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MONTACHUSETT REGION EMERGENCY BACK-UP POWER SOURCES DISASTER

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MONTACHUSETT REGION EMERGENCY BACK-UP POWER SOURCES DISASTER Powered By Docstoc
					    MONTACHUSETT REGION
  EMERGENCY BACK-UP POWER
 SOURCES DISASTER MITIGATION
            PLAN




PREPARED BY:

    Montachusett Regional Planning Commission (MRPC)
     Consulting Engineers Group (CEG) – Source One



                              November 2010


     Worcester and Middlesex Counties (portions of each), Massachusetts
  Ashburnham, Ashby, Athol, Ayer, Clinton, Fitchburg, Gardner, Groton, Harvard,
 Hubbardston, Lancaster, Leominster, Lunenburg, Petersham, Phillipston, Royalston,
  Shirley, Sterling, Templeton, Townsend, Westminster, Winchendon and Devens
     Montachusett Region Emergency Back-Up Power Sources
                    Disaster Mitigation Plan
                        Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW ....................................................................... 3

   Acknowledgements......................................................................................................... 5
2. FORMING THE PLANNING TEAM ........................................................................ 6

   A. Development of an Energy Advisory Committee...................................................... 6
   B. Hiring the Consultant ................................................................................................. 6
3. THE PUBLIC PROCESS............................................................................................. 7

   A. Press Conference........................................................................................................ 7
   B. Regional Workshops .................................................................................................. 8
   C. Educational Exhibits ................................................................................................ 10
   D. Wrap-Up Event ........................................................................................................ 11
4. INVENTORY AND SURVEY OF REGIONAL ASSETS...................................... 11

   A. Methodology ............................................................................................................ 11
   B. Maps ......................................................................................................................... 15
     Critical Assets in the Region.............................................................................. 16
     Critical Assets that Responded to the Survey ............................................. 17
     Critical Assets with Backup Generators ........................................................ 24
     Region’s Renewable Energy Assets................................................................ 29
5. ANALYSIS OF EMERGENCY BACK-UP POWER SOURCES ......................... 31

   A. Survey Results and Analysis.................................................................................... 31
6. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRIC GRID STRUCTURE ....................................... 37

  A. Summary of Findings............................................................................................... 38
  B. Electrical Supply Description by Community ......................................................... 41
  C. Montachusett Region Reliability Statistics .............................................................. 67
  D. Utility Outage Management Systems ...................................................................... 69
  E. Other Considerations ................................................................................................ 70
7. RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS........................................................ 76

8.     APPENDICES ......................................................................................................... 81
1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

The Montachusett Region is located in Northern Central Massachusetts and consists of
portions of both Worcester and Middlesex Counties. The region is comprised of Devens,
the cities of Fitchburg, Leominster and Gardner and the towns of Ashburnham, Ashby,
Athol, Ayer, Clinton, Groton, Harvard, Hubbardston, Lancaster, Lunenburg, Petersham,
Phillipston, Royalston, Shirley, Sterling, Templeton, Townsend, Westminster and
Winchendon. Population ranges widely from 1,288 persons in the Town of Petersham to
a high of 41,055 in the City of Leominster (Year 2008 Annual Estimate, U.S. Census).

                                           On      December     11th,    2008,    the
                                           Montachusett Region’s dependence upon
                                           electricity was exposed when a winter
                                           storm brought significant sleet and a
                                           heavy layer of ice resulting in downed
                                           trees and power lines, blocked roads, and
                                           large scale power outages causing the
                                           Governor to declare a State of Emergency.
                                           Within the region, there were over 43,264
                                           households and businesses without power.
                                           The storm raised heavy controversy over
                                           the slow return of power; it wasn’t until
approximately December 24th when power was essentially restored to all of the
Montachusett Region with utility workers from more than several states called in to
provide essential repair services.

During this time span, it was
clearly evident that the majority
of     businesses    lacked     or
possessed inadequate back up
power supplies - these businesses
were forced to close incurring
major       economic       losses.
Government        agencies    and
institutions became paralyzed.
Household activities ceased with
most left without heat and access
to food supplies. Communication
was hampered. In short, the
health and safety of the regions
population (228,005 persons               Ice covered trees block road in Gardner, MA.
according to the U.S. 2000
Census) were in jeopardy.




