SELF HELP DEVELOPMENT INTERNATIONAL
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2005
Self Help Development International – Malawi
Tel: 265 1 640 084
Fax: 265 1 644 229
Web page: www.selfhelp.ie
Table of Contents Page
1.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………… …………….3
2.0 Strategic Issues ………………………………………………………………………………………….3
3.0 Executive Summary …………………………………………………………………………………….5
4.0 Area Based Programmes ………………………………………………………………………………..7
5.0 Capacity Building Programmes (CBPs) ……………………………………………. ………………..29
6.0 Organizational Development ………………………………………………………………………….30
7.0 Cross-cutting Issues …………………………………………………………………………………...33
8.0 Lessons Learnt ………………………………………………………………………………………...36
9.0 Case Studies …………………………………………………………………………….. ………...….37
10.0 Special/Exceptional Circumstances …………………………………………………………………...41
11.0 Evaluations ………………………………………………………………………………. ……………41
12.0 Special Reports/Researches /Studies …………………………………………………………………..41
13.0 The Future ……………………………………………………………………………………………...42
This report presents progress achieved during the period January to December 2005 for the SHDI-Malawi country
programme which comprises Nsondole Area Based Programme in Zomba District; Kaphuka Area Based Programme in
Dedza District and the HIV/AIDS Mainstreaming Project which is being implemented in both Nsondole and Kaphuka
The goal of Self Help Programme in Malawi is to improve the living standard of the rural communities. The specific
objective of the two ABPs, Msondole and Kaphuka, are to promote food security at household level as well as integrated
rural development in five priority development sectors namely, agriculture, health, education, water and natural resources.
The specific objective of the HIV/AIDS Project is to minimize the impact of HIV/AIDS on the rural communities in
Msondole and Kaphuka Extension Planning Areas.
During the period under review, Programme implementation was undertaken in all the eight Programme components,
Natural Resources Management
Horticulture and Irrigation
Health and Sanitation
Education including Adult Literacy, and
Local Capacity Building
Implementation of all Programme components was participatory in nature with all the three partners (Government
line Ministry staff, rural communities and Self Help staff) being involved in all the activities. Monitoring and
evaluation of the activities were done through continuous field supervision visits, periodic staff and stakeholder
meetings, information and data collection, peer evaluation and reporting.
This report summarizes achievements made against planned objectives and targets, highlight lessons learnt and
make recommendations for the future.
Attached to the main report are Achievement Matrix Tables for the two Area Based Programmes and the HIV/AIDS
2.0 Strategic Issues
It has been 3 years since implementation of the two Area Based Programmes (ABPs) in Nsondole and Kaphuka
commenced in 2003.
A mid-term evaluation was done in April/May the year, 2005. The overall aim of the mid-term evaluation was to
analyze and reflect on the experience of the component projects in order to assess their contribution to sustainable
development of rural communities in Malawi and to identify areas which need to be developed and strengthened in
the existing projects as well as in the development of the 2006 – 2010 Country Strategic plan. The evaluation
identified additional interventions that were included in the country strategic plan for the period 2006 – 2010.
In the five-year country strategic plan, Malawi will strengthen the existing ABPs and identify and establish four new
Area Based Programme. The new ABPs will be established in Balaka, Ntcheu, Lilongwe and Mzimba districts in
adjacent areas to the existing ABPs. Such clustering of projects within an area is intended to maximize coverage
while the current Area Based Programmes focus solely on food security activities, the new Area Based Programmes
will in addition to food security focus on (a) savings and credit schemes especially for women and (b) social services
particularly support to schools, health centers and potable water (construction of boreholes).
3.0 Executive Summary
The overall goal and purpose of the SHDI-Malawi program is to promote food security and improve the living standards of the
rural communities .The specific programme objectives are as follows: To
Increase and diversify crop productivity
Improve access to agricultural inputs
Promote development of cooperatives, associations and rural youth
Reduce environmental degradation including (soil erosion, soil fertility loss, and deforestation)
Improve livestock productivity
Promote gender mainstreaming into program activities
Enhance literacy and numerical capability of adult illiterates
Reduce population growth rate and HIV/AIDS incidences
Provide portable water, and
Strengthen the capacity of local institutions, beneficiaries, and staff
The following is the summary of the project activity achievements in the period of January to December 2005:
3.1 Crop Production
In order to increase agriculture production and productivity, the program distributed agricultural inputs including seed of high
quality value crops like groundnuts, rice Soya beans, sweet potatoes and cassava, facilitated mounting of demonstration plots,
conducted field days, conducted crop production estimates, seed performance and seed recovery meetings and registration of
2005/2006 seed program beneficiaries. It also facilitated establishment of individual/ community cassava nurseries.
3.2 Agriculture Productivity Investment Programme (APIP)
The program did not implement the European Union funded agriculture productivity investment program (APIP) in the year.
This was due to the drought that Malawi experienced in the 2004/05 season that led to poor loan recovery. The main focus over
this period was the recovery of the APIP loan for 2004/2005 season. It should be noted that the loan recovery is still underway
and no inputs have been distributed for 2005/2006 season. The program is aimed at increasing the production of maize crop for
consumption by providing inputs such as maize improved seed and fertilisers.
3.3 Horticulture and irrigation
In order to support food security by promoting small and medium scale irrigation, thereby increasing farmers income, the
program facilitated identification of irrigation sites and supported horticultural/irrigation groups for the production of cabbages,
onions, tomatoes, maize and rice, conducted training in irrigation and production of various horticultural crops as well as treadle
pump plot layout. The groups were also supported with, pesticides, sprayers, vegetable seeds, maize seed, fruit tree seedlings and
fertilizer to have a start up input supply shop for sustainability of the groups. Horticulture groups were taken for study tours to
learn what other groups outside the project area are doing.
3.4 Livestock production
The project concentrated on identification of new livestock villages; livestock breeders for guinea fowls and Boer goats, training
of breeders in livestock management and drug administration, distribution of livestock such as guinea fowls and Boer goats, and
establishing drug revolving funds for livestock.
3.5 Natural resource management (NRM)
In order to promote sustainable natural resource management, the program trained new village natural resource management
committees, facilitated establishment and monitoring of tree nurseries and distribution of nursery materials to facilitate tree
nursery establishment. The project also promoted the compost manure making activities during the period. The project
conducted tours for farmers to learn more on integrated NRM outside the project area. The programme has supported farmers to
construct model mushroom houses across the project area.
3.6 Water and sanitation
In order to provide access to safe drinking water the program established water development committees and facilitated
construction of shallow wells and rehabilitation of water kiosks.
3.7 Women cooperative development
In a continued effort to promote women empowerment and development, the project facilitated recovery of loans from the
members. The project also facilitated an audit exercise for the cooperative as well as an annual general meeting. A new executive
has been elected and it has since been trained in leadership skills and cooperative management. Registration of new members for
the cooperative is underway.
3.8 Adult Literacy
To enhance literacy and numerical capacity of adult illiterates the program facilitated formation of adult literacy committees,
trained the school committees in conventional adult literacy class management, identified and trained adult literacy class
instructors, supported the adult literacy classes with learning and teaching materials, and payment of instructors upon submission
of a monthly report.
3.9 Capacity Building
In order to increase capacity to effectively implement program goals and objectives, the program conducted various farmer
trainings in different components of the program to build their capacity in management of the programs. Senior and junior staffs
were also trained in different areas of project management and crop management in the year.
Consequently, the organisational capacity of SHDI-Malawi has been strengthened with the recruitment of additional staff to fill
the vacant positions .staff motivation has been enhanced through salary upgrading as well as staff trainings conducted within and
outside the country.
3.10 Monitoring and Evaluation.
The program had a mid term evaluation exercise in April 2005 and the findings were largely positive and encouraging .The
recommendations made have helped us to restructure some of our activities and implementation approaches. The program also
conducted monthly planning meetings, quarterly review and planning meetings and Friday morning weekly review meetings in
order to improve on program implementation.
4.0 Area Based Programmes
Malawi SHDI country program is implementing 2 area based program of Kaphuka and Msondole conservation
based integrated rural development project. The overall goal of the project is to improve the livelihood standards of
farm families in the 2 project areas by improving household food security, access to income and social services by
2007. This will be achieved by making the stated project areas self sufficient in food through increased agricultural
production and provision of alternative income sources, as well as water, health and education facilities, conserving
and restoring natural resource base of the project areas, as well as reducing HIV/AIDS incidences.
The overall goal and purpose will be achieved through the following specific objectives: -
Increase and diversify crop productivity
Improve access to agricultural inputs
Promote development of cooperatives, associations and rural youth
Reduce environmental degradation including (soil erosion, soil fertility loss, and deforestation)
Improve livestock productivity
Promote gender mainstreaming into program activities and women empowerment
Enhance literacy and numerical capability of adult illiterates
Reduce population growth rate and promote HIV/AIDS mainstreaming in all the programs to reduce
Provide portable water
strengthening the capacity of local institutions, beneficiaries, and staff
Provide conducive learning environment for pupils by supplying learning materials and classrooms.
