Docstoc

Migration

Document Sample
Migration Powered By Docstoc
					  Migration
The American National Perspective
   Migration within a Country

• Migration between regions of a country
  – Migration between regions within the U.S.
  – Migration between regions in other countries

• Migration within one region
  – Rural-urban migration
  – Urban-suburban migration
  – Migration from metropolitan to nonmetropolitan
    regions
          Migration Patterns
• U.S. migration patterns
  – Colonial immigration
  – 19th century immigration
  – Recent immigration

• Impact of immigration on the U.S.
  – Legacy of European migration
  – Undocumented immigration
  – Destination of immigrants within the U.S.
European Immigration
Asian Immigration
Hispanic Immigration
Total US Immigration
Center of Population in the U.S.




The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the
population migration west. It has also begun to move southward with migration
to the southern sunbelt.
Intraregional Migration in the U.S.




Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas
in the U.S. during the 1990s. The largest flow was from central
cities to suburbs.
Fifteen Largest American Ancestries: 2000

                     • The 3 largest ancestries in 1990
                       and 2000 were German, Irish and
                       English, but each had decreased in
                       size by 2000.
                     • The number of people reporting
                       African American ancestry
                       increased by 4.9% but decreased
                       slightly between 1990 & 2000 as a
                       proportion of the total population.
                     • The populations of Mexican,
                       Chinese, Filipino and Asian Indian
                       ancestry increased during the
                       decade reflecting sizable
                       immigration, especially from Latin
                       America and Asia.
Largest Ancestry for the Ten Cities With the Highest
                 Population: 2000
      Immigration “Gateways” are shifting
     “Established Gateways”                                                         “Emerging Gateways”



      Chicago                                         61 %                       Atlanta                                      262 %

      Los Angeles                                     19 %                       Charlotte                                    315 %

      Miami                                           31 %                       Fort Worth-Arlington                         131 %

      New York                                        37 %                       Las Vegas                                    248 %

      San Diego                                       41 %                       Orlando                                      140 %

      San Francisco                                   26 %                       Salt Lake City                               174 %




                         Growth in Metro Foreign-Born Population, 1990-2000
Source: Suro and Singer, “Latino Growth in Metropolitan America,” Brookings Institution and Pew Hispanic Center, July 2002.
Ten Metro Areas with Largest Latino Populations, 2000
                     Number of    Percent of   Growth from
                      Latinos       Total       1980-2000
                                  Population
Los Angeles          4,242,213       45%          105%
New York             2,339,836       25%          60%
Chicago              1,416,584       17%          143%
Miami                1,291,737       57%          123%
Houston              1,248,586       30%          211%
Riverside-San        1,228,962       38%          324%
Bernardino
Orange County         875,579        31%          206%
Phoenix               817,012        25%          261%
San Antonio           816,037        51%          67%
Dallas                810,499        23%          324%
TOTAL                15,087,045      31%          130%
"Hypergrowth" New Latino Destinations, 2000
                      Number of   Percent of Total   Growth from
                       Latinos      Population        1980-2000
Raleigh-Durham, NC     72,580           6%             1180%
Atlanta, GA            268,851          7%              995%
Greensboro, NC         62,210           5%              962%
Charlotte, NC          77,092           5%              932%
Orlando, FL            271,627         17%              859%
Las Vegas, NV          322,038         21%              753%
Nashville, TN          40,139           3%              630%
Fort Lauderdale, FL    271,652         17%              578%
Sarasota, FL           38,682           7%              538%
Portland, OR           142,444          7%              437%
Greenville, SC         26,167           3%              397%
West Palm Beach, FL    140,675         12%              397%
Washington, DC         432,003          9%              346%
                       Latino Population in “New
                       Destinations” Heavily Male
          18-64 year-old Latino males for every 100 Latino females, 2000
               200
                                                                              188
               180


               160
                                                                   141
               140


               120                                       113
                                103
               100


                 80


                 60


                 40


                 20


                   0
                           Los Angeles                  Houston   Portland   Raleigh
Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data
Interregional Migration in the U.S.




 Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2000.
                 Rustbelt to Sunbelt
• Sunbelt southern tier of the United States, focused on Florida, Texas,
  Arizona, and California, and extending as far north as Virginia.
• The term gained wide use in the 1970s, when the economic and political
  impact of the nation's overall shift in population to the south and west
  became conspicuous.
• Areas near the Mexican border have received millions of immigrants
  since the 1960s.
• Economic growth in many Sunbelt cities since World War II has
  stimulated interregional migration from the NE United States and the
  Rustbelt.
• By 1990, Los Angeles, San Diego, Phoenix, Houston, Dallas, and San
  Antonio were among the ten largest cities in the United States.
• The warm climate has attracted large retirement communities, especially
  in Florida and Arizona.
• In addition, the birth rate in the Sunbelt is about 10% greater than that
  in the rest of the country.
              The “New” Sunbelt
• The New Sunbelt—13 states in the nation's West and
  Southeast of which Nevada, Arizona, Georgia, and
  North Carolina are prime examples—is the present-
  day counterpart of America's suburbs.
• It contains one-fifth of the U.S. population but is
  growing almost twice as fast as the rest of the nation
  (it grew by 28 percent vs. 15 percent over the 1990-
  2002 period), in large measure thanks to suburban-
  like in-migrants:
   – white middle-class families, singles and retirees;
   – in the Southeast, they are joined by a returning black
     middle class.
      The “New” v. “Old” Sunbelt
• The New Sunbelt, it should be said, does not include
  the "old" Sunbelt meccas of California, Texas and
  Florida. Instead, these make up part of the nation's
  churning, bubbling "Melting Pot" region.
• These nine states—which include such other
  immigrant gateways as New York, New Jersey, and
  Illinois (with Chicago)—constitute America's most
  urban super-region.
    More Details on Interregional Migration in
                     the US
• Long-distance migration flows are fueling growth in New
  Sunbelt states that offer affordable new housing in safe,
  dispersed settings with more local control, ingredients that
  have always attracted Americans to the suburbs.
• Yet the Melting Pot states that they are leaving are not
  emptying out.
• They are the prime beneficiaries of the nation's rising
  immigration levels, infusing these states with urban diversity
  and a vibrancy that has long been associated with cities.
• Compared to these regions, the aging Heartland appears to be
  standing still, isolated from the dramatic changes occurring
  elsewhere.
                              New Sunbelt, Melting Pot,
                                and Heartland States




                                               New Sunbelt
                                               Melting Pot
                                               Heartland States
Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                   Selected New Sunbelt and Old Sunbelt States
                                                   Growth 1980s and 1990s


          Nevada


      Colorado


         Georgia

                              0               10       20      30      40   50   60    70


          Florida

                                                                                 80s
             Texas
                                                                                 90s

    California

Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                            Migration Components of Regions
                                       1995-2000

          5,000,000

          4,000,000

          3,000,000

          2,000,000                                                     Immigration
          1,000,000                                                     Domestic Migration

                        0
                                Melting Pot   New Sunbelt   Heartland
         -1,000,000

         -2,000,000



Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                                          Migration Components:
                                            Melting Pot States

                        5.0
                        4.0
                        3.0
                        2.0
                        1.0                                           Immigration

                        0.0
                                                                      Domestic
                      -1.0
                                   ia




                                                                 is
                                                          s
                                                 rk



                                                                      Migration
                                                        xa
                                 rn




                                                               no
                                              Yo
                              ifo




                                                      Te



                                                              Illi
                      -2.0
                                            w
                            l
                         Ca



                                         Ne




                      -3.0
                      -4.0
                      -5.0

Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                                          Migration Components:
                                            New Sunbelt States
                    8.0
                    7.0
                    6.0
                    5.0
                    4.0                                                  Immigration

                    3.0
                                                                         Domestic
                    2.0                                                  Migration
                    1.0
                    0.0
                   -1.0        Arizona         North Colorado South
                   -2.0                       Carolina        Carolina

Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                                          Migration Components:
                                             Heartland States
                  5.0