                                                                                         3
In response to the subsequent Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
declarations that followed, funds from the U.S.
Economic      Development      Administration’s
(EDA) Second Supplemental Appropriations
Disaster Relief Opportunity, under the Robert
T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency
Assistance Act, were made available. Since the
twenty-two member communities of the
                                                     Heavy icing splits tree in half in Gardner, MA.
Montachusett Regional Planning Commission
(MRPC) were severely impacted by this event, MRPC brought forth a funding
application with a comprehensive planning proposal to develop a long term disaster
mitigation plan, entitled Emergency Back Up Power Sources for the Montachusett
Region. The MRPC is a unit of regional government created under the General Laws
(MGL Chapter 40B, Sections 1-8). Regional planning commissions (agencies) provide
planning advisory services and technical assistance to its 22 member communities.

In November 2009, the MRPC was awarded a one year financial assistance award in the
amount of $125,360 from the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Economic Development
Administration’s Philadelphia Office to conduct an Emergency Back up Power Sources
Evaluation for all the communities
within the Montachusett Region. Due
to the fact that severe natural disasters
have the potential to cause utility grid
failures, the intention of this proposed
project is to mitigate economic
consequences of future disasters and
enhance the health and safety of the
population. This was accomplished
through a comprehensive Emergency
Back-up Power Sources Evaluation
throughout the Montachusett Region
and a region wide analysis of the Electric      Downed trees and power lines make vehicle travel
Grid     Structure.      A     professional                       impossible
engineering consulting firm (Consultant Engineers Group, CEG) was hired to conduct the
analysis of the electric grid structure which consisted of an independent assessment of the
capacity, structural deficiencies and inadequacies across the system. Contained in this
report are recommendations to promote the economic competiveness of the region in the
face of future disasters and power outages.




                                                                                                  4
                                                    The Montachusett Regional Planning
                                                    Commission (MRPC) served as lead
                                                    applicant for this project. In addition to
                                                    forming a Montachusett Region Energy
                                                    Advisory Committee to provide oversight
                                                    and policy guidance to MRPC staff during
                                                    implementation of the grant program,
  Tree limb falls onto power lines in Fitchburg, MA MRPC also sponsored three workshops for
                                                    local officials, businesses, and
the general public to discuss what businesses, communities, and residents can do to
prepare and mitigate a power outage. Partners in this effort included representatives from
the region’s municipalities, the Massachusetts Finance Agency (MassDevelopment),
Mount Wachusett Community College’s developing Energy Management Degree
program, Consulting Engineers Group, Incorporated (CEG), National Grid and Unitil as
well as municipal light plants located in Ashburnham, Groton, Sterling, and Templeton.

This final report will be used in conjunction with
pre-disaster mitigation plans that MRPC
successfully researched and prepared for the 22
communities in the region two years ago. The
purpose of the plans was to identify specific
natural disasters that could affect communities, to
locate areas of vulnerability, and establish
community strategies to reduce risks form natural
hazards. These plans fulfill requirements for state
and federal mitigation grants.


Acknowledgements                                          Transformer and power lines collapse at public
                                                                 transit building, Fitchburg, MA .

The Montachusett Regional Planning Commission would like to thank the following
contributors:

      The Montachusett Region Energy Advisory Committee who provided valuable
       input and oversight throughout study in its entirety. Special thanks to Sean
       Hamilton, manager of Templeton Municipal Light, for agreeing to Chair this
       committee and share his expertise on the subject matter.

      MassDevelopment, the state's finance and development authority (see
       MassDevelopment.com), for contributing towards all aspects of the study as well
       as serving on the Energy Advisory Committee.

      Presenters at the three regional workshops for their time and efforts to educate
       and inform the regions businesses, students, municipal leaders, and the general
       public. Speakers included: Charles Coggins, Director of Leominster Emergency
       Management Department; Paul Wolff, former Director of Sustainability and
       energy Management at Mount Wachusett Community College; John Merlino,

                                                                                                 5
       CEO of Sirius Integrator, Inc, and; Irv Silverman, Regional Manager at
       SourceOne.

      Participating residents, business owners, and public officials and all other
       stakeholders who participated in the Press Conference, the three workshops, and
       the Wrap-Up Celebration in December 2010. Moreover, events such as these need
       to be held in suitable locations. The support received from the Wachusett Village
       Inn, Mount Wachusett Community College (Devens and Gardner Campuses), and
       the City of Leominster was considerable.