The above stated objectives are being achieved through implementing 10 main components.
During the reporting period the project has implemented activities in the components of Crop production, irrigation
and horticulture component, livestock production, portable water, natural resource management, adult literacy
component, women cooperative development, mushroom production, local capacity building and HIV/AIDS support
programs in areas of youth, orphan care, PLWAH programs. All these activities were monitored through periodic
management meetings and stakeholders review and planning meetings. Progress has been achieved in the
components as presented in the subsequent sections in this progress report.
4.1.0 Crop Production
The objective of the crop production component is to increase the total production and productivity per unit area for
household consumption thereby increasing household income. The approach involves provision of high yielding
crop varieties approved by the ministry of agriculture and food security to the community members for them to
establish village seed banks and support on technical crop production messages.
Project facilitated the registration of seed beneficiaries and distribution of both recycled seed and top up seed by
project office. Conducted seed recovery sessions with seed beneficiaries. Crop estimates were done. The project
has also been involved in mounting of on farm demonstrations and conducting field days. Cassava cuttings were
distributed and nurseries have been established. Under APIP the major activity was the recovery of APIP loan.
4.1.1 Distribution of seed and beneficiary registration.
The program distributed 123629 kgs, 12463 Kgs, 35185 Kgs and 45600 Kgs of groundnuts, rice, Beans and soy
beans was distributed in the period representing 89.5%, 83.1%, 95.1%, and 90 % achievement against planned
Table 1: Seed Distribution 2004/2005 Season
Project Crop Quantity Actual % No. of
planned for Distribution Beneficiaries
Kaphuka G/nuts 105500 92200 87.3 6406
Beans 37000 35185 95.1 2470
Soya beans 50400 45600 90 3890
Msondole G/nuts 32580 31429 96.5 3214
Rice 14994 12463 83.1 2217
G/nuts 138080 123629 89.5 9220
Beans 37000 35185 95.1 2470
TOTAL Soya beans 50400 45600 90 3890
Rice 14994 12463 83.1 2217
Note that the figures for seed distributed include the additional seed bought by the office to top up seed at village
seed banks and seed recovered by the communities themselves.
Comments and Impact of Seed distribution
o Farmers have at least some seed from the seed bank to rely upon despite low crop harvest.
o All the groundnuts seed was sourced from the seed banks (seed recovered). This shows that seed banks are
o With the seed programme, communities have managed to establish reliable village seed banks that can supply seed
in time of need.
o With the benefits realized from the crops produced farmers are able to buy fertilizers, construct iron roofed houses
and buy other household essentials.
4.1.2 Seed recovery from 2004/2005 season
A total of 137289kg’s, 32100 kg’s, 57130 kg’s, and 3236 kg’s of groundnuts, beans, Soya beans, and rice was
recovered in the period representing 56%, 90%, 104%, and 13% achievement against planned targets respectively.
Note that in the reporting period rice and Groundnuts recovery were so poor due to drought that affected the season.
These two crops did not do well because they need higher amount rain fall than the other crops.
Table 2: Seed recovery from 2004/2005 season
Project Crop Quantity planned Actual recovery % No. of
to be recovered (kgs) Beneficiaries
Kaphuka G/nuts 115700 101200 87 5927
Beans 35800 32100 89.6 2280
Soya beans 55037 57130 92.9 3621
Msondole G/nuts 130889 36088.5 87 7711
Rice 25381 3236 13 2440
G/nuts 246589 137289 56 13509
Beans 35800 32100 90 2280
TOTAL Soya beans 55037 57130 104 3621
Rice 25381 3236 13 2440
4.1.3 Crop estimate
This exercise was done in all projects to compliment on performance/production of the seed being distributed to the
communities. It was noted that 50% recovery will not be met as expected because of poor performance of crops due
to the drought.
The farmers agreed that the seed loan for farmers will still be carried over to the next season for those who had very
low production. Hence due to this reason the project will need to top up seed for the seed banks.
Table 3: Crop yields estimated per project area.
Project Crops Farmers Garden Area (ha) Yield per ha
Kaphuka Maize 73 104 400 2102
G/nuts 90 88 195 1368
Soya 70 90 148 1170
Beans 75 103 47.6 1890
Msondole G/nuts 48 48 10.77 464
Maize 60 60 20.96 1093
Yield for groundnuts has gone down by 76.8 % in Nsondole Project as compared to the national average. The current yield is
464 kg/ha as compared to the national average yield of 2000kg
Analysis of crop estimates
o In Nsondole Yield for maize (OPV) has significantly decreased from 2261.7kg/ha in the previous season to
1,092.7kg/ha this season representing 48% decrease in yields. This was due to drought and floods experienced in the
country during last season.
o Low yields have affected APIP loan repayment for 2004/2005.
4.1.4 Field Days
In the last quarter the program facilitated mounting of on farm demonstration for different crops to facilitate adoption of
modern methods like Sasakawa global 2000 which 1 seed in planted per planting station, adoption of hybrid maize variety
and planting of pure groundnuts stand to harvest more groundnuts. The demonstrations mounted were in maize and
groundnuts only as rice was just sown at a nursery.
Monsanto Malawi provided the project with materials for field trials on zero tillage. These trials are being conducted with the
aim of comparing the labour involved in conventional tillage versus labour in zero tillage.
Table 4 shows numbers of field days conducted in Kaphuka and Msondole and attendance disaggregated by gender.
A total of 41 field days were conducted against the planned 35 for both Kaphuka and Nsondole projects and this represent
117% achievement. The field days were attended by 1089 men and 898 females.
Table 4: Field Days Conducted and Attendance by Gender
Project Field Days Field Days % Attendance
Planned Conducted Male Female Total Attendance
Kaphuka 21 29 138 871 619 1490
Msondole 14 12 87.5 218 279 497
Total 35 41 117 1089 898 1987
Field days Impact:
o Farmers noted that groundnuts planted on pure stand yield more than the groundnuts inter-planted with maize.
o From the field days it has been noted that this year many farmers have planted their groundnuts on pure stand so that
they can yield more.
o Also more farmers in the area adopted the Sasakawa type of planting this season i.e. planting one maize seed per
station at 25cm spacing as opposed to the convention method of planting three maize seeds per station at one meter
o It was noted by for that combined use of compost manure and fertilizer gives more yields. The manure retains
moisture and nutrients while fertilizer enhances growth and crop yield.
o Farmers were exposed to model khola construction of guinea fowls and the day to day guinea fowl management.
o Lessons were leant that with good planning a farmer can be self reliant in terms of access to farm inputs such as
fertilizer, seed and manure.
4.1.5 Cassava nursery establishment
Cassava is regarded as a drought tolerant crop that supplement to the staple food maize, in time of drought to maintain food
security for the rural communities. The project is supporting farmers with high yielding and disease resistant varieties of
cassava to improve the quality and productivity of the crop.
31 cassava nurseries were established against the 29 planned representing 106 % achievement. Manyokola and mbundumali
cassava variety cuttings were distributed in the project area.
Table 5: Cassava nurseries establishment
Project Communal N Individuals Tonnes Hectares Total
distributed planted Ben
plan Achiev. % plan Achiev. %
Kaphuka 15 17 113 210 84 40 26 11.3 342
Msondole 14 14 100 545 365 67 26 12.7 439
Total 29 31 106 755 449 53 52 24 781
.1.6 Sweet potato nursery establishment
Table 6: Sweet potato nurseries establishment
Project Communal N Individuals Tonnes Hectares Total Ben
plan Achiev. % plan Achiev. %
Kaphuka 15 15 100 140 93 150 34 2.76 401
Msondole 18 14 77.7 217 141 65 39 10 210
Total 33 29 88 357 234 107 73 12.76 294
Cassava Nursery in Kaphuka project
Immediate benefits of crop program
o Increased availability of improved seed variety of groundnuts, cassava, sweet potato and composite maize in the
o Some of the participating households in the project area have good supply of food for most of the year.
o Some house holds are able to buy essential needs for their families after selling their produce
4.1.7 Agricultural Productivity Investment Programme (APIP)
The Government of Malawi in collaboration with the European Union is implementing an Agricultural Productivity
Investment Programme through Non-Governmental Organization (NGO`s). The objective of the project is to
increase the production of maize for consumption by providing inputs on loan to farmers.
The program has now run for 3 seasons in Kaphuka and Msondole project as it started in 2003/2004 season and it’s
continuing in Linthipe, from the previous project.
In Kaphuka the number of beneficiaries increased in the 2004/2005 season to 3000 from 1000, and for Msondole the
beneficiaries increased to 4000 from 2000 in 2004/2005 season. Linthipe project maintained the 2000 beneficiaries.
Each farmer got 2 bag of 50kgs urea and 10kgs of hybrid or composite maize seed. This is enough to plant 0.4
hectares. Therefore, 9000 farmers have planted 3600 hectares of maize in 2004/2005 seasons and estimated yield is
3600 tons. Despite all this the programme had met some problems in terms poor maize crop performance and
consequently the low loan recovery owing to the drought that Malawi experienced in the reporting season.
The above resulted in lower yields than last year of almost all crops. While appreciating the situation some
beneficiaries took advantage not to repay thinking that there would be an automatic general moratorium. The
situation on recovery of the loan was to some extent improved following door –to- door loan recovery campaigns in
all project areas.
The project has made agreements with the APIP clubs to finish repaying the loan by August 2006. The groups are
willing to repay the loan despite the low yields.
The project has made efforts to support the farmers with additional rice seed and cassava cuttings close to 10 tonnes
and 52 tonnes respectively in 2005/2006 season to assist them in food security and loan repayment after selling
Table 7: APIP performance
APIP performance for 2004/2005 season
Project Beneficiaries Quantity (Tons) Loan
Plan Achieved % Seed Fertilizer Amount Recovered %
Kaphuka 3000 3000 100 30 300 21444000 15044237 70
Msondole 4000 4000 100 40 400 26552000 5384336 20
Linthipe 2000 2000 100 20 200 14296000 3094917 22
Total 9000 9000 100 90 900 62292000 23523490 38
During the reporting period the repayment was at 38% and is expected to pick up as many farmers start harvesting
their crops in May.
Although the area was hit by drought this year, at least some beneficiaries managed to produce relatively higher
yields especially those who used compost manure in their gardens.
The lady in the picture is one of the APIP beneficiaries from Msondole project who has managed to harvest over 2200 kg
of maize using APIP inputs and compost manure.
4.1.8 Outcome/Impact of seed program
o Increased access/availability of improved seed variety of beans, Soya beans, groundnuts, cassava, sweet potato and
composite maize in the project areas such that even those not in the program are able to access the seed. Almost
70% farmer seed requirement was met by their own stock from village seed banks.
o Increased household income from sales of farm produce like beans, Soya beans, groundnuts, cassava, and rice
thereby household being able to meet social and economic needs like buying of household essential things and
paying school fees, which will improve their livelihood.
o Increased production of maize at household level as a result of increased yields which will prolong period of food
availability in those households participating in APIP program hence house holds being food secure.
o Increased production of groundnuts, beans, Soya beans, maize, and rice as a result of increased yields.
o Group cohesion has been enhanced which will ensure sustainability of the program through village seed banks.
o Farmers are economically empowered through sales of various crops. More farmers sold their crops locally. And
one notable impact is that house holds have increased income, increased production, with more prolonged period of
food availability, save time which can be put to other social and economic activities hence improvement in their
o Diversified crop production thereby spreading risk and ensuring adequate food for families
o Diversified and improved diets and nutrition due to diversified crop and livestock production
4.1.9 Irrigation and Horticulture Production
The objective is to promote the growing utilization and marketing of horticultural crops in order to increase food
availability through small-scale irrigation.
The component is very important because it takes place during dry season which is lean time for food security at
household level hence what ever is grown is used to supplement food security at household level.
Performance of the horticultural crops this year was remarkable despite low water levels during the winter
period. The majority preferred growing maize considering the low yields of maize in 2004/2005 season.
Still there are some farmers with an increasing interest of producing other lucrative vegetables such as
tomatoes, onions and cabbages.
This year the program facilitated identification of irrigation sites, conducted farmers trainings on horticultural crop
management, treadle pump plot lay out, and treadle pump maintenance. It also supported the groups with
horticultural inputs and equipment.
4.2.0 Site identification and Membership of horticultural groups
Both project identified more irrigation site in the year 2005 in addition to sites identified in the year 2004. Kaphuka
identified 2 irrigation sites whilst Msondole identified 69 irrigation sites. These sites are Dambo areas along the
steams. 2 horticulture groups were formed for Kaphuka and 69 horticulture groups were formed for Msondole
Table 8: Membership for horticultural groups per project.
Project Planned Achieved % Men Women Total
Kaphuka 5 2 40 44 64 108
Msondole 14 69 492 602 584 1186
Total 19 71 266 646 648 1294
4.2.1 Farmer training on horticultural management
140 farmers for Kaphuka project and 158 farmers for Msondole project underwent horticultural management
training. The training covered several areas like Irrigation management, Treadle pump plot layout, Operation and
maintenance of treadle pump, and Production of various horticultural crops.
o The training equipped the farmers with skills and knowledge in areas of horticultural production and this year we
had a remarkable improvement in horticultural production in the area. The picture below depicts an irrigated field
for maize and cabbages in Nsondole Project. Farmers harvested more maize on irrigated sites and produced more
vegetables which were sold and had money to buy other essentials for their homes.
The winter irrigated maize and cabbage
4.2.3 Distribution of horticultural inputs
The project supported the formed and trained irrigation groups with various horticulture inputs including vegetable
seeds maize seed, fertilizers and different chemicals. All these inputs are provided on revolving basis. Below is a
summary of the inputs to the groups in the project area.
Table 9: Inputs distributed per project
Project # of groups Ben Maize (KG’s) Vegetable seeds (packets)
Plan Ach % Plan Ach % Plan Ach %
Kaphuka 5 2 40 125 200 225 112 10 6 60
Msondole 14 69 492 1186 1000 1533 153 450 696 154
Total 19 71 266 1311 1200 1758 133 460 708 107
Table 10: Horticultural Input distribution continue
Project Fertilizer (KG’S) sprayers Liquid Chemicals Solid chemicals
Plan Ach % Plan Ach % Plan Ach % Plan Ach %
Kaphuka 2500 2650 106 20 11 55 50 65 130 300 126.5 42
Msondole - 9128 - 17 - 27.2 - - 24.5 -
Total - 11830 - 28 92.2 151
4.2.4 Outcome/Impact of horticultural program
o Farmers growing horticultural crops in the area have increased their income through sales of their produce like green
maize, cabbages and onion.
o Households had adequate vegetables for consumption at their homes.
o Production of maize increased as yields were good from most of the fields which in turn increased household food
security as they supplemented with what was harvested during the rain season.
o Production, consumption, and marketing of horticultural crops increased in the area as a result of planting materials,
fertilizer and irrigation materials provided to the members.
o Easy access to inputs for horticultural production as most groups have established revolving input supply shop.
4.3.0 Livestock Production
The objective of livestock component is to expand production of small ruminants and poultry so as to increase the
protein intake and household income.
Activities on livestock included identification and training of livestock breeders; procurement and distribution of
livestock; facilitating the passing on of off-springs. Training local drug technicians for livestock and the
procurement and distribution of livestock drugs. The project also under took monitoring visits to assess livestock
4.3.1 Training in livestock management
Boar goat, pig and guinea fowl breeders underwent livestock management training. They were trained in
guinea fowl, pig and goat management. The training covered general topics for the 3 animals in areas like;
advantages of guinea fowl, pig and goat rearing, proper housing , feeding practices, breeding, pest and diseases,
prevention of pest and diseases.
Table 11: Livestock beneficiaries trained
Project Livestock Trained
Planned Achieved Total %
Msondole Goats 42 28 14 42 100
Guinea fowls 56 32 24 56 100
Kaphuka Piggery 70 25 11 36 51
Goats 60 29 10 39 65
Totals Goats 102 57 24 81 79
Guinea fowls 56 32 24 56 100
Pigs 70 25 11 36 51
4.3.2 Livestock distribution
A total of 68 goats, 45 large white pigs, and 190 guinea fowls were distributed in the Kaphuka and Msondole project
to 99, 84, and 115 beneficiaries respectively.
Table 12: Livestock distribution
Project Animal type Number Number % Ben.
Kaphuka Goats 60 48 80 89
Large white pigs 70 45 64 84
Guinea fowls 202 14 105 105
Msondole Guinea fowls 400 176 44 30
Goats 84 20 24 10
Total Goats 144 68 47 99
Large white pigs 70 45 64 84
Guinea fowls 602 190 32 115
4.3.3 Monitor livestock performance
The program continued monitoring of livestock performance like pigs, black a strop chickens, guinea fowls, and
goats, distributed in Kaphuka project and goats, rabbits and guinea fowls distributed in Msondole project in the year
2005 In Msondole project 60 meetings were conducted out of 50 planned which represent 120%. In Kaphuka project
22 meetings were conducted out of 21 planned which represent 104% achievement. These meetings were made to
monitor livestock performance in terms of production of off springs, their general welfare, and death of livestock
and off springs passed to other beneficiaries.
4.3.4 Drug revolving fund
In the year the project purchased assorted livestock drugs so that it can facilitate establishment of livestock drug
revolving scheme. This was after training the drug technicians in livestock drugs administration as reported
above. The drugs purchased included; eye powder, iodine, terramycine, wound spray, multi-dose dewormer;
virus kill dis-infectant,oxytetracycline LA, piperazine, oxyvit,stocklm tar, DDL, lasota, and oxytetracycline 10%.
The committees had a one day session with the veterinary officer to identify all the drugs in the box. For easy
administration these drugs have already been distributed to seven drug boxes. Each area has one drug box.
4.3.4 Impact of livestock program gram
o Introduction of guinea fowls in the area, which is easy to raise and is resistant to diseases. This will increase
consumption of meat in the area. Measures have been put in place to protect excessive loss.
o Boar goat which is an improved breed has been introduced in the project area and will improve the local breeds.
o The death rate of livestock in the project area has reduced due to increased access t o drugs.
o The training equipped the farmers with knowledge and skills to raise small stock livestock, check on their animal
health and identify some simple ailments, and conduct treatment which has reduced livestock deaths in the project
o Farmers income has increased from sales of livestock and livestock products
4.4.0 Natural Resources Management
The objective of nature resources management component is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources
primarily for agricultural purpose through the rational use of resources so as to increase productivity per unit area.
Also the objective of the program component is to promote integrated small-scale fish farming by the farmers in
Activities which took place under natural resource component were sensitization meetings, nursery establishment
and nursery management training, tree nursery establishment, manure making training and manure making, and
support to fish farming.
It was agreed that the projects should not form some more committees due to poor performance of the
component but to concentrate and improve on those nurseries that were established in the 2003/2004 season.
The newly established nurseries were supported with seeds, polythene tubes and nursery equipment for
establishment of the tree nurseries. The table below gives details of the inputs distributed to the nurseries.
Table 13: Tree nursery seeds/equipment distributed
Project Input/ Equipment Seeds/equipment
Plan Ach %
Kaphuka Assorted seeds Kg’s 130 130 100
Polythene tubes No. 315000 315000 100
Nsondole Assorted seeds Kg’s 100 135 135
Polythene tubes No. 435000 435000 100
Total Assorted seeds Kg’s 230 265 115
Polythene tubes No. 740000 740000 100
4.4.2 Tree nursery establishment and tree nursery management training
14 VNRMC’ in Nsondole project were trained in nursery establishment and nursery management. The objective of
the training was to train communities on how to raise and manage tree seedlings on their own, to impart knowledge
and skills on integration of trees and crops, to promote the sustainable use of natural resources such as soil, water
A total of 145 People were trained on nursery establishment and management and 92 were men and 53 were women
in Nsondole project.
4.4.3 Physical conservation activities
These activities largely are implemented in Kaphuka project as the terrain in the project area is hilly. Below is a
table of activities for physical conservation which took place in the year, for Kaphuka project.
Table 14: Physical conservation achievement
Project Activities Units Annual Beneficiaries
Plan Ach %
Kaphuka Establish Communal Village No 14 16 114 715
Establish vetiver nurseries (ha) No 14 5 35 394
Home stead planting No 7 11 157 396
Only 5 vetiver nurseries were established out of 14 planned because of the erratic rains that did not favor the
establishment of the grass.
4.4.4 Manure making training
To encourage use of manure by farmers so that their soil fertility can improve the Msondole and Kaphuka projects
conducted manure making on farm demonstration/training so as to prepare the farmers for manure making exercise.
The farmers were trained on manure making and usage to improve soil fertility. The training covered pit and
Chinese manure making made from locally available resources, making use of manure in the field, and importance
of manure. The training also reminded farmers of early land preparation to incorporate crop residues so that at the
time of planting residues would have decomposed in the soil and provide nutrients for the crops grown.
Table 15: Manure making training and number of pits made by farmers per project.
Area Farmers Farmers % Pits/heaps Pits/heaps %
Planned trained planned made
Kaphuka 947 744 78 532 1546 291
Nsondole 120 223 185 - 223
Total 1067 967 131 - 1769 -
4.4.5 Apiculture (Bee keeping)
This program is being implemented in Kaphuka project only. During the reporting period the Programme procured
and distributed 33 bee-hives to farmers participating in apiary (bee-keeping) in Kaphuka Project. In Msondole area,
bee-keeping is not being promoted because farmers are less interested since the area is devoured of natural trees.
Table 16: Beehives Distributed and Colonised
Project Activities Units Annual Beneficiaries
Plan Ach %
Kaphuka # Beehives Distributed No 58 33 56 40
# Beehives Colonised No 26 40 80 29
Quantity of honey harvested Litres 520 21 4
Impact of Apiculture
o Farmers were economically empowered through sales of honey.
4.4.6 Mushroom production
In order to economically empower groups in the project area the program supported different groups in
mushroom production. These groups are cutting across all groups which work with Self Help ranging from youth
groups, home based care, women groups and other agricultural groups.
13 groups of 167 members were locally trained in mushroom production and provided with support materials
for construction of mushroom houses and mushroom spawn seed. The table below highlights number of
groups operating in each area and the progress made to date.
Table 17: Mushroom houses Constructed
Project Activities Units Annual Beneficiaries
Plan Ach %
Kaphuka # of houses constructed No 7 6 86 75
Nsondole # of houses constructed No 10 7 70 92
Total 17 13 76 167
Outcome/Impact of natural resources program
o More than 300,000 trees have been planted in the fields as agro-forestry trees, woodlots and homestead planting for
timber and firewood.
o Introduction of nitrogen fixing tree species which will improve soil fertility.
o Introduction of tree seedlings in the area and training of members in nursery establishment and management will
help to encourage others to participate in the activity.
o Soil and water loss will be checked on bare land and gardens planted with vetiva
4.5.0 Public Health
Public health activities in Malawi are implemented as part of water and sanitation component and HIV/AIDS
Project. (See section 4.6.0 for HIV/AIDS)
4.5.1 Water and Sanitation
The objective of the program is to provide access to safe drinking water of acceptable quality for basic needs,
thereby reducing the incidences of water borne diseases
The program in the year supported construction of shallow wells to be fitted with malda hand pump by providing
inputs for construction of shallow wells, and training in community based water point management.
18.104.22.168 Construction of shallow wells
The 2 projects supported construction of shallow wells in the year. In Msondole project 14 shallow wells have been
constructed and fitted with hand malda pumps in the project area. 31 shallow wells have been constructed and fitted
with hand malda pump in Kaphuka project area. These villages were supported with hand malda pumps, cement,
and wire mesh for construction of the wells and the communities provided burnt bricks, quarry stone, sand and part
of labour. The shallow wells were also dug by the communities themselves.
Table 18: Shallow well construction
Project Planned Pumps Fitted Constructed Total % Ben
Nsondole 24 14 10 24 100 2348
Kaphuka 31 31 13 44 141 6758
Total 55 45 23 68 120 9106
22.214.171.124 Rehabilitation of water kiosks
The project was also involved in the rehabilitation water kiosks that were constructed by the government some
years back in Nsondole Project. These water points had broken taps, unhygienic surroundings, no fence
protection. The project took the initiative to recondition the water points. During the year, the project planned
to fix 6 points. The table below indicates the present status of water kiosk rehabilitation process.
Table 19: Water kiosks rehabilitation.
Project Target Achieved % Ben
Nsondole 6 8 133 737
Women from Msondole project enjoying access to tap water from a kiosk.
126.96.36.199 Outcome/Impact of shallow wells
o Introduction of easy to use pump which can be maintained by the community on their own .The training in
maintenance has improved sustainability of the water points in the villages.
o The construction of shallow wells and water kiosks in the area has reduced time spent by women to fetch water as it
has reduced the distances women were walking to collect water and the time can be put to some economic use which
can be beneficial to the household.
o Access to safe water has reduced the water borne diseases.
The main goal of mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in all the Programmes of area based is to reduce incidences of HIV and
improve the quality of life of those affected and infected by HIV/AIDS. And the areas of concentration are
prevention, mitigation impact, care and support.
The activities implemented in the period were in areas of information, education and campaign, establishment of
VCT, increasing food security among vulnerable HIV/AIDS affected households, like orphan care centers and home
based care, support to orphan care centers and home based care centers, model homes, youth program support,
people living with HIV/AIDS support, capacity building and monitoring the HIV/AIDS programs.
4.6.1 Information education and campaign in gender and HIV/AIDS
This was done through meetings, trainings, open air discussion, exchange visits, and provision of information and
education materials within the period. 6000 farmers were sensitized through meetings on issues concerning
HIV/AIDS. The meetings were discussing how HIV/AIDS spread, how to prevent by analyzing community
situations faced by the farmers. This was looking at knowledge of the community on HIV/AIDS issues, and
analyzing its impact on farmers, community behaviors/cultures which increased spread of HIV/AIDS and change of
those behaviors, and encouraging the community to break the stigma and come open by discussing issues of
HIV/AIDS. 450 T/shirts were distributed to the community with different messages on prevention of HIV/AIDS.
Expanded HIV/AIDS Communication
This has been achieved through:
(a) Support groups
(b) Solar radios
(c) VCT Launching
The support groups have been able to tell other people on benefits of going for VCT for behavior change. This has
resulted to more people going for VCT for testing. This has also made other people who are living far away
from the group and are HIV positive to mobilise themselves and live with hope for the future
30 solar radios have been distributed to the support groups in the villages. The idea of giving out the radios was for
the groups to be listening to the updated information on HIV/AIDS so that they should be able to be
communicated to the farmers.
4.6.2 Establishment of VCT centers.
One VCT centre has been opened at Bimbi Health Centre in Nsondole Project against 3 planned and this represents
33% achievement. This has been in Collaboration with Ministry of Health, Self Help-Malawi trained 1 staff from
Nsondole project on voluntarily counseling and testing against 4 planned which represent 25% achievement and it
also provided furniture, dust bins, curtains for the VCT room whilst the government provided the reagents and
technical support. The delay in establishing the remaining VCT centres is due to the limited number of trained
councilors. The Government is supposed to train new councilors each and every year but due to limited resources it
is failing to meet the overwhelming demand.We hope to establish the VCT centres this year after training our own
4.6.3 Models homes
95 model households were selected and trained in model home concept for both projects and the household were
trained in household hygiene, personal hygiene, food hygiene, water hygiene, symptoms of common diseases, and
prevention, HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention, family planning and its methods, san plat casting for modern pit
latrine toilets. Action plan was drawn with the trained households so that they can follow the technologies trained
especially in constructing modern pit latrines toilet and the program supported them with cement for constructing
toilet slabs. 100 pit latrines and tip taps were constructed in the reporting period.
4.6.4 Support to orphan care centers and home based care centers.
In Nsondole project the program is supporting 399 male orphan and 450 female orphans. These are being supported
through orphan care centers and nursery schools. The support range from supporting the groups to construct
Resource centers by providing them with constructing materials and provision of farm inputs for those groups with
gardens so that they can produce food to feed the orphans. In the Reporting period 3 resource centres were under
construction against the planned 7 which represents 42%.
Home based care are supported with nursing care materials to use for caring the sick, farm inputs and to start
chicken production as an IGA so that they can generate money for use or sending patience to hospital.
4.6.5 Economic Empowerment
The following was done on economic empowerment
Establish a revolving fund for people living with HIV/AIDS and their families, Initiate integrated HIV/AIDS
agricultural basic community programs for income generation and Food and Nutrition Security
The farmers were given broiler chickens and farm inputs for winter cropping that would be paid on a revolving
fund basis .The IGA’s would help them to raise money to buy food hence improving their nutritional status.
HIV/AIDS Orphan Care Group Income Generating Activity -Broiler chicks
5 groups were supported with IGA’ activities against 9 that represents 55% achievement
4.6.7 Youth programmes
Youth programmes are done with the objective of making the youth busy wit different activities and not to indulge
themselves in immoral behaviors. Therefore in the reporting period 109 boys and 87 girls were trained on life
skills and how the youth could become aware of the pandemic and prevent themselves from the disease. A
football trophy was also established for the youth in Nsondole project.
4.6.8 Family planning
In an attempt to increase the chances of accessibility to Family planning methods for the communities in Nsondole
SHDI trained motivators to do a door to door campaign on family planning. During the year 21 Family Planning
motivators were trained. These motivators have managed to reach 455 Families. Men from most of the approached
families preferred to use a condom because of its comparative advantage of preventing them from catching sexually
transmitted diseases. On the other hand most women preferred the injection because it is easy to manage and have
fewer side effects. The motivators were given bicycles carrying their day to day activities around the villages.
4.7.0 Adult Education
The aim of adult education Programme is to increase the literacy and numerical levels of people within the project
The 2 projects Kaphuka and Msondole initiated opening of conventional adult literacy classes in their project areas,
the activities in the year were formation and training adult literacy committee, identification and training of
instructors, facilitating enrollment of learners, and provision of learning and instructors training materials. In the
year Kaphuka Project introduced unisex classes and it has been seen that the enrolment for men improved.
4.7.1 Adult literacy classes
Table below highlights achievement of adult literacy classes formed, committees formed and trained, instructors
identified and training, enrolment of learners, against planned.
Table 20: Details of adult literacy classes in both projects.
Projec Centr Centres % AL AL % Instruc Instruc % Learners Tot
t es achieve Committe committe tors tors enrolled al
plann d e planned e formed planne achieve Men Wome
ed d d n
Kaphu 14 14 100 14 14 100 14 14 100 119 173 292
Msond 14 12 85 14 12 85 14 12 85 90 464 554
Total 28 26 92 28 26 92 28 28 92 209 637 846
4.7.2 Distribution of learning and teaching materials
The 2 projects supported the classes with assorted learning and teaching materials as planned and below is the list of
materials supported to the centres for both Projects. The classes have been running very well and the learners will
be assessed in 2006
Table 21: Learners materials supplied in all centres
Area # Of Black Dusters Slates Lead Chalk Chuma Registers Note
centres boards pencil boxes ndi books
Nsondole 15 15 15 375 426 15 375 15 -
Kaphuka 14 14 14 - 420 14 857 - 700
4.7.3 Monitoring visits/meetings of adult literacy classes
Adult literacy monitoring visits/meetings were made in the period in collaboration with community development
officers from ministry of gender and community services. The objective of the visits/meetings were monitoring class
attendance, monitoring class performance, and teaching methodologies by class instructors.
4.7.4 Outcome of adult literacy program
o As observed during monitoring and supervisory visits, more women are now able to read and write this will enable
them to maintain good records as they implement their business activities under the Cooperative programme.
4.8.0 Women saving and credit cooperative
The objective of the program is to promote the socio economic welfare of women and thereby that of their families
and also to empower women to participate in developmental activities.
Learning from lesson learnt and recommendations made from Chiradzulu project evaluation, the 2 projects
underwent a study of micro- finance projects to facilitate good coordination of women, savings and credit scheme,
and as an outcome of the study the 2 projects facilitated formation of women producer cooperative but supported
with credit and saving component.
4.8.1 Cooperative development and membership
In Kaphuka Project there are 2 women cooperatives Linthipe and Nkhuta. Currently, Linthipe has membership of
329 and Nkhuta 250 while in Nsondole project 1 women cooperative of 264 members. The 309 new women
cooperative members in Kaphuka Project were trained in cooperative development and business management.
Nkhuta Cooperative in Kaphuka Project has constructed an office in the year.
4.8.2 Annual General Meeting and Auditing
All the three Cooperatives conducted annual general meetings for the year 2005. During the meeting the audit report
was presented to members. Issues raised in the reports were discussed. New office bearers were elected during the
meeting in all the cooperatives. In Nsondole Project the following things were recommended:-
It was agreed that financial statements for the cooperative shall be prepared each financial year.
A bookkeeper should be employed to handle the cash book. All cooperative money to be kept by
treasurer and banked within 48 hours. The cooperative advisor shall not handle any cash for the
The cooperative members agreed to produce financial report and maintain a file on financial and
statistical reports as recommended.
To design receipts for the maize mill and issue to customers for accounting and transparency purpose.
The members agreed to hold meeting every month and the secretary to take minutes every meeting.
In Kaphuka Project the members recommended the following things:-
They discussed ways of making themselves sustainable when Self Help Development leaves the
Project area. Agreed to foster unity among themselves, leadership be transparent and develop their
vision which should be a driving force in the developmental activities.
The members agreed that they allow a minimum of one share per member and maximum of twenty
shares. This was done to avoid some members to become very powerful and control the cooperatives.
All members should channel their produce to cooperative that has the responsibility of finding markets
and bargain prices.
The vision of the cooperative is that all its individual members should have an iron sheet roofed house
and at least a bicycle.
As an entity, members agreed that they make sure that all rules and regulations are strictly adhered to.
The disciplinary committee has the powers to discipline any member who violates any one of
regulations and appropriate disciplinary measures are usually meted out in such cases irrespective of
the individual’s position in the society.
Table 22: Women cooperative membership, share contribution, loan from SHDI
Project Name of coop. Members Trained Share Loan form
Plan Ach. % Plan Ach % contribution SHDI (MK)
Msondole Msondole coop 376 264 70 376 264 70 264000 2300000.00
Kaphuka Nkhuta coop. 250 250 100 250 250 100 125000 1132750.00
Lithipe coop. 329 329 100 329 329 100 164000 1553800.00
Total 955 843 90 955 843 90 553000 4986550.00
The members continue doing businesses ranging from fish farming, goats selling, rice selling, maize selling,
groceries, and selling of second hand clothes. The members have already stated paying back the loan and some have
finished second loan and collected third loan. See the table 23a, 23b and23c.
Table 23 a: Loan repayment status for Nkhuta cooperative
Loan No members No clubs Loan (MK) Repaid % Balance (MK)
Rank (Mk) Repayment
1st 119 12 1460083 1448183 99 11900
2nd 40 7 390000 191050 49 198950
60 7 990000 1653000 17 824700
4th 78 19 975000 0 0 975000
Table 23 b; Loan repayment status for Linthipe cooperative
Loan Rank No Members No clubs Loan (MK) Repaid (MK) % Balance (MK)
1st 161 14 1907300 21200
135 14 212500 650000 31 1475000
22 11 518750 134900 26 383850
4th 16 16 1137500 0 0 1137500
Table23 c: Loan repayment status for Nsondole cooperative
Loan Rank No No Clubs Loan (MK) % Balance
1st 219 19 2638800 2090100 80 548700
2nd 127 16 2124000 519200 24 1604800
2 2 114000 2000 2 112000
4.8.3 Maize mill investment
In Nsondole Project Cooperative bought a maize mill with a loan from SHDI amounting to MK242820.76. The cooperative
has repaid MK100000.00 and there is a balance of MK142820.76.To date the cooperative has managed to get revenue
amounting to MK195739.50 which has been plough into the coop account to increase the capital base.
Maize mill for Nsondole Producers and Marketing Cooperative Society Limited
Impact of saving and credit cooperative
o The women acquired skills and knowledge to run businesses which will help them to run successful businesses and
get profit at the end.
o Increased household income from profits they get after sales. This money is used to buy essential needs at home.
o The families also benefited by using the money for farming activities like buying fertilizer and tilling larger rice
fields which are expected to yield more rice.
o Group cohesion in terms of women cooperative members has increased and this has made them to work together and
help one another in times of need.
o Some of the businesses are being done with the help from husbands and this means that men are also benefiting
from the cooperatives. In future husbands will be included in the business training and implementation.
4.9.0 Local Capacity Building
The objective of the local capacity building Programme is to strengthen the capacity of local institutions,
beneficiaries and staff for sustainability of the project to effectively implement the project activities and own the
4.9.1 Farmer training carried out.
Table 24: Farming Training
Component/Area of training Farmers trained %
Plan Male Female Total achieved
Livestock management 98 60 38 98 100
Tree nursery/woodlot management 140 92 53 145 103
Horticulture crops training 180 90 68 158 88
Irrigation plot layout 332 158 107 265 80
Manure making 1067 689 444 1133 106
Horticulture tours 21 13 9 22 104
Business management training 309 0 309 309 100
Fruit tree budding /grafting 15 12 8 20 133
Adult literacy committee training 36 57 76 133 369
Adult literacy instructor training 36 21 13 34 94
Leadership roles and responsibilities 70 28 7 35 50
* Trained 35 committees
4.9.2 Outcome/Impact of local capacity building
o Due to different types of trainings offered the beneficiaries are taking the responsibility of all activities in the
project. They are able to plan, through area development committee’s, implement, and do monitoring of activities.
Committees are able to perform there duties and there are a lot of interactions among the different groups he project.
o It is expected that knowledge and skills that farmers have gained will enhance management of crops and livestock.
Leadership skills acquired will lead to sustainability of Project activities.
5.0 Capacity Building Programmes
This is not on the Malawi Programme
6.0 Organisational Development
6.1 Organisational Development
During the year 2005, the development of the organization has focused on the preparation of the Country Strategic 5
year plan for 2006 – 2010. Other development aspects included the Mid Term Evaluation which was done in May
by Mr. Chris Wardle, staff recruitment to fill vacant and new positions and implementation of the Baseline Survey
in preparation for the start of the new Area Based Programmes in Balaka and Lilongwe districts. The Salary
Benchmarking Exercise was carried out in December 2005 in order to review the current staff salaries. The staff
salaries have been revised and plans have been put in place to revise salaries every year in line with inflation.
6.1.1 Mid Term Evaluation
The mid term evaluation was carried out in June 2005 on the two Area Based Programmes namely Nsondole and
Kaphuka as well as the HIV/AIDS mainstreaming project. The evaluation was carried out by an external consultant
Mr. Chris Wardle and a local consultant Mr. Sam Botha. The final report of the evaluation showed that there has
been improved progress since the previous evaluation three years ago. In the named projects much great attention
has been put to project preparation, planning and implementation of activities between Self Help staff and the
beneficiaries. Self Help is also actively involved in the mainstreaming of HIV/AIDS and Gender in its programmes.
Both Nsondole and Kaphuka Area Based Programmes are performing well. They are well on the way to meeting
project targets in most of the activities in each programme. The projects have generated a wide range of benefits to
a large number of people across both project areas. i.e.: there has been increased crop yield and diversification of
crops through the introduction of improved varieties. As a result, the project beneficiaries in Self Help areas are
much more food secure compared to their colleagues in the non project areas.
Further more, there has been improved health and reduced incidences of water borne diseases in the areas where Self
Help is operating and communities have constructed protected shallow wells which are a source of safe drinking
water. The other impact has been the increase of house hold income levels by poor people who have taken part in
the Savings and Cooperative Society introduced by Self Help. The villagers are carrying out small business thereby
increasing income on a daily basis. The income generated has been used to meet their daily requirements as well as
paying school fees for their children and in some cases construction of new and improved houses. All these
achievements and performance have been taken on board in order to strengthen and expand the country programme
further during the next 5 years 2006 – 2010.
6.1.2 Country Strategic Plan
Development of the Malawi Strategic plan has benefited from a series of international meetings and workshops that
were held in Addis in April 2004, Dublin in September 2004 and finally in Blantyre Malawi in September 2005.
The new 5 year strategic plan aims at establishing social, economic sustainable rural communities in Malawi. This
will be achieved through the overall organizational of improving food security and house hold incomes, also to
basic social services and promotion of sound utilization of natural resources. The overall programme of Self Help
Malawi is directed towards making a significant programme to the creation of sustainable rural communities in the
country. The strategic plan includes 4 Area Based Programmes and 3 Capacity Programmes. Two of the Area
Based Programmes will start in 2006 and the other 2 will start in 2007. Area Based Programmes will implement
activities covering food security and house hold income, health and sanitation, education and adult literacy,
involvement of natural resources programme and local capacity building. The institutional; capacity programmes
will implement 3 components namely; - Crop Development on the programme and Information & Communication
Technology (ICT). The strategic plan will also implement HIV/AIDS and Gender mainstreaming as a cross cutting
issue. The 5 year plan is expected to cost a total of €6.5 Million over the 5 year period.
6.1.3 Staff Recruitment
During the year under review, SHDI Malawi recruited a total of 4 Agriculture Development Officers and 2
Cooperative Book keepers. In addition Self Help recruited a Planning and Communication Officer who is based at
the Head office in Blantyre. Also the Organisation recruited a Gender and Credit Officer in order to strengthen the
mainstreaming of gender activities in the country programmes. More staff shall be recruited at the start of 2006 as
part of the implementation of the new Area Based Programmes under the new 5 year strategic plan.
6.1.4 Baseline Survey
Baseline surveys were initiated in December 2005 in order to correct information in the new Area Based Programme
areas covering social, economic, environmental and geographical aspects of the rural communities. The information
collected will promote the baseline status and contents of the people in the selected areas and shall also underline the
challenges being faced. Two baseline surveys have since been conducted in TA Kalembo Balaka and TA
Masumbankhunda in Lilongwe. The reports of the baseline surveys will be completed by mid February 2006.
6.1.5 Salary Benchmarking Exercise
Following discussions held between the Chief Executive Officer Ms Hilary MacDonagh and the Country Director
Mr. E D Misomali in September 2005, it was agreed to conduct a bench marking exercise in order to develop a more
competitive salary structure for SHDI Malawi. This followed staff complaints and a high staff turnover due to the
relatively low staff salaries and poor conditions of service compared to other international Non Governmental
Organisations operating in the country. An external consultant was recruited for this purpose. The recommendations
of the consultant have been approved and a new salary structure for Self Help Malawi has been effective starting
from January 2006.
6.2 Staff Development
As mentioned above, vacant positions have been filled as new recruitments were carried out during the year over
A total of 6 staff members have been recruited as follows:-
2 Agriculture Development Officer
1 Planning and Communication Officer
1 Gender and Communication Officer
2 Extension Facilitator in addition a replacement HIV/AIDS Coordinator has also been recruitment for
Kaphuka Project where the former HIV/AIDS Coordinator resigned.
Similarly a new Project Manager has been appointed in place of the former Project Manager for Nsondole
Project who also resigned. Almost all vacancies are now filled and the programme will start the year 2006
with a strong team and expects improved performance and delivery of project services.
In the year 2005 staff training programme has continued. A number of courses were conducted both internally and
externally in order to improve staff skills and competence in various areas of operation. The following courses were
4 Senior Officers attended an impact assessment course in Kenya which was organized by head quarters
2 Accounts Personnel attended a training course on SAM accounting package software also in Kenya
and the course was similarly organized by the head quarters in Ireland
All 14 Extension Facilitators attended a course on training for transformation at the Natural Resources
College in Malawi for a total of 2 weeks
2 Project Managers, 2 Development Officers and 1 HIV/AIDS Coordinator attended a two week project
planning and appraisal course at Malawi Institute of Management
The 2 Accounts Personnel, the Accountant and 1 Accounts Assistant have continued with their Diploma
course in Accounting at Malawi College of Accountancy and wrote their exams in December 2005
The Personal Assistant has also continued with her training in Business Administration and she too wrote
her Diploma exam in December 2005. In addition, the Personal Assistant underwent Management Skills
for Executive Assistants and Senior Secretaries at Malawi Institute of Management.
Many staff have therefore during the course of the year benefited from increased staff training and staff development
opportunities within Self Help country programme in Malawi. In the New Year 2006, staff development will
continue particularly for the newly appointed staff members that require undergoing skills training in areas of their
Table 25: Staff Training Courses Implemented
March Impact Nairobi Kenya 2 Project Managers,
assessment HIV/AIDS Coordinator and
March SAM Accounting Nairobi Kenya Administrative Officer and
software Training Accounts assistant-
July Training for
transformation and Natural Resources 14 Extension Facilitators
Participatory tools, College
skills and techniques
October Project Planning And Malawi Institute of 2 Project Managers, 2
Appraisal Management Agriculture Development
officers and one HIV/AIDS
October 2005 Management skills Malawi Institute of Personal Assistant
for Executive Management
November Food Processing and Ministry of Agriculture Senior Extension
2005 Nutrition task force Facilitator, Kaphuka
The trainings conducted have so far had a positive impact on staff performance and motivation and project results. All cadres
of staff from the Extension workers to senior management have received some form of training which has proved very
effective and led to increased performance.
Staff training will continue in 2006 to address other critical areas such as specialized technical knowledge of the Extension
workers and report writing and impact assessment skills of Development Officers and Project Managers.
7.0 CROSS CUTTING ISSUES
7.1 Natural Resources Management
The objective of natural resources management component is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources primarily
for agricultural purposes through the national use of resources so as to increase productivity per unit area.
Table 26: Tree seedling production
Project No. of Targeted Achieved % No. of Beneficiaries
Nurseries seedlings production
Men Women Total
Nsondole 19 150000 109391 72 599 257 856
Kaphuka 21 315000 315000 100 9294 7294 16588
Total 40 465000 424391 86 9893 7551 17444
In all these nurseries there are Village Natural Resources Management Committees (VNRMC) who are responsible
for supervision and management of the nurseries. These nurseries were supported with seeds, watering cans,
panga knifes, wheel barrows, rakes and shovels. The varieties of tree seedlings that these nurseries raised
are khaya anthrotheca (mbawa) Eucalypts (blue gum), afzelia quanzensis(mngongomwa),senna siamea (keysha)
and faiderbia albida.
These trees were planted in homestead, graveyards, community woodlots, in gardens as well as schools and some
are sold to individuals in other villages that were unable to raise their own seedlings.
In Nsondole Project, 145 VNRMC members were trained on nursery establishment and management out these
members 92 were men and 53 were women.
7.2 Manure Making
Due to increase in price of fertilizers, most farmers cannot afford to buy fertilisers. Therefore, most farmers are
encouraged to make and apply compost manure or supplement inorganic fertilizers with compost manure. In
Nsondole and Kaphuka 1769 compost manure pits were made by farmers and was applied to 69.7 hectares during
Some of the farmers started harvesting during the year. The average yield per hive was 5kgs. The table below
shows bee hives distributed and accessories.
Table 27: Distribution of bee hives and Accessories
Project Bee Hives Beneficiaries
Kaphuka 33 25 15
Impact of Natural Resources Management Programme
Most farmers are realizing the importance of interplanting trees with crops. Those who planted faiderbia albida
which is nitrogen fixing tree the other crops grown under it their yields are higher than those which were applied
fertilizer. Since source of energy in the villages is trees, therefore most of families have source of firewood from
the trees that have been planted in their homestead and village woodlots. Most women do not travel long
distances to look for firewood. Therefore, time is saved for other household activities. Those planted trees are
checking water and soil loss on bare land.
More and more people are realising income from sales of honey. Kumaano village raised MK6200.00 from
honey which was used to pay school fees, buy fertilizers and other household necessities. It is hoped that
this will become a big business in the next two years when more and more people are trained in bee
(c) Compost Manure Making
Farmers in Malawi are being encouraged to use compost manure because organic nitrogen fertilizers are
very expensive most of the farmers cannot afford them and also due to the erratic climatic weather
conditions farmers are mostly encouraged to use compost because it returns water in the soil. The crop
stand in most of fields that applied manure or manure mixed with organic fertilizers the crop was good
compared to those who applied fertilizers only. This continues to be a learning experience to farmers and
most of them are committed to make more manure this coming season.
The women development programme aims at promoting the socio-economic welfare of women and thereby
that of their families by helping them develop their skills and knowledge, reducing their workload through
promotion of labor and time saving technologies and income generating activities by increasing their role and
In order to mainstream gender issues into programme activities and to promote involvement and empowerment of
women alongside men, the programme has continued to incorporate gender in all project cycle elements. The
target remains to ensure that at least 30% women participation, in formation, implementation, monitoring and
decision making process.
During the period under review there has been a deliberate involvement of women resulting to a remarkable increase
in the participation of women in project activities.
Traditionally, growing of cash crops such as tobacco, sugar cane, coffee and tea horticultural crops is
considered as a domain of the men folk, while growing of food crops such as maize, ground nuts and beans is
regarded as responsibility of women. In order to diffuse this stigmatization, the programme deliberately
encouraged women to grow cash crops such as cabbages, onions and tomatoes as horticulture crops using
irrigation systems supported by the project.
With income from the sales of horticulture crops, the women have been economically empowered and are able to
support themselves and supplement household income.
With support from natural resources activities, such as raising tree seedlings women have been assisted by not
traveling long distances to fetch firewood. The varieties of trees that project is promoting is very fast growing
and for the last two years they have already started showing impact on availability of firewood for cooking in the
households. Men are also assisted because they are not traveling long distances to look for construction poles.
The objective of HIV/AIDS programme is to mainstream HIV/AIDS prevention, care and support into the on going
project activities by strengthening institutional capacity and coordination to respond to HIV/AIDS epidemic at all
levels; household community, schools and work place.
Malawi HIV/AIDS programme started in January 2004. In 2005 the Projects continued with the activities that were
proposed some of which were:
To increase food security among the vulnerable HIV/AIDS affected households (orphan care centers
and home based care centers)
Establishment of Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers (VCTs) three in Nsondole Project and
three in Kaphuka Project.
Support to orphan care center
Support to home based care groups
A youth programmes
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)
Activities that have been done are:-
Establishment revolving fund for people living with HIV/AIDS
95 Households model home training in knowledge and skills for the model homes (health, hygiene
and sanitation at household level)
Motivation and training in family planning. The importance of family planning to their families and
the country as a whole and methods of family planning
Training youth in different life skills so as to empower the youth on HIV/AIDS issues and
Support of people living with HIV/AIDS: -
- Seeds and fertilizers for maize growing
- 100 chickens as income generating activity
- Nursing materials such as gloves, aprons, carrier bags, GV paint, pain killers, ORS, cotton wool
and skin lotions.
- Support Home based care groups with Horticulture inputs for winter cropping
3 Resource centers under construction.
8.0 Lessons Learnt
(a) Crop production
The project areas and the whole country experienced extremely low rainfall during the critical period of the rain
season (i.e. the month of February). Maize crop was at milking stage. This was also around the time when the farmers’
were establishing sweet potato and cassava nurseries. Rice, the most reliable food/cash crop was drastically affected
since the crop requires large quantities of water to do well. This has resulted in a significant reduction in yields for all
the crops as compared to the previous two years. This has affected APIP loan recovery plus seed recovery. As a result of
the drought as many as 4.7 million people in Malawi face food shortage. The recurrent droughts have underlined the
need for growing early maturing and drought resistant crops, the need for farmers to diversify food crops and not to rely
only on maize and also the need for Government and Non-Governmental Organisations to adopt and implement long-
tem plans in order to ensure sustainable food security in the country.
The lower regions of the Nsondole project area experienced instant heavy rains that resulted into floods. Gardens and
homes were washed away in the process. At least 39 farm families were affected. These households did not harvest
anything. As a lesson farmers have been asked not to grow crops in the valleys and flood prone areas but to move up-
(b) Livestock program
The projects continued to experience high death rate of guinea fowls and black Austrolop chickens due to diseases.
Hence, the projects are emphasizing on establishment of drug revolving fund and training farmers to administer
drugs to birds.
(c) Women cooperative program
Most of the businesses are being done with the help of husbands and this means that husbands as well should be
trained on business management. The program needs to lobby on ways of establishing a mixed cooperative for both
men and women.
9.0 Case Studies
The following examples of human stories are intended to demonstrate how the rural people are benefiting from the
Area Based Programmes in Malawi:
9.1 Kapenda shallow well.
Kapenda village is in Nsondole project. The village has 458 households in total. The village has been having an acute
problem of sourcing potable water. Cases of diarrhoea and cholera were always high especially during the rainy season.
The only source of water was an unprotected shallow well which situated 2.5 km away from the village.
The old unprotected shallow well for Kapenda village.
Considering the problem of water shortage, community from Kapenda village with assistance from Self Help and Min.
of Health, elected a village health committee to oversee the construction of a protected shallow well and ensure good
sanitation in the village. The committee under went some training in shallow well construction and malda pump
maintenance and hygiene with financial and supervisory support from SHDI, technical support from the Min of Health
plus Dept of Ground Water. Soon afterwards the community mobilised locally available resources such as bricks and
sand for the construction work. Self Help provided cement, the hand pump (malda pump) and payment for the skilled
Currently the shallow well is completed and the community is now drawing clean and safe water close to their homes.
Cases of water borne diseases have since reduced drastically. Time and resources spent on caring for diarrhoea patients
have been considerably reduced.
The new shallow well in Kapenda village has drastically reduced water borne diseases
9.2 Chamadenga Cassava Nursery in Kaphuka Project
Mr Bizeki Kadwala,inspecting his cassava Nursery
As a way of ensuring availability of clean seed, such as cassava, to farmers within the Kaphuka Project, seed multiplication
program was instituted within which the seed is distributed to identified farmers for the purpose of multiplying so that it
becomes available to as many farmers as possible in the subsequent seasons. It is apparent, from this interview with Bizeki
Kadwala, that the program is steadily bearing its intended fruits. Bizeki Kadwala is a 49-year old cassava seed multiplier. He
is married with six children.
“Due to lack of cassava seed in this area despite many farmers wanting to grow the crop, I consulted the Self Help Extension
Worker for the area for assistance. He advised me to prepare a piece of land where I can be multiplying the cassava seed so
that fellow farmers in the area can also benefit. In 2003 I prepared a 3-acre land and planted cassava on it with seed from
In 2004 and 2005 I managed to realise K20, 000 and K43, 200 respectively from sales of cassava tubers and cuttings as seed
to other farmers. I used the money to pay school fees for my form 3 child, buy fertilizers for maize production and also to pay
casual workers in my fields. My immediate plan is to increase hectarage for the production of cassava seed since it has dual
benefit of selling the tubers for food and cuttings as seed. I strongly advise other farmers to start growing cassava because
one is always sure of a harvest even under inadequate rainfall situation. I am very thankful to SHDI-Malawi for starting this
9.3 Adult Education
Daniel Master and his wife coming from adult literacy class
A lot of men, who do not know how to read and write, shy away from adult education for reasons best known to themselves,
unlike women who attend such classes in relatively large numbers. However, some men do attend the classes and are
benefiting as evidenced in this interview (case study) with a learner, Daniel Master at Kalira adult literacy school, in the
picture above with his wife
Daniel is a 33-year old man and is married with five children. In this interview, captured on 4 th February, 2006, Daniel
narrates as to why he had to register for adult literacy and the benefits that he has started enjoying.
“Knowing that I had problems in counting my own money and that I was unable to read and write, I registered at Kalira
adult literacy school in June 2005. In our class there are 29 women and only 3 men. At first we men had to withstand a lot of
ridicule from fellow men for registering and attending classes. Knowing what I wanted, I had to persevere. As a result of my
perseverance and steady class attendance, I am now able to make additions and subtractions of figures, read and write. Even
more importantly, I am now able to read the bible and therefore preach to fellow Christians, comfortably. As a result of my
acquired ability to read and write, other men in my village have started registering and will start classes once the school re-
opens in March, 2006 since we are currently on holiday. My vision is to continue learning until I am able to read and write
English language. Finally, I advise fellow men who do not know how to read and write to register and start attending classes
so that they can, just like me, acquire reading and writing skills.”
10.0 Special/Exceptional Circumstances
In 2005 Government subsidized agricultural inputs. As a result some farmers did not pay back their APIP loans
because they bought cheap fertilizers. The fertiliser subsidy has however helped many farmers to apply fertilizer to
their crops this year and the crop yields are, as a result, expected to be very high.
During last agriculture season, the country experienced drought especially in the month of February, which affected
crop production and natural resources management Programmes. Establishment of sweet potato which is normally
done in January/February was also affected. The most affected crops have been rice in Msondole area. In both
Msondole and Kaphuka areas, maize production has not been affected much especially of those farmers that planted
early and whose maize had already tussled and had started cob production by the time the drought occurred. In any
case crop harvests were very low and this led to food shortage in many parts of this country including our project
11.0 Mid- Term Evaluation
Malawi had a mid term evaluation in April in the year 2005 for the two Area Based Programmes. The evaluation
was done by Chris Wardle a consultant from United Kingdom and a Malawian Counterpart Sam Botha from Natural
Resources College. As reported above the findings were largely positive and these have been used in the formulation
of the new 5 year country strategic plan, 2006-2010
12.0 Special Reports/Researches/Studies
12.1 Strategic Planning Workshop, Blantyre, Malawi
Dates: 1 -2 September 2005
Malawi hosted the Strategic planning Workshop for SHDI from 1 to 2 September 2005. The workshop was
organized by SHDI HQ and attended by the Board Chairman, Dr Noel Mcdonagh, some Board members, HQ senior
staff, the Africa Director, Dr Awole Mela and the Country Directors and Planning Officers from all the Self Help
The purpose of the Workshop was to finalise the strategic plans (2006-2010) and consider the implications of the
finalized plans for individual countries and the Organization as a whole. The discussions at the workshop were
therefore centred on the presentations by the HQ staff and the Country Directors on the SHDI Cooperate plan and
Country plans, respectively.
The Chairman, Dr Mcdonagh, observed that all plans share a common affirmation and endorsement of the vision,
mission, goals and central strategies of Self Help which are appropriate at both corporate and Country level.
Following the workshop, all countries produced drafts of their strategic plans and submitted to HQ for
approval. Implementation of the new five year strategic plans is due to commence in 2006.
12.2 Country Visit to Malawi by Staff from SHDI- Kenya and SHDI -Uganda
Immediately after the strategic planning workshop ended, from 4 th to 13th September 2005, Malawi also played host
to 12 staff members from SHDI-Kenya and SHDI-Uganda. The purpose of the visit was mainly field based to give
an opportunity to the visiting staff to learn from Malawi experiences on programme implementation and to enhance
exchange of ideas on how best to implement SHDI Projects in order to achieve set goals and objectives.
The team of staff from Kenya and Uganda visited the two Area Based Programmes in Kaphuka Dedza and Nsondole
in Zomba. They saw numerous activities including crop production, Livestock Production, Fuel saving stoves and
food production, Portable water, HIV/AIDS, Cooperatives Development, Natural Resources Management, Women
Programme activities, Horticulture and Irrigation Programme and Bee Keeping. At the end of the two week stay in
Malawi, they were very happy with what they saw and did produce a visit report upon return to their countries. In
their Malawi Country trip report dated October 2005, they observed, among other things that:
The people of Malawi appreciate their level of vulnerability and are working tirelessly to improve their
livelihoods through various ways.
The integrated approach used to implement projects is bringing about positive results and ensures prospects for
There is close working partnership between SHDI- Malawi and its Government partners especially the Ministry
of Agriculture Food Security, and the rural communities who are the programme beneficiaries.
The provision of portable water within Villages has reduced drudgery and improved sanitation.
The report also presented a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) Analysis of the Malawi
programme. The SWOT provided an external review and useful observations which will contribute to further
development and strengthening of the Malawi programme.
12.3 Irish Trek Visit
SHDI-Ireland organized a two week trek to Malawi from 3 to 14th November, 2005 that comprised of 55 people. The
Irish trekkers visited the project areas and saw for themselves the activities being implemented in the field. They
were impressed with the impact being realized against many challenges facing the rural communities in Malawi,
notably high poverty levels, food shortage and diseases such as HIV/AIDS. They all agreed that more needs to be
done in order to improve food security and the general living standards of the people living in rural areas.
13 The Future
The future of SHDI-Malawi country programme will focus on the implementation of the new 5 year country strategic
plan for 2006-2010.Implementation of the strategic plan will lead to programme expansion to new areas and introduction
of some innovative activities designed to promote and ensure sustainable food security and improve people’s livelihoods
especially of rural communities.