Glenn Reinhardt

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Glenn Reinhardt Powered By Docstoc

                                   Glenn Reinhardt
                                    Executive Director
                         Water Environment Research Foundation
                       601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1994
                                  Phone: 703-684-2494
                                   Fax: 703-299-0742

   • Information about WERF
         o Overview of WERF
         o Research Categories and Projects
         o Project Subcommittees

   • What WERF is Currently Doing
     Projects to Protect Wastewater Infrastructure and Public Health
        o Sensing Technologies
        o Toxicological and Environmental Effects
        o Wastewater Treatment Technologies
        o Protecting Assets

   • What Other Organizations are Doing

   • What WERF May Be Able To Do
     Research Plan Development and Coordination
     Potential Projects
     Future Directions

   1. Additional Details on Some WERF Projects Previously Listed
   2. Other Agencies, Groups, and Organizations
   3. Potential Wastewater Security Research Projects

                                              [Focus of this presentation indicated in bold font]
                                                                                 January 28, 2002

                                       Glenn Reinhardt
                  Executive Director, Water Environment Research Foundation


Overview of WERF
The Water Environment Federation (WEF) established the Water Environment Research
Foundation (WERF) in 1989 as a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization. WERF is now the largest
organization in the United States providing wastewater and water quality research. By
maintaining an unbiased and competitive contractor selection process and implementing
stringent quality control measures, WERF has gained a reputation as one of America’ most
trusted research organizations. Conservative fiscal policies have also placed WERF among the
preeminent nonprofit organizations in the U.S.; keeping administrative costs low allows 90
percent of our funding to go directly to our research programs.

Over the last 11 years, WERF has initiated over 200 research projects with an accumulated value
of more than $60 million to date. These efforts have resulted in over a billion dollars in savings
to our subscribers and the public, more scientifically defensible regulations, improvements in the
protection of human and ecological health, and advances in technology, watershed management,
water reclamation, and biosolids processing.

WERF’ strengths lie in our structure. Since we represent the research interests of our many and
varied subscribers, we can and must pursue a wide range of topics. Being nonpartisan, we are
bound to no particular agenda and can provide impartial scientific research without fear or favor.
Because our staff is small and our research projects are contracted with individual project teams,
we are flexible and can redirect the focus of our efforts quickly and efficiently. And we ensure a
broad range of vision by soliciting input on our research agenda from throughout our subscriber
base. Past WERF research has included topics as diverse as fate of toxic compounds, ecological
risk assessment, optimization of treatment system operations and management, comparative
effectiveness of disinfection processes, wet weather flows, and biosolids management.

WERF Subscribers include wastewater utilities representing more than 65 percent of the sewered
population in the United States and more than 60 corporations in the U.S. and overseas who
share concerns for water quality issues. Subscribers guide WERF’ research program by
participating in agenda setting exercises and in the research itself. WERF seeks cost-effective,
publicly acceptable, environmentally sound solutions to water pollution control problems.

WERF’ volunteer structure includes a 15-member Board of Directors composed of subscribing
entities to provide fiscal guidance, governance, set policy, and to approve research. In addition,
a 17 member Research Council of knowledgeable leaders in environmental sciences and
engineering is actively involved in the planning and management of applied and basic research
for the organization and in setting the research direction.

Funded through voluntary contributions by subscribing organizations and federal grants, WERF
currently manages research under three major research thrust areas: Collection and Treatment
(CAT), Human Health Effects (HHE), and Watersheds, Stormwater, and Ecosystems (WSE).

WERF is successfully building a cooperative research and development program serving the
water quality profession. Benefits accrue in the form of services, technological advances, and
information. Through these efforts, WERF promotes the application of sound science and
objective information to better serve the public.

Research Categories and Projects
WERF’ research is currently managed under the three major program or thrust areas (CAT,
HHE, and WSE). Individual research projects funded under these Program areas are further
classified into five Research Categories to seek cost-effective and scientifically sound solutions
for environmental concerns with the following goals for each research category:
    • Collection, Treatment, and Facility Management
         To improve the operation, efficiency, and reliability of wastewater collection and
         treatment facilities by reducing cost, optimizing processes and practices, and facilitating
         the transfer of technology from other fields, and to advance the state of knowledge of
         treatment processes.
    • Biosolids Use and Water Reclamation
         To fully use products such as reclaimed water and biosolids as beneficial resources
         without adversely affecting human health or the environment.
    • Watersheds and Stormwater
         To improve watershed management practices for effluent discharges and wet weather
         flows on a watershed basis, and to develop cost-effective methodologies and management
         strategies to protect the environment.
    • Health Effects
         To protect human health by exploring options for identifying and controlling emerging
         pathogens and chemical stressors using cutting edge technologies.
    • Ecosystems
         To protect the environment by improving the environmental risk assessment process and
         by reducing uncertainties when assessing the exposure to stressors and in making risk
         management decisions.

While WERF funds and manages the projects, the research is carried out by individual
organizations or teams composed of utilities, consultants, universities, and industrial or
commercial firms that respond to Requests for Proposals (RFPs) and Calls for Proposals. WERF
staff and volunteers provide project oversight and technical peer review for all research projects.

WERF Subscribers are surveyed annually to determine their highest priority research needs. The
immediate needs of Subscribers and the water quality industry are then compared to the WERF
Research Council’ Long-Range Plan, which proactively identifies issues that may not yet be of
concern. Once WERF has analyzed the data and set research priorities, specific RFPs are
developed. Research proposals are solicited on a priority basis to the extent funding allows.
WERF welcomes proposals from any individual or organization(s).

WERF currently provides three funding opportunities for the submission of proposals, these are:
(1) Solicited Research Program (WERF’ largest program, primarily for specific projects
addressing Subscriber needs), (2) Unsolicited Research Program, and (3) Emerging Technologies
Program. The latter two programs were developed to explore a wider range of research issues.