2. FORMING THE PLANNING TEAM
A. Development of an Energy Advisory Committee


Work was initiated for this task in December 2009 and a Montachusett Energy Advisory
Committee was formed in January 2010 for this project to provide oversight and policy
guidance to the MRPC staff during implementation of this grant program. This
Committee will continue to operate beyond the funding period with an ability to
incorporate additional partners into the network over time leading to additional activities
and accomplishments while serving as a model to others. In fact, the Energy Advisory
Committee played a role in obtaining grant funds from EDA in October 2010 to devise a
Montachusett Region Energy Plan.

The Steering Committee is comprised of representatives of both the private and public
sectors and includes, among others, National Grid, Unitil, Planning Board Members,
municipal planning staff, municipal light plants, MassDevelopment, Heywood Hospital,
municipal emergency management directors, and environmental groups i.e. Nashua River
Watershed Association. A complete listing of those serving on the Montachusett Energy
Advisory Committee can be found in Attachment A.

Throughout the course of the study the Energy Advisory Committee (EAC) met five
times (February 12 and March 26, June 25, August 20 and November 19th). During these
meetings, significant contributions and accomplishments were made by this committee
ranging from the interviewing of the consultant responsible for analyzing the electric grid
system to reviewing and providing input on the Inventory of Regional Assets and draft
Emergency Back-Up Power Sources Survey, and providing comments on the final draft
report at the November meeting. In short, all meetings were well attended and significant
input and contribution towards the project were realized. Meeting notices, agendas, and
minutes can be found in Attachment B.
B. Hiring the Consultant


In order to adequately and effectively prepare for a disaster and to mitigate the affect on
the electric local distribution system, an in depth analysis of the existing local distribution
system was deemed critical. MassDevelopment, the state's finance and development
authority (see MassDevelopment.com), has agreed to provide in-kind services to be
utilized for implementation of this in depth analysis. MRPC and MassDevelopment staff
worked to put together the Request for Qualifications (RFQ) and carefully adhered to
federal and state procurement laws. The RFQ was advertised in the Goods and Services
                                                                                              6
Bulletin. Proposals were due on or before January 29th at 4pm. MRPC received one
proposal from Consulting Engineers Group, Inc (CEG) from Hopedale, MA. MRPC’s
review committee, which included one MassDevelopment staff member, reviewed and
ranked the proposal and recommended that CEG be interviewed by the newly formed
Montachusett Energy Advisory Committee.

The Montachusett Energy Advisory Committee met on February 12, 2010 where the
consultant was interviewed. Based on the recommendation of the Montachusett Regional
Energy Advisory Committee, the Montachusett Regional Planning Commission voted to
award the consulting firm contract for an In-Depth Analysis of the Electric Grid Structure
to Consulting Engineers Group on February 23, 2010. A contract was signed between
MRPC and CEG on February 25, 2010. The consulting firm was paid $50,000 through
the Economic Development Administration Ice Storm Grant.

CEG began work on the project on February 14, 2010 and continued through October
31st, 2010. Work involved an independent assessment of the capacity, structural
deficiencies and inadequacies across the system. More specifically, it included the
following subtasks:

       a. assessment of existing utility poles, cables, transformers, substations and other
       structures that support the system
       b. mapping of the system, identifying structural and capacity inadequacies
       c. identifying critical areas requiring immediate action
       e. developing an implementation plan for improvement

3. THE PUBLIC PROCESS

From the beginning of the project, MRPC and its partners realized that, to be successful,
the project must involve a large constituency. Broad-based public support would result in
a plan that meets the needs and desires of the region and provide the groundwork for
implementing recommendations.

The public process, outlined below, included a widely publicized Press Conference to
announce federal funding, three regional workshops, educational materials and exhibits,
and a Wrap-Up event on the second anniversary of the ice storm. These events were
widely advertised and each received media attention. MRPC staff also presented updates
on the study to MRPC Planning Commissioners and guests on a monthly basis at
regularly scheduled Commission Meetings.
A. Press Conference


On December 11, 2009 (the one year anniversary of the ice storm) MRPC successfully
held a press conference in the Town of Westminster at the Wachusett Village Inn to
announce federal funding for the project. The intention of the Press Conference was to
raise awareness of the planning effort and engender stakeholder buy-in.

Invited guests included local and state officials, town administrators, emergency
management directors, utility providers, the business community and others (See
Attachment C, Outreach Efforts, Final Agenda). More than 20 people attended including
the Mayors from Fitchburg and Gardner, State Representatives, and emergency
                                                                                          7
management personnel from the region. Speakers included: Victor Koivumaki, MRPC
Chairman; Glenn Eaton, MRPC Executive Director; John Fairbanks, Westminster Board
of Selectmen; Mayor Lisa Wong, Fitchburg; Mayor Mark Hawke, Gardner; State
Representative Lewis Evangelidis; Ann Pierce, MassDevelopment, and; John Hume,
MRPC Planning and Development Director.

All speakers indicated the extreme impacts that the devastating ice storm had on the
region and the importance of conducting this study. It received coverage from the
Gardner News and the Fitchburg Sentinel (See Attachment D, Press Coverage).
B. Regional Workshops


MRPC hosted three workshops that took place throughout the Montachusett Region. All
three were open to the general public - anyone interested was highly encouraged to attend
including citizens, local and state officials, students, the regional business community and
others. Agendas and press releases can be found in Attachment E. The workshops
received media attention (See Attachment D, Press Coverage). A description of each
workshop follows. Moreover, PowerPoints and audio MP3 files can be found on MRPC’s
website at the following link http://www.mrpc.org/Ice%20Stom/icestorm.htm.

     The first workshop was held on April 28th at 5:00 pm at Mount Wachusett
      Community College Devens Campus, Room 130, 27 Jackson Road, Devens. It
      featured a presentation by Charlie Coggins, Director of Leominster Emergency
      Management Department. He discussed how to prepare for power outages for the
      general public, local and state officials and the regional business community. Charlie
      Coggins also fielded a variety of questions and facilitated discussion at this event –
      attendees left the workshop significantly more informed about ways to prepare for
      any potential future power outages.




    Charlie Coggins. Leominster’s Emergency           Attendees network at the How to Prepare for
    Management Director leads the Workshop.           Power Outages Workshop.




                                                                                                8
     MRPC and Mount Wachusett Community College teamed up to host the second
      workshop on Friday afternoon, June 11 from 12:30pm to 2pm at Mount Wachusett
      Community College Gardner Campus, North Cafe, 444 Green Street to discuss
      renewable energy and fuel cells. Paul Wolff, Director of Sustainability and energy
      Management at MWCC provided an overview of renewable energy sources at
      MWCC. MWCC has gained numerous awards and national recognition for its
      renewable energy initiatives including a biomass heating system and photovoltaics -
      the college has also just installed a large scale wind turbine on campus.

      John Merlino, CEO of Sirius Integrator, Inc. (a firm located in Devens) was the
      featured speaker – he talked about fuel cells or “Fuel Cells – Reliable Power When
      You Need It”. Portable fuel cells can add resiliency to power outages. They are also
      quiet, light weight, and perfectly suited for many remote, stationary, and mobile,
      mission-critical physical security configurations. They are virtually maintenance-free
      and provide long autonomy (days to months) for police surveillance, physical &
      homeland security, traffic management, event security, observation (manned or
      unmanned), mobile offices, sensors, GPS tracking & industrial communications, and
      many other remote power applications.

      The objective was to consider which specific devices have to be kept running during a
      power outage (i.e. Cameras, Sensors, Detectors, Lighting, Gas Pumps, Radio
      Systems, etc.) and how they could proactively or reactively be used to ensure they
      stay running.




    John Merlino presents a fuel cell at the workshop.   Renewable Energy Workshop held at Mt. Wachusett
                                                                      Community College.


     The third and final workshop was held on Thursday evening, September 23 from
      6:30pm to 8pm at Leominster City Hall, John R. Tata Auditorium, 25 West Street to
      discuss the economic consequences of power outages. It featured a presentation by
      Irv Silverman, Regional Manager of SourceOne which specializes in private utility
      energy planning. He discussed ways businesses can prepare for future power outages,
      the economic impact on businesses due to power outage, various types of power
      outages and how utility companies prioritize power restoration.

      Many of businesses in the Montachusett Region were adversely affected by the ice
      storm of December 2008. It left many people and local businesses without power for
      multiple days and the regional economy was at a standstill. The goal of this
                                                                                       9
    workshop was to make the Montachusett Region communities and its businesses
    more informed about ways to prepare for future power outages.




