
                                     intend to stay there.                     everything there is so
                                     It rained heavily during the              expensive.
                                     afternoon; however, we managed
                                     to have our picnic anyway.
                                     They couldn't make it to the
*********************                summit and back before dark;
Hint: In Word, I make an em-         therefore, they decided to camp
dash by typing a word, then          for the night.
clicking the hyphen key twice in     Use semi-colons between items in
a row, and then immediately          a list that already use commas.
following with the next word.          I have lived in Chicago,
                                         Illinois; Kansas City, Missouri;
Hello—how (are you)?                     and Omaha, Nebraska.
                                       The sweaters I bought today
                                         were purple, blue, and green;
                                         yellow, white, and red; and
                                         pink, black, and grey.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:648
posted:10/30/2011
language:English
pages:15