In addition to the above three programs, there are other opportunities to work cooperatively with
WERF. More information on these programs (e.g., Peer Review, Cooperative Research, Targeted
Collaborative Research, etc.) or on WERF in general is available at our website,

Project Subcommittees
A panel of experts, known as the Project Subcommittee (PSC), reviews research studies funded
by WERF. The PSC is a volunteer peer-review team assigned to each research project in order to
ensure an unbiased, objective, balanced and comprehensive approach to a research project. A
typical PSC consists of five individuals selected for their interest and knowledge in the technical
area being studied. Representatives from academia, industry, government, and the public sector
with appropriate expertise are invited to participate. PSC members develop, review, and refine
RFPs; review proposals and make recommendations for a contract award; and finally, help
WERF project managers monitor and evaluate the technical quality, performance, and progress
of selected research projects.


Projects to Protect Wastewater Infrastructure and Public Health
WERF was created in 1989 due to the need to continue research to protect public health by
safely collecting and treating wastewater before releasing the final products, treated water and
biosolids, back into the environment. Over the past two decades, our nation’ water quality has
steadily and significantly improved, and WERF has expanded beyond wastewater collection and
treatment into the watershed. WERF research programs continue to protect human health and
the ecosystems, from both point and non-point sources.

Prior to September 11, 2001, WERF was already working on several projects that can help
address terrorism issues in the water industry. These include a dozen projects (at a cost of over
$3.67 million) in the area of Sensing Technologies, three projects ($700 thousand) in
Toxicological and Environmental Effects, and seven projects (over $2.1 million) on
Wastewater Treatment Technologies. Another area of interest for WERF research includes
Protecting Assets. Examples of ongoing projects in these areas are presented below, with
information on projects that could potentially be expanded to further address terrorism or
security issues should additional funds be made available. The projects listed below (prior
9/11/01) do not specifically address terrorism issues but can be expanded to do so if funded.
Appendix 1 provides additional information for some of these research projects.

Sensing Technologies
   • Developing Upset Early Warning Systems for Biological Wastewater Treatment (WERF
      Project No. 01-CTS-2, cost: $300,000)2.
   • Sensor Technology Development for Water Quality Monitoring (01-WSM-2, $600,000)1.

   • Real-Time PCR Detection of Human Viruses and Indicators in Water, (01-HHE-2A,
   • Molecular Alternatives to Indicator and Pathogen Detection (01-HHE-2B, $400,000)1.
   • Evaluation of the Doodlebug: A Biochip for Detecting Waterborne Pathogens (00-HHE-
     8UR, $190,000)3.
   • Development of Molecular Methods for Detection of Infectious Viruses in Treated
     Wastewater (99-HHE-5UR, $250,000)1.
   • Study Installed State-of-the-Art WWTP Sensing and Control Systems and the
     Applicability of Industrial Process Control Methods (99-WWF-4, $340,000).

   Much of the above WERF research is preparing the path for the development of real-time on-
   line sensing technologies. While some projects are in the early stages of development, some
   are operational in the laboratory, and some equipment has been constructed for field use3.
   Many of these projects can be expanded to evaluate identification and/or quantification
   capabilities for a suite of pathogens or chemicals that might be indicative of terrorist
   activities. Most of these technologies are designed for environmental monitoring1, but
   certain ones are specifically designed for use in detecting process upsets or toxic conditions2
   at wastewater treatment facilities. The expected cost to expand many of the laboratory-
   oriented projects is likely to be 50 to 60% of the original cost, for each technology to be
   evaluated, or for additional analysis of additional contaminants. Technologies that are ready
   for field-testing could cost considerably more, as construction of field units and technology
   demonstration efforts will likely be labor intensive. Such project expansions will likely
   require funding near the $500,000 level, for each technology or location and type of

Toxicological and Environmental Effects
   • Toxicity Screening Using Bioluminescent Reporter Technology (98-CTS-6, $300,000).
   • Online Toxicological Methods for Evaluating Potential Chemical Risk Associated with
       Potable Reuse (01-HHE-4, $300,000).

   Much of the work in this area is developmental and may involve the development of
   transgenic organisms such as fish. These projects require significant levels of expertise and
   time and are estimated at $500-$600,000 per project. A project is expected to address one
   test organism with multiple target contaminants.

Wastewater Treatment Technologies
  • Evaluating and Optimizing Source Treatment Technologies to Improve the
     Biodegradability of Organic Compounds (99-WWF-5, $370,000).
  • Membrane Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Effluent for Subsequent Use (01-CTS-6,
  • Pathogen Removal and Inactivation in Water Reclamation for Nonpotable Reuse (00-
     PUM-2T, $475,000).
  • Fate and Persistence of Pathogens Subjected to Disinfection (98-HHE-2, $500,000).

   The purpose of the treatment research is to help municipalities meet requirements for fishable
   / swimmable waters, and any water reuse requirements that exist. Any of these projects may

   be expanded to include pathogens or chemicals that might be used as terrorist weapons. The
   purpose of such work would be to demonstrate removal or fate of such contaminants in the
   treatment facility or when discharged to the environment. Project expansions could cost
   between 40 and 70% of the original project cost, depending upon the number and type of
   contaminants to be studied.

Protecting Assets
WERF does not currently have any projects under contract on this subject area, but it is initiating
work on asset management through the conduct of a workshop in early 2002. Research that
addresses security issues to provide guidelines and protocols can be developed as part of that
effort. Such efforts could address issues regarding power disruption, spills, equipment failure or
sabotage, and attacks directed toward personnel. Additionally, the development of asset
inventories can be expanded to include capabilities for equipment monitoring and operational
control with multiple access or control points. Such systems can be used to increase the
computer and control system security as demonstrated in U.S. Air Force operations where this
type of system is referred to as a ring-buffered network buss. Projects involving the
development of security protocols will cost about $150-$200,000 whereas developing asset
monitoring and control systems can be done for $400-$600,000. Seed money for several
municipalities might be needed to move the technology into implementation. Each
demonstration of new cyber technologies would probably require several tens of thousands to
$100,000 to put the technology into practice.