         C. Educational Exhibits




Irv Silverman, Source One leads the presentation.   Attendees sign in for the Economic Impact of Power
                                                                    Outages Workshop




C. Educational Exhibits


An educational exhibit was created and featured by MRPC staff members at the Northern
New England American Planning Association (NEAPA) Conference held in Portsmouth,
New Hampshire on October 7th through October 8th, 2010. Materials were also featured at
all three scheduled workshops undertaken as part of this study. Materials development
such as fact sheets, rapid response articles, and a web link on MRPC’s website
(http://www.mrpc.org/Ice%20Stom/icestorm.htm) was initiated, distributed, and
displayed. Additionally, this further assisted to help capture municipal and business
decision-makers interest in committing to this study and the resulting recommendations.




         D. Wrap-Up Event
                                                                                               10
             Exhibit at APA Conference held in Portsmouth, New Hampshire


D. Wrap-Up Event


MRPC prepared for and conducted a Wrap-Up Event on Tuesday, December 14th, 2010
at the Four Points by Sheraton in Leominster. There were discussions of collaborative
outreach and education, all work completed, and recommendations included in the report
(See Attachment K, Invitation and Final Agenda). Press releases were submitted to local
newspapers throughout the region, and the event was advertised on cable television.
Invitations were forwarded to businesses, federal, state, and local politicians, educational
institutions including Fitchburg State College and Mount Wachusett Community College,
public and private sector economic development practitioners, community volunteers,
planning boards, conservation commissions, zoning boards, selectmen and city councilors
throughout the Montachusett Region. In short, invitations were extended to anyone with
interest in the project.

4. INVENTORY AND SURVEY OF REGIONAL ASSETS

MRPC inventoried all the critical assets in the Montachusett Region to gather information
regarding their emergency back-up power systems. The critical assets are the
organizations, businesses and infrastructure that are necessary for a functioning vital
regional economy. After these critical assets were inventoried, surveys were distributed
to these assets to ask detailed questions concerning their emergency back-up power
systems or lack of these systems.
A. Methodology


To inventory the Montachusett Region’s critical assets, MRPC staff and Energy Advisory
Committee members first identified 49 types of regional assets and then divided them
into 10 categories as depicted below.

               CATEGORY                                DATA SET
        Communication                    Cable/TV Station Facilities
        Communication                    Cell Towers
        Communication                    Radio Station Facilities
        Communication                    Telephone Facilities
        Educational Institutions         Colleges
        Educational Institutions         Schools
        Energy Assets- Renewable         Biomass Facilities
        Energy Assets- Renewable         Hydro Facilities
        Energy Assets- Renewable         Landfill Gas Facilities
        Energy Assets- Renewable         Solar Photovoltaic Facilities
        Energy Assets- Renewable         Wind Facilities
        Energy Assets- Traditional       Electric Substations

                                                                                         11
        Energy Assets- Traditional      Energy Provider Facilities
        Energy Assets- Traditional      Power Plant Facilities
        Energy Assets- Traditional      Power Plants/Energy Provider Facilities
        Fuel Resources                  Gasoline & Propane Facilities
        Fuel Resources                  Gasoline Stations/Provider Facilities
        Fuel Resources                  Natural Gas Facilities
        Fuel Resources                  Oil & Propane Facilities
        Fuel Resources                  Oil Facilities
        Fuel Resources                  Propane Facilities
        Healthcare                      Assisted Living Facilities
        Healthcare                      Elderly Housing Facilities
        Healthcare                      General Medical Centers/Offices
        Healthcare                      Hospice Facilities
        Healthcare                      Hospitals
        Healthcare                      Nursing or Rest Homes
        Healthcare                      Pharmacies
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Civic Organizations
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Emergency Dispensing Sites
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Home Improvement Stores
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Major Employers
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Potable Water Treatment Facility
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Potable Water Well
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Pump Station
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Shipping Facilities
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Supermarkets/Superstores
        Other Critical Infrastructure   Wastewater Treatment Facility
        Public Safety                   Emergency Operations Centers
        Public Safety                   Fire Stations
        Public Safety                   Police Stations
        Shelters                        Emergency Shelters
        Shelters                        Homeless Shelters
        Transportation                  Airport Facilities
        Transportation                  Highway Department/DPW Facilities
        Transportation                  MassDOT Highway Depots
        Transportation                  Rail-Freight Facilities
        Transportation                  Transit Facility

After these critical assets were identified, they were inventoried and locations and other
pertinent information were inputted into a GIS database.           Much of the data had
previously been collected by MRPC for other projects and simply needed to be updated.
Some of the data sets were created from scratch. Once all GIS data collection had been
completed and verified, each regional asset was given a unique alphanumeric ID. This
information was used to send surveys to each regional asset regarding emergency back-
up power.