                  4.0

                  3.0

                  2.0

                  1.0
                                                                           Immigration
                  0.0
                                                                           Domestic Migration
                             n




                                                o




                                                                ia




                                                                       a
                 -1.0
                           ga




                                              hi



                                                              an




                                                                       w
                                          O




                                                                     Io
                        hi




                                                           lv
                      ic




                                                        sy
                     M




                 -2.0
                                                      nn
                                                    Pe




                 -3.0

                 -4.0
                 -5.0

Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                        Domestic Migration 1995-2000
                                                   100K and above
                                                   0 to 99K
                                                   0 to -99K
                                                   -100K and below




Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                               Race Composition of Regions
             Melting Pot                                       New Sunbelt                         Heartland

                                                                                                       2% 4%
                                                                                                  2%
    25%
                                                          2%    9%                        12%
                                                      3%

2%                                                  14%
                                              55%
 7%


      11%                                                                        72%                           80%


                                                    White      Black   Asian   Other   Hispanic




Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                                          Hispanic Migration
                           From Abroad                          Within US




                                               50K and above
                                               25K to 49K
                                               -25K to -49K

Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution    -50K and below
                                       Asian Migration
                             From Abroad                       Within US




                                              50K and above
                                              10K to 49K
                                              -10K to -49K

Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution   -50K and below
          Black Migration to the South Rises

           400,000

           300,000

           200,000
                                              1965-70
           100,000                            1975-80
                      0                       1985-90
                                              1995-2000
          -100,000

          -200,000

          -300,000


Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                                              Black Migration
                               1965-70                             1995-2000




                                                    Top 5 Gains
                                                    Gains
                                                    Losses

Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution         Top 5 Losses
                                              White Migration
                            1985-1990                              1995-2000




                                                    Top 5 Gains
                                                    Gains
                                                    Losses
Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution         Top 5 Losses
                                 White Migration Disperses

                1.5
                  1
                0.5                                        Immigration
                  0                                        Magnet
               -0.5                                        Other Large
                 -1                                        Metro
               -1.5                                        Small Metro
                 -2
               -2.5                                        Non-metro
                 -3
               -3.5
                                      Domestic Migration
Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                                          California’s Exchange
                                            with Other States
                           1985-1990                                        1995-2000




                                                   Top 5 Sending States
                                                   Other Sending States
                                                   Other Receiving States

Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution        Top 5 Receiving States
                         North & South Migration: Race

                 1,500,000

                 1,000,000

                     500,000
                                                              White
                                  0                           Black
                                                              Asian
                   -500,000
                                                              Hispanic
                -1,000,000

                -1,500,000
                                              North   South


Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                                      Southern-born Whites Are
                                        a Southern Minority
                     100%
                                              9.6    15.4
                      90%
                      80%                     18.5           Other Races
                                                     18.8
                      70%
                                              17.8           Blacks
                      60%                            17.2
                      50%
                                                             Non South
                      40%
                                                             Whites
                      30%                     54.1   48.6    South Born
                      20%
                                                             Whites
                      10%
                       0%
                                              1990   2000
Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                     Born in Same State, 2000




Percent Born in Same State
     LT 65%
     GT 65%

                                        Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                     Senior Migration 1995-2000
                                              Top 5 Gains
                                              Gains
                                              Losses
                                              Top 5 Losses




Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                          Florida’s Senior “Revolving Door”
                                 Elderly Exchanges with Other States

                                                         Top 5 Sending States
                                                         Other Sending States
                                                         Other Receiving States
                                                         Top 5 Receiving States




Source: William Frey, Brookings Institution
                       Key Concepts

•   Brain drain             •   Intervening obstacle
•   Chain migration         •   Intraregional migration
•   Counterurbanization     •   Migration transition
•   Emigration              •   Mobility
•   Forced migration        •   Pull factor
•   Guest workers           •   Push factor
•   Immigration             •   Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration
•   Immigration gateways    •   Refugees
     – Emerging             •   Transhumance travel
     – Established          •   Undomumented immigrants
• Internal migration        •   Voluntary migration
• International migration
• Interregional migration

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:40
posted:10/30/2011
language:English
pages:44