Federal Agencies – A number of federal agencies are conducting or coordinating research and
preparedness activities related to the public health and medical consequences of a bioterrorist
attack. These are described in the GAO (General Accounting Office) Report to Congressional
Committees, “Bioterrorism: Federal Research and Preparedness Activities”, (GAO-01-915,
September 2001). Research activities focus on various biological agents that could be used as
weapons of terrorism; detection of such agents; development of new or improved vaccines,
antibiotics, and antivirals; and performance standards for emergency response equipment.
Preparedness activities include increasing state and local response capabilities, improving federal
response capacity, developing response teams, increasing the availability of medical treatments,
participating in and sponsoring exercises, aiding victims, and providing support at special events.
Activities in many departments and agencies have a dual use, being not only relevant for
bioterrorism but also for other types of terrorism, emergencies, and infectious disease
surveillance. Federal entities listed and/or discussed in the GAO report include the Departments
of Agriculture (Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service),
Defense (Joint Task Force for Civil Support, National Guard, U.S. Army), Energy, Justice
(Office of Justice Programs, Federal Bureau of Investigation), Transportation, Treasury (Secret
Service), Environmental Protection Agency, Health and Human Services (Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug
Administration, National Institutes of Health, Office of Emergency Preparedness), Federal
Emergency Management Agency, and more recently, the Office of Homeland Security.

Other Organizations – A number of other organizations (including not-for-profits, private, and
public entities) are involved in issues related to terrorism and security. A partial listing of these
organizations and a description of their current activities related to security issues (with internet
web addresses for additional information) is provided in Appendix 2.


Research Plan Development and Coordination
WERF is working with USEPA, WEF, AMSA, and others to increase wastewater system
security and to develop tools, training, and a research agenda focused on enhancing public safety
and protection. WERF has been asked by the EPA Office of Water (Washington, DC) to be in
close contact with various other agencies, including EPA’ Office of Research and Development
(Cincinnati, OH) to help coordinate research, both short- and long-term. WERF is also tracking
legislation that will provide funding to carry out this research.

The federal and non-governmental agencies mentioned above and listed in Appendix 2 have
been, and are continuing to, research and develop tools to rapidly detect and contain potential
hazardous contaminants and biological hazards. WERF strongly supports these activities and
will seek to leverage these tools for wastewater treatment. This will also help avoid duplication
and leverage scarce resources (including capital and manpower). As various research efforts
continue, WERF will seek to stay informed of these developments and will identify areas to
coordinate research that is applicable and relevant to wastewater. Research gaps and funding
opportunities will also be identified.

Potential Projects
Although the efforts of the agencies listed above appear to be diverse, there are a number of key
similarities. Three key elements of these security-related activities to protect the water
infrastructure have emerged, they are: “prevent, detect, and respond” or “detect, delay, and
respond”. These elements will help guide utilities to plan and manage against potential security
breaches. Significant work is already underway (and additional funds allocated or planned) to
develop appropriate tools to “detect”. There is, however, a fourth element (or a subset of
“respond”) that needs to be addressed once the security breach occurs. This deals with what
needs, or can be done, to “treat” the breach. In many cases, once a breach, e.g., a contaminant
that is covertly or inadvertently introduced into the public water supply systems is detected, the
polluted water needs to be removed, isolated, treated or disposed off safely. This is necessary to
protect the public and the environment – and also to communicate this effectively to avoid panic
situations. Due to WERF’ background and experience in water pollution control, this is an area
where we can contribute significantly.

In addition, as utilities nationwide begin using and implementing security-related tools (such as
AMSA’ Asset Based Vulnerability Checklist), there will be common needs or gaps identified.
WERF can help to define these gaps and develop the necessary products, e.g., determine the
appropriate best practices (from experiences in the USA and abroad) to protect a specific asset.

A number of wastewater security related research projects can be developed by WERF based on
a preliminary review of the activities of other organizations. These range from projects to
identify and treat contaminants that may deliberately be introduced to water supplies, projects to
help protect municipal assets and operations, as well as to effectively communicate with the
public regarding public health and security concerns. The projects are listed below and
described in Appendix 3:

   1. Identify, Screen, and Treat Contaminants in Water/Wastewater, $350k
   2. Software and Guidance for Assessing and Inventorying Wastewater Treatment
      Infrastructure, $250k
   3. Security Measures for Computerized and Automated Systems at Wastewater Facilities,
   4. Contingency Planning for Wastewater Treatment Facilities, $400k
   5. Communicating with Your Community, $300k
   6. Research Needs Symposia, $75k
   7. Feasibility of Expert Systems for Use in WWTPs, $140k

The projects above can be considered dual-use, i.e., they will help provide guidance tools or
information to use in the event of a security breach from a planned, covert act of terrorism, as
well as from unplanned, natural events or disasters.

Future Directions
WERF will continue to work with our existing partners/collaborators, and seek to open channels
of communication with other agencies. This will lead to better coordination, identification, and
leverage of resources on research needs in the water/wastewater arena. WERF will also seek and
track funding for specific projects, such as those identified above.

Contact WERF
Water Environment Research Foundation
601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1994
Phone:       703-604-2470
Fax:         703-299-0742

       Glenn Reinhardt, Executive Director
       703-684-2494 or

       Chuck Noss, Sc.D., Dy. Exec. Director – Research
       703-684-2447 or

       Amit Pramanik, Ph.D., Research Program Director
       703-684-2470, ext. 7228 or

                                        Appendix 1
                Additional Details on Some WERF Projects Previously Listed

                                     WERF Project 01-CTS-2
               Upset Early Warning Devices for Biological Treatment Processes
This project is an integral part of WERF’ program to develop early upset warning devices /
systems for wastewater utilities. Project 01-CTS-2 (PI: Dr. Nancy Love, Virginia Tech) was
developed as a follow-on to the previous project 99-WWF-2 (same PI), in which a workshop was
conducted to survey and review the needs for upset early warning devices. The new project, 01-
CTS-2, will clarify the source-cause-effect relationship for key upsets that occur in the activated
sludge process. Nine source conditions will be used over a range of concentrations to produce
the process-related effect. Two to four of these will be then be selected for further study.