                                                                                       12
MRPC, in consultation with the Energy Advisory Committee at its March 26, 2010
meeting, developed a 23 question survey to determine which facilities in the region had
an emergency back up power system, the type of system, adequacy of the system, the
maintenance schedule of the system as well as additional information. A copy of the
survey is provided below.


                                 Emergency Back Up- Power Sources Survey

   1.   Please enter your assigned Survey ID number:
        (Your assigned Survey I.D. number is located on the mailing label of the envelope you received
        this survey in)

   2.   Does your facility have an emergency back-up power system? If yes, please answer the questions
        below. If no, proceed to
        question 16.

                   Yes             No

   3.   How many generator(s) does your emergency back-up power system have?

   4.   How many generator(s) are portable, standby/fixed or towable? Please specify type and amount
        below.

   5.   What type of fuel does your generator(s) use? (Diesel, Gasoline, Liquid Propane, Natural Gas,
        Duel/Tri Fuel {type}, Renewable {type})

   6.   What type of output does your generator(s) produce?

                Watts                        Volts

   7.   What is the fuel capacity of the generator(s)? How many hours will it/they run?

   8.   Does the back-up system come on automatically or is there a switch to turn it on?

                   Automatic         Switch

        Other (please specify)

   9.   Is there appropriate access to maintain the back-up system during inclement weather?

                   Yes             No

        Comments

   10. What does the generator(s) power? (ex. electric lights, heat, etc.)

   11. Does/do the generator(s) have a schematic or marking system?

   12. Is the back-up system adequate for the facility/organization/needs?

                   Yes             No

            Comments

   13. How often do your maintain the back-up system?

                   Weekly               Monthly             Annually

                                                                                                         13
            Other

    14. How frequently is the back up system tested?

                   Weekly              Monthly              Annually

            Other

    15. How old is the back-up power system? How many hours has the generator(s) run?

    16. What is the monthly average energy consumption of your facility/organization in kilowatts?

    17. Does your facility/organization have a carbon monoxide alarm?

                   Yes            No

    18. If your facility/organization does not have an emergency back up power system, is this due to cost
        or do you feel it is not necessary?
         Is there another reason?

    19. Would you be interested in acquiring an emergency back-up power system or upgrading your
        existing system?

                  Acquire                  Upgrade existing system                     Neither

    20. Does your organization or facility have a contingency plan for power outages?

                   Yes       No

    21. Does your facility or organization have an all hazard contingency plan?

                   Yes            No

    22. Do you have any additional comments?

    23. Please enter the following information:

    Contact Person:
    (Name and Title)
     Facility/Organization Name:
    Address:
     City/Town:
     State:
     Zip:
    Email address:
    Phone number:


                             Thank you for taking the time to complete our survey!
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


A paper survey and a memo explaining the survey request with a link to an online version
were mailed on May 14, 2010 to over 700 critical assets. Deadline for electronic
submission or mail was on May 28, 2010. By that date, over 90 agencies had completed
the survey either online or by paper copy. The week of June 1st, a reminder notice was
sent to all those who had not responded.

                                                                                                         14
To increase response to the survey, MRPC contacted critical assets by phone. There were
limited responses from the region’s gas stations and no responses from the region’s
supermarkets; MRPC phoned these businesses to gather survey responses. During this
time, additional critical assets were identified and were added to the inventory of critical
assets. By the June 25, 2010 Energy Advisory Committee meeting, out of 864 critical
assets, 127 responded. At the meeting, it was determined that cell tower information was
very important and that MRPC should contact them as well as reach out to the region’s
communities directly to get more survey information. MRPC staff contacted cell phone
tower owners, communities’ police and fire stations and highway departments. Since
MRPC did not want to burden the phone respondents with too many questions, the
questions were limited to whether they had an emergency backup generator, if they did,
what fuel did they use and what does it power.

MRPC was also able to gather additional information about emergency shelters. Sue
Billings from the American Red Cross was able to supply MRPC with current survey
results taken from the region’s emergency shelters. The survey asked whether the shelter
had onsite generators, if they did, what was their capacity, what do they power and if they
are automatic or manual. Many of the schools in the region doubled as emergency
shelters, so MRPC also was able to obtain information about back-up generators in these
schools.

Once the survey response period expired, MRPC staff processed all paper surveys and
merged this information with a database extracted from the online surveys. A master
database was completed and available to link to the GIS data initially collected using the
unique ID. In the end, there were a total of 963 critical and 805 unique assets in the
database. Out of these, there were 267 responses. These responses were tallied, analyzed
and the results are discussed in the next section of this report.
B. Maps


Using the results obtained from the survey respondents, four maps were developed for the
final plan. The first map depicts all the critical assets in the region. For a listing of critical
assets in the region, please see Attachment L.

The second map shows all critical assets in the region that responded to the survey.

The third illustrates all critical assets (by category) that have emergency back-up power
systems.

A fourth map was developed and includes an inventory of the region’s renewable energy
assets consisting of wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy, landfill gas, hydro, and
biomass.




                                                                                               15
Critical Assets in the Region




                                16
Critical Assets that Responded to the Survey




                                               17
LIST OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS BY COMMUNITY

Ashburnham
       American (Cell) Tower #88023
       Ashburnham Highway Department
       Ashburnham Municipal Light Plant
       Briggs Elementary School
       Mr. Mikes Market #23 Mobil
       Oakmont Regional High School
       Roy Bros Oil & Propane

Ashby
          Ashby Fire Station
          Ashby Elementary School
          Ashby Highway Department
          Mr. Mikes Market #7 Mobil
          Sunoco

Athol
          Athol Fire Station
          Athol High School
          Athol Highway Department
          Athol Medical Arts Building
          Athol Memorial Hospital
          Athol Royalston Middle School
          Athol Town Hall
          Cumberland-Gulf 2143, 297 Main St.
          Cumberland-Gulf 2468, 109 Brookside Rd.
          Foley Family Practice
          L.S. Starrett Company
          Mr. Mikes 10 Mobil
          Pequoig Apartments
          Riverbend School
          State Police Barracks- Athol (Station C-1)

Ayer
          Ayer DPW
          Ayer Fire Station
          Ayer Police Station
          Global (Cell) Tower Partners #MA-5158
          GW Archer Inc Mobil
          Hannaford, 22 Fitchburg Rd.
          Ice House Hydroelectric Project
          Mr. Mikes Citgo
          Nashoba Park
          Nashoba Valley Medical Center
          Page-Hilltop School
          Santoshi Corp Ayer Gulf
          State Police Barracks- Devens (Station C-9)

Clinton
          Clinton Police Station
          Clinton Xtra Mart Citgo
          Getty 30466, 185 Mechanic St.
          Getty Station 30472, 564 Main St.



                                                        18
LIST OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS BY COMMUNITY (continued)
        Hannaford, 333 Brook St.
        Mr. Gs Gulf
        North Main Street Getty 30657
        Prescot Mill Apartments
        Presentation Apartments
        Shaughnessy Apartments
        Shaw's, 1175 Main St.
        Water Street Elderly Housing
        Weetabix Co

Fitchburg
        A&E Route 2 On the Run Mobil
        All Family Care
        Applewild School
        Arthur Longsjo Middle School
        Central Broadcasting Company #1007445, #1007446, #100744, 470 Alpine Rd.
        Cleghorn (Oil)
        Crocker Elementary School
        Cumberland-Gulf, 479 Electric Ave.
        Express King Mini Mart Mobil
        Falulah Water Treatment Facility
        Fitchburg Access Television, Inc.
        Fitchburg- Central Fire Station
        Fitchburg East Wastewater Treatment Facility
        Fitchburg Fire Department #1211554
        Fitchburg Fire Department #1214650
        Fitchburg Fire Department, 240 Flatrock Rd.
        Fitchburg High School
        Fitchburg Highway Department
        Fitchburg- Oak Hill Fire Station
        Fitchburg Police Station
        Fitchburg Senior Citizen's Center
        Fitchburg State College
        Fitchburg State Recreation Center
        Fitchburg- Summer Street Fire Station
        The Highlands, A Life Care Center
        Hillcrest Nursing Center
        Lacava Pump Station
        Market Basket, 399 John Fitch Hwy
        Market Basket, 90 Water St.
        Memorial Intermediate School
        Montouri Citgo
        North Central Charter Essential School
        Reingold Elementary School
        Saint Anthony Elementary School
        Saint Bernards Activity Center
        South Street Elementary School
        