The pilot scale facility is currently operating and receiving mixed liquor. Two sequencing batch
reactors, one at a solids retention time (SRT) of 2 days and the other at 10 days, are being
maintained. Nitrification has been achieved in the 10-day SRT reactor. Preliminary shock tests
have been conducted in the lab for 8 of the 10 source conditions to be tested, and the process
effects were noted. Using the specific oxygen uptake rate, the inhibitory concentrations for 5 of
the 10 source conditions were determined (the other 5 will not use the inhibitory concentration as
a basis for dosing).

Current compounds being or planned to be assessed are: ammonia, heavy metals, organic
respiratory uncouplers, organic electrophilic (oxidative) chemicals, organic hydrophobic
chemicals, surfactants, acids and bases, cyanide, and readily-biodegradable compounds.

                                     WERF Project 98-CTS-3
                     Field Validation of Biokinetic Coefficients for Predicting
                               Degradation of Organic Compounds
In addition to project 01-CTS-2, project 98-CTS-3 is currently being expanded through WERF’s
TCR (Targeted Collaborative Research) program to address additional needs. The existing
project (98-CTS-3) assesses protocols developed by WERF for predicting removal of organic
compounds, quantifies coefficients for compounds of environmental interest at multiple
facilities, and develops a database for these compounds.

This new project expansion (with Dr. Tim Ellis of the Iowa State University) will evaluate the
needs and experiences of participating industries (primarily fossil-fuel energy) with respect to
early warning systems for the protection of treatment plants from process upsets. It will identify
the most promising early warning technologies and devices, and recommend a specific research
plan for a comparative study of available devices. There may be potential follow-on to deal with
pilot scale application of selected technologies.

This project expansion can aid in the protection of drinking water supplies by developing
methods for evaluation of the source water for contaminants as it enters the treatment plant.
Contaminants related to water treatment that might be discovered by early warning detection

include: arsenic, aluminum, pesticides/herbicides, perchlorate, DBP precursors, endocrine
disruptors and pharmaceutically active compounds, MTBE, iron, manganese, VOCs, boron,
chromium, and bromate.

     Sensor Technology for Water Quality Monitoring: Bioluminescent Microorganisms
Dr. Paul Frymier of the University of Tennessee is conducting this research project to develop a
biological sensor using luminescent bacteria that can detect the presence of metals and organic
compounds. This could improve online monitoring techniques and responsiveness to potential

           Sensor Technology for Water Quality Monitoring: XRF Spectroscopy
Dr. Dennis Connolly, Detora Analytical, Inc, was recently selected to conduct the above work
which help on-line trace contaminant monitoring at municipal water and wastewater treatment
plants. The research will test the feasibility of using an existing online technology to detect and
measure trace metals in water and wastewater. It could improve monitoring techniques and
responsiveness to potential upsets.

            Applications of DNA Microarray Technology for Wastewater Analysis
Dr. Roland Brousseau, Biotechnology Research Institute will conduct the research to describe
the capabilities for simultaneous sampling of multiple organisms and needs for industry-wide
application, using E. coli as a model. It will help develop an approach to applying this
technology in wastewater treatment analysis.

                    Detection of Pathogens and Indicators: Real-Time PCR
Dr. Sunny Jiang, University of California-Irvine will be examining the feasibility of more rapid
and specific detection methods (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) for pathogen and
indicator monitoring. This could lead to near real-time analysis of human health risk.

       Study Installed State-of-the-Art WWTP Sensing and Control Systems and the
  Applicability of Industrial Process Control Methods to Wastewater Treatment Systems
Dr. Robert Hill, of EMA, Inc. is leading a multi-disciplinary project team that is assessing the
success of process monitoring and automation technologies used in wastewater treatment. The
project is nearing completion (in 2002) and will help identify methods used in the industrial
process and manufacturing sectors that have promise for wastewater treatment applications.

               Toxicity Screening Using Bioluminescent Reporter Technology
Dr. Paul Frymier, University of Tennessee, is also nearing completion of this research project (in
2002) to determine the bioluminescent response to suspected effluent toxicants and to correlate
the response due to toxicant action to treatment performance in a bench-scale activated sludge

       Membrane Treatment of Secondary Wastewater Effluent for Subsequent Use
Dr. Roderick Reardon, P.E., of Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc. was recently selected to survey and
evaluate membrane technologies and applications currently in use in wastewater facilities to
determine the relationship between effectiveness and operating variables. The project will also
conduct pilot tests of selected membranes.

                                         Appendix 2
                          Other Agencies, Groups, and Organizations

[Many of the agencies listed below provide information and useful resources related to water and
wastewater security related issues. Links to their websites are provided below where available.
A number of these agencies will also be providing updates at this 2002 AMSA Winter Meeting.]

AMSA – Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies (
represents the interests of over 300 public wastewater treatment agencies that serve the majority
of the sewered population in the United States. These agencies collectively treat and reclaim
more than 18 billion gallons of wastewater each day. AMSA maintains a key role in the
development of environmental legislation, and works closely with federal regulatory agencies in
the implementation of environmental programs. AMSA is currently developing the following
three products related to wastewater security (with funding support from the USEPA):
    • Asset Based Vulnerability Checklist
    • Legal Issues in Times of Crises Checklist, and
    • Vulnerability Assessment Software Tool.
These two tools will assist wastewater utilities in laying the groundwork to assess and remediate
security challenges. Both publications, along with subsequent AMSA security initiatives, will be
featured at the 2002 AMSA winter conference. The Asset-Based Vulnerability Checklist, and
the more comprehensive Vulnerability Assessment Software Tool, will help utility leaders
address the risks associated with the main categories of business assets – people (utility staff),
physical plant, knowledge base, information technology, and customers.

AMWA – Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies ( has more than 155
member agencies that collectively serve 110 million Americans with clean, safe drinking water.
Their primary objective is to represent the interests of large publicly owned drinking water
systems. The association works with Congress and federal agencies to ensure safe and cost-
effective federal drinking water laws and regulations. Their members are committed to effective
public communication on drinking water quality, and they promote improved public water
supply operations through collection and exchange of management, scientific and technical

Following the terrorist attacks on 9/11/2001, AMWA has posted information on all FBI
advisories and AMWA’ new online source for updates on national Critical Infrastructure
Protection (CIP) efforts and the planned Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC),
which AMWA is coordinating for the water supply sector with support from EPA. Their website
provides a history of CIP activities, plans for the Water ISAC and links to key agencies involved
in national infrastructure protection. When fully implemented, the Water ISAC will provide
water systems with timely notices of both physical and electronic threats and will be a place
where utilities can share information about events, threats, contaminants, protective measures,
etc., in a secure environment.

ASCE – American Society of Civil Engineers ( was founded in 1852 and is the
nations’oldest national engineering society. It is a professional organization representing more
than 123,000 civil engineers, and celebrates its 150th anniversary in 2002. ASCE is a worldwide
leader for excellence in civil engineering. With a mission to advance professional knowledge
and improve the practice of civil engineering, ASCE is a focal point for the development and
transfer of research results, and technical policy and managerial information. ASCE sent teams
to the sites

Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001, ASCE has collaborated, and formed a partnership with,
leading design and construction industry groups and several federal agencies on issues related to
the security of the nation’ structures and other types of man-made infrastructure. The
Infrastructure Security Partnership (TISP) decided to work collectively to assist the nation’ war
on terrorism. It has formed a steering committee to guide the collaborative efforts – and consists
of representatives from the American Institute of Architects, the Society of American Military
Engineers, the ASCE, the American Council of Engineering Companies, the Associated General
Contractors of America, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Facilities Control, the
Federal Emergency Management, Agency and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command.

ASCE, using its Disaster Response Procedure, also authorized the formation of two teams to
study the collapse of the World Trade Center in New York and the damage to the Pentagon in
suburban Washington, DC. Each team is composed of ASCE members who are experts in the
design of complex structures. They will study the response of the buildings to the attacks in
order to learn what improvements need to be made to the design of future buildings. ASCE’     s
Disaster Response Procedure has been in place for approximately 10 years. This was the fifth
time in 2001 the procedure has been used to create study teams. Earlier teams, whose members
were experts in earthquakes and lifeline engineering, were dispatched to study and document the
devastation from the earthquakes in El Salvador, India, the Seattle area, and Peru. Funding for
the teams is made available through the ASCE Voluntary Fund.

AwwaRF – American Water Works Association Research Foundation ( is the
primary organization that funds and manages research for the drinking water community in the
USA. Research projects are primarily funded by voluntary subscriptions from water utilities
based on annual water production, with additional funding from the federal government,
consultants and manufacturers. AwwaRF has about 1000 Subscribers, most of which are in the
US and some overseas. The population served by utility subscribers is 175 million. All research
is done under contract by water utilities, universities, private research organizations, consulting
engineering firms, and other qualified organizations. Their estimated 2001 research budget was
$14.9 million, and they have funded more than 630 research projects valued at over $190 million
(including in-kinds).

AwwaRF became involved in security and counter-terrorism activities in 1999. This new area of
work was initiated due to utility interest in this topic identified during preparation for their 1999
Research Advisory Council (RAC) meeting and several research projects were initiated in 2000
and 2001. Since the September 11th 2001 attacks, a number of projects have been started in
coordination with EPA, AWWA, AMWA, and others to support efforts in this area. Finally,

some projects are anticipated for 2002 that have either been identified by their RAC or have been
discussed with the USEPA and included in a recent USEPA grant application.

Completed or ongoing security related projects include Vulnerability Assessment Methodology;
Actual and Threatened Security Events at Water Utilities; Design of Early Warning and
Predictive Source-Water Monitoring Systems. A number of Vulnerability Assessment related
workshops, case studies, satellite teleconferences have been conducted or started since 9/11/01.
At their Dec. 2001 meeting, the AwwaRF Board approved the RAC recommendation for
$300,000 to $500,000 in security related projects for 2002.

APWA – American Public Works Association ( is the umbrella organization
representing all facets of the public works industry. It has more than 26,000 members who
include leaders and decision makers in the field nationwide. Originally chartered in 1937,
APWA is the largest and oldest organization of its kind in the world, with headquarters in
Kansas City, Missouri, an office in Washington, D.C., and 67 chapters throughout North
America. APWA provides a forum in which public works professionals can exchange ideas,
improve professional competency, increase the performance of their agencies and companies,
and bring important public works-related topics to public attention in local, state and federal
arenas. APWA has established a “Public Works Responds” section on its website to provide
links to emergency management, disaster response, and security-related information, as well as
training and educational opportunities.

CDC – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) protects people’ health and
safety by preventing and controlling diseases and injuries. It enhances health decisions by
providing credible information on critical health issues; and promotes healthy living through
strong partnerships with local, national and international organizations. Following the events of
9/11/2001 and subsequent anthrax incidents, the CDC redesigned their web site to offer both new
and updated bioterrorism resources for health professionals and the public. The site at addresses the need for up-to-date and accurate information on health threats
arising from exposure to biological, chemical, or radiological agents. The redesigned site, which
focuses on Public Health Preparedness and Emergency Response, is the official federal site for
medical, laboratory, and public health professionals to reference when providing information to
the public and for updates on protocols related to health threats such as anthrax.

CDC redesigned the site in response to overwhelming demand from the public and professionals
for credible information during the anthrax crisis. In October 2001, CDC experienced more than
a 100 percent increase in traffic to its main website,, which links directly to CDC was the most visited federal government Web site in the nation in
October, registering more than 9.1 million unique visits.

CERF – Civil Engineering Research Foundation ( is a global not-for-profit
501(c)(3) organization, created by ASCE, focused on constructing an efficient and renewable
future. In collaboration with the construction, engineering, and environmental industries, CERF

(and its sustainable energy organization, IIEC) promotes and facilitates the advancement of
innovation for a sustainable infrastructure. In particular, CERF/IIEC operates innovative
technology programs to speed the use of innovation into practice in the areas of transportation,
public works, energy systems and applications, and the environment. CERF/IIEC also strives to
bring about market transformation and move institutions toward a sustainable future through
training and technical assistance, financial analysis, policy advocacy and project demonstrations.
CERF/IIEC is headquartered in Washington, DC, with offices in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the
Americas. Since the events of 9/11/01, CERF/IIEC began to work with their parent organization
to identify ways that they can lead research and technology evaluation efforts to help find
solutions to protect infrastructure and human life in the future. In cooperation with ASCE and
the Building Futures Council (BFC), their recent semi-annual Executive Program Series (held
October 22-24, 2001, in Washington, DC) focused on designing and managing vulnerability, and
attracted over 150 industry professionals.

Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Advisory Group
Under a grant from the USEPA, the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA)
established the CIP Advisory Group to coordinate efforts within the water sector to address
protection of the nation’ water and wastewater infrastructure from both physical and cyber
threats. The Advisory Group will promote water sector vulnerability assessments, including
interdependencies with other critical sectors, encourage the development of emergency
procedures for response and recovery, suggest areas for continued research and development on
security-related priorities, and oversee development of an Information Sharing and Analysis
Center (ISAC) for water and wastewater – which should be operational in 2002.

An ISAC (Information Sharing and Analysis Center) refers to a communication system designed
to inform key staff responsible for, or concerned with, the smooth operation of designated critical
infrastructures, including water and wastewater, of key security issues. An ISAC allows for
dissemination of early warnings and alerts concerning threats to the integrity and steady
operation of critical infrastructures. An ISAC also provides a process for staff to report risks and
incidents that may be of concern to others nationally. ISAC is a tool used by a specific critical
infrastructure, in this case water and wastewater, to acquire timely information about activities
that may impact its day-to-day operations. Additional information on ISAC is available at the
AMWA or AMSA websites:

The CIP Advisory Group will be working closely with the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, the National Infrastructure Protection Center, the United States Department of Energy,
and Congress to ensure that adequate federal funding, support and information sharing take place
to protect the nation’ water and wastewater infrastructure. Supporting members of the CIP
include the AWWA Research Foundation, the American Water Works Association, the National
Association of Water Companies, AMWA, AMSA, and the Association of State Drinking Water

EPA – The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency ( is to
protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment (air, water, and land) upon which
life depends. For 30 years, EPA has been working for a cleaner, healthier environment for the
American people. With 18,000 people in the headquarters program office, 10 regional offices,
and 17 labs across the country, EPA employs a highly educated, technically trained staff, more
than half of whom are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists. A large
number of employees are legal, public affairs, financial, and computer specialists. EPA is led by
the Administrator, which is appointed by the President of the United States. Offices or
departments within EPA that are primarily involved in water / wastewater issues include the
Office of Water and the Office of Research and Development.

In October 2001, EPA established an internal Water Protection Task Force to ensure that
activities to protect and secure water infrastructure are comprehensive and carried out
expeditiously. Members of the task force work with other federal agencies and private sector
partners to speed up the availability of new advanced materials being prepared to improve
preparedness. They send out notices on issues related to protecting water infrastructure
nationwide on an as-needed basis.

The EPA website also has information and links on protecting the nation’ water supplies from
terrorist attack ( EPA has also provided
and continues to make available funding and technical assistance on specific security related
issues, either directly from EPA or through the Clean Water State Revolving Fund program.

MIPT – Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism
( has a library or clearinghouse for terrorism related information and their website
has a number of public health related reports from a variety of sources (including those listed
above). MIPT is dedicated to preventing and reducing terrorism and mitigating its effects.
Originally incorporated on September 23, 1999, as a non-profit corporation in Oklahoma, MIPT
grew out of the desire of the survivors and families of the Murrah Federal Building bombing of
April 19, 1995 to have a living memorial. MIPT also sponsors research to discover equipment,
training and procedures that might assist first responders (police officers, firefighters, emergency
medical technicians, and others who are first on the scene in the aftermath of terrorist activity) in
preventing terrorism and responding to it. MIPT is currently funded by a special Congressional
appropriation that directs them to conduct “research into the social and political causes and
effects of terrorism and the development of technologies to counter biological, nuclear and
chemical weapons of mass destruction as well as cyber-terrorism”.

WEF – Water Environment Federation ( was founded in 1928 and is a not-for-
profit technical and educational organization with members from varied disciplines who work
toward the WEF vision of preservation and enhancement of the global water environment. The
WEF network includes more than 100,000 water quality professionals from 79 Member
Associations in 31 countries. WEF and its members:
   • Research and publish the latest information on wastewater treatment and water quality

   • Provide technical expertise and training on issues, including nonpoint source pollution,
     hazardous waste, residuals management, and groundwater;
   • Sponsor conferences and other special events around the world; and
   • Review, testify, and comment on environmental regulations and legislation.

WEF has created a section on their website to provide information on water security issues:

WEF Member Associations (MAs): MAs in states nationwide are following wastewater
security issues and disseminate the information to their members. For example, the Georgia
Water & Pollution Control Association continues to monitor the current terrorist threat
situation and will distribute any crisis information immediately to their membership. They are in
direct contact with the Georgia Emergency Management Agency along with many other
emergency response organizations nationwide, and can notify their constituents if an emergency
situation occurs. They concur with the FBI that it is extremely important to step up security to
the highest-level possible until the crisis subsides and have urged their members to exercise
caution so as not to create a panic situation as they deal with what has occurred. Members are
strongly encouraged to keep lines of communication open with local media and law enforcement
officials. GW&PCA has developed a comprehensive electronic database of municipal contacts
in the State. This network can provide virtually instantaneous delivery of breaking information
and emergency instruction to member organizations in times of crisis.

Training and Education
Many of the organizations and agencies listed are also involved in training and education of their
membership and the public. WEF is helping EPA coordinate activities with these and other
organizations with interests in wastewater security issues. They recently convened a meeting on
Wastewater Security in Washington, DC, with a number of stakeholders to discuss coordination
of various efforts on wastewater security training and information dissemination. The
stakeholders also identified concerns about disseminating or providing access to sensitive
information – which could potentially be used by those to seek to do harm.

                                        Appendix 3
                       Potential Wastewater Security Research Projects

   1. Identify, Screen, and Treat Contaminants in Water/Wastewater, $250k
   2. Software and Guidance for Assessing and Inventorying Wastewater Treatment
      Infrastructure, $200k
   3. Security Measures for Computerized and Automated Systems at Wastewater Facilities,
   4. Contingency Planning for Wastewater Treatment Facilities, $400k
   5. Communicating with Your Community, $300k
   6. Research Needs Symposia, $75k
   7. Feasibility of Expert Systems for Use in WWTPs, $140k

   [Estimated total cost of above seven projects: $1,615,000]

Project Concepts:

Project Title:          Identify, Screen, and Treat Contaminants in Water/Wastewater
Duration:               1 ½ to 2 years, in various stages
Cost:                   $250,000 total (estimated)
Communities nationwide are very concerned about the deliberate contamination of their water
supplies and recreational waters by terrorists and vandals. These can include hazardous
chemicals and biological agents. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
recently identified 3 categories of the biological diseases/agents that can harm public health:
     • Category A: high-priority organisms that pose a risk to national security because they
         can be easily disseminated or transmitted, cause high mortality or potential for major
         public health impact, etc. These include: anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox, etc.
     • Category B: second highest priority agents that are moderately easy to disseminate and
         can cause moderate to low morbidity. These include certain toxins (e.g., Epsilon toxin
         of Clostridium perfringens, ricin toxin from Ricinus communis, Staphylococcus
         enterotoxin B, etc.), Brucellosis, etc.
     • Category C: third highest priority agents include emerging pathogens that could be
         engineered for mass dissemination in the future because of availability, ease of
         production and dissemination, potential for high morbidity and mortality and major
         health impact. These include Hantavirus, Nipah virus, tickborne encephalitis and
         hemorrhagic fever viruses, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, etc.
In addition, several “low-tech” contaminants such as gasoline can potentially be introduced to
disrupt water supply and cause widespread panic.

Various agencies have been and continue to develop tools to identify, detect, and screen for these
contaminants. However, there is a lack of information on how to collect and contain, treat and
dispose of these potential public health and ecological hazards.

Many drinking water agencies are concerned about these possibilities and unknowns, and also do
not have the facilities, to treat contaminated waters. When contaminants are detected, these
waters are isolated from the public drinking water supply, flushed out, captured for treatment
and/or released to storm drains or wastewater sewers to the local wastewater treatment facility or
POTWs (publicly owned treatment works). POTW operators and nearby residents are
understandably concerned about the possibility of receiving infectious or hazardous materials
and they want to know how to safely remove, treat, and dispose of these contaminants. Again,
there is a dearth of information to assist communities on this issue.

This new project will be phased/staged to first identify and screen for a number of common
biological and chemical compounds, and then to determine the removal efficacy of wastewater
treatment processes. Due to the magnitude of the problem, this study will be limited to the three
biological diseases/agent categorized by the CDC (above), and to “low-tech” contaminants such
as gasoline. The first phase will be a paper study and include industrial production, inventory,
ease of acquisition; toxicity, routes of exposure; fate data; treatability; etc. The second phase
will include testing of these contaminants through wastewater treatment facilities.

A resource document or series of fact sheets will be developed for operators and communities. It
will help address concerns about the efficacy of treatment for a variety of these contaminants and
also provide new information to help develop or refine treatment that is more effective when
little data exists and public protection is paramount.

Project Title:         Software and Guidance for Assessing and Inventorying Wastewater
                       Treatment Infrastructure
Duration:              1 ½ to 2 years
Cost:                  $200,000 (estimated)
Asset and infrastructure management is gaining significant interest among public utilities. There
is also a heightened sense of awareness of the vulnerability of publicly owned assets. A recently
completed AWWARF project (#460) developed an electronic manual for water plant
infrastructure assessment (at a total cost of about $400k), which has been very valuable to their
Subscribers. AWWARF is willing to share the information if WERF wishes to refine/ develop it
for wastewater utilities. The PI has demonstrated the product to WERF and discussed how this
could be customized for wastewater treatment plants in a very cost-effective manner.

This electronic manual will incorporate a multi-discipline approach to conducting a detailed
assessment of the condition and functionality of the equipment and systems throughout a
wastewater collection system (including pump stations) and the wastewater treatment plant. The
manual will be able to generate automated reports and integrate the use of assessment tools such
as NDE (non-destructive evaluation) videos, multi-discipline assessment guidelines, and
illustrative photographs. The manual will show how to generate tailored and customized reports
including condition reports (plant-wide and/or by specific disciplines), safety reports, discipline
reports, and vulnerability reports.

This project will provide a very valuable tool for utilities to first inventorize their underground
and aboveground assets and then to better assess their system vulnerabilities. This will become
more important (and also compliment) as utilities begin to utilize AMSA’ Asset Based
Vulnerability Checklist and software that will be released in 2002. By building upon recently
completed work (both AWWARF and AMSA), it will be able to create a cost-effective, final,
useable project very quickly (within 12-18 months) to help utilities create automated inventory /
assessment reports and significantly help their decision-making processes. It will also help
municipalities prioritize how and where to spend monies to upgrade and/or replace vulnerable or
aging infrastructure.

Project Title:         Security Measures for Computerized and Automated Systems at
                       Wastewater Facilities
Duration:              1 ½ to 2 years
Cost:                  $250,000
Utilities nationwide have been alerted to the dangers posed by covert acts of terrorism to their
facilities, and have been asked to take steps to “harden” their assets, screen their employees and
visitors, and to remain alert and vigilant to potential security breaches. It is also part of any
utility vulnerability assessment. However, there is a lack of guidance and a dearth of
information on appropriate measures to protect computerized and automated systems from
malicious attack remotely by hackers or from within the plant. Such attacks can severely disrupt
and affect water/wastewater treatment plant operations, and can cause the release of liquid and
gaseous chemicals (e.g., disinfectants and polymers) that is stored or generated, and used on-site.
These releases can easily cause widespread panic and fear within the plant and nearby
communities. Impacts to plant operations can also cause release of untreated wastewaters to
receiving streams/waterways, and cause public health and ecological damage. This project will
provide the necessary guidance to utilities on how to secure and protect these automated systems.
In addition, there is technology currently available (and being further developed) to sense and
correct such security breaches, as well as to alert the relevant authorities about the event. These
will also be documented as part of the project.

Project Title:          Contingency Planning for Wastewater Treatment Facilities
Duration:               2 –3 years
Cost:                   $400,000
The terrorist events of 9/11/01, other terrorist activities, and natural disasters have heightened the
need to plan for such events to protect public health and to minimize and contain the damage.
Communities are also most vulnerable in the aftermath (i.e., during the “emergency situation”) of
any disaster, either man-made or natural. The water (and wastewater) infrastructure has been
identified as one of the nation’ eight “Critical Infrastructure” that needs to be protected. Water
and wastewater utilities also have a significant role to play to continue to operate to provide these
essential services and to prevent public health outbreaks during this emergency period.
However, there is very little guidance on the appropriate measures that utilities need to plan for
and implement prior to such events.

Protecting people, buildings and infrastructure needs to involve more communication among
officials and databases of organizations that typically haven’ interacted before, such as law
enforcement and emergency response agencies, public utilities, construction companies, trade
groups, and state and local governments. Common protocols for databases would help so they
can “talk” to each other, while remaining protected from hacking. Taking an interdisciplinary
approach during the design and construction process would enable these several disciplines to
interact, bounce ideas off of each other, and to work together to come up with system-wide
approaches to designing to protect against vulnerability. Infrastructure can benefit from
technology to automatically sense and counter problems, such as chemical or biohazard
contaminants. While some solutions are very expensive and difficult to retrofit, there are off-the-
shelf technologies and processes implemented in other countries such as Israel that can help
communities’nationwide deal with such situations. There are also different means, such as
“hardening” the critical infrastructure, interweaving systems to make these services more
interconnected, or decentralizing the services (much like the internet by its decentralization is
inherently protected against a single-point attack), to help minimize service disruptions or protect
when these systems are “under siege”. Other options include equipping homes and businesses
with small-scale emergency power generators and water supplies, as in some developing
countries. Developing any type of protection system on a massive scale is difficult and
expensive as plants are not all the same and each system has to be dealt with individually.

The research project will help water and wastewater treatment facilities and their communities
nationwide by providing guidance and information on appropriate methods for dealing with the
myriad issues identified above.

Project Title:          Communicating with Your Community
Duration:               2 to 3 years
Cost:                   $300,000 (estimated)
The Nation has entered an era of heightened public awareness with significant concerns to public
health threats and risks. Communicating with the public without causing mass panic and
hysteria is becoming more important (especially in the aftermath of the event, man-made or
natural, when communities are most vulnerable). This project also seeks to understand the
public perception of risk and effective communication with communities. It will help utilities
understand how risk and hazard information is processed by the public, and how to prioritize and
respond to local health concerns. The project can be directed toward establishing community
networks prior to any real or perceived crises, and determining how community organizations
can plan for cooperation when the need arises. Utilities also need to understand what drives
community acceptance, cooperation, or opposition. This project can seek to evaluate how
community core values relate to their behavior. This study should evaluate relationships among
socio-economic status, sex, religious beliefs, age, etc. with how these subsets perceive risks, and
react to those delivering the message.

This project should involve national and regional surveys and workshops to develop an
understanding of core community values and evaluate their relationship with population

demographics. This information could then be used to develop a primer to help municipalities to
focus their efforts on solutions to the concerns expressed by the community, with consideration
on the make-up of the populations affected by proposed capital investments or operational
changes (e.g., implementation of new wastewater treatment technologies) and during emergency
situations. Unless community perceptions and values are known, it may well be impossible to
gain public cooperation and confidence. Effective communications helps build public support
and helps utilities implement projects that safeguard public health. Knowing community values
will also help to guide future research to address public concerns.

Project Title:          Research Needs Symposia
Duration:               ½ to 1 year
Cost:                   $75,000
A number of meetings, workshops, training sessions are being held or planned nationwide to
discuss and provide information on security-related issues in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks
of 9/11/01. There have also been a number of closed discussions or meetings by “committees”
formed to address these issues. Due to the very nature of these meetings, these have either
invited or excluded various different agencies or organizations. Although some meetings have
included (or made an effort to include) as many “stakeholders” as possible, it has not always
been possible to include all parties nor to avoid duplication of the efforts of these various
committees. There have also been a number of meetings where some research needs may have
been identified. However, there has been little, if any follow-up or coordination of these efforts
(although the EPA has taken a strong lead in this direction) with respect to protecting the water
infrastructure. A logical step is for most, if not all, these parties to convene to discuss, prioritize,
and document, their research needs. This will help provide a roadmap for research, leverage the
funding and manpower resources, and avoid duplication of efforts. This symposium will be for
invited participants (with some limited access to outside participants – due to security concerns),
and will provide sufficient advance notice to get them all together, have a facilitated discussion
of research needs, determine appropriate next steps, and follow-up where necessary.

Project Title:          Feasibility of Expert Systems for Use in WWTPs
Duration:               2 years
Cost:                   $100,000-$140,000 Total
Recent research in Europe (presented at WEFTEC 2001) determined that case-based tools and
adaptive expert systems were of value when used in WWTPs (wastewater treatment plants). For
example, one researcher developed a system using decision trees and case-based reasoning as its
foundation for predicting the outcome of future events. When an upset occurs, observations
about it are entered into a new case, and the system matches the data with existing information in
its library to determine predictors for upsets. This may allow operators to react more quickly to a
detrimental situation. The next time a similar event occurs, a plan of response is developed by
the system, and after initiation, the results are evaluated and applied as feedback to the library.
For example, on a previous occasion, there was a contaminant “X” in the influent. This led to a
reduction in the secondary activated sludge settling velocity and there was a break-through in

total suspended solids in the effluent (a permit violation that could endanger public health and
the ecosystem). Therefore, the plant should make a change “Y” in process operation to account
for and manage the treatment process to mitigate the upset condition. The next time “X” is
detected, the expert system will alert the operator and get into “Y” process mode. This research
can be applied towards ensuring the security of the public health in that such expert systems can
prevent WWTP system upsets and help maintain healthy ecosystems.

This research project will test the feasibility of such expert systems (such as the one described
above) in the United States to determine their applicability here. The study should include
evaluation at a pilot facility and the final project report will provide guidance for implementation
of the technology if it is feasible/applicable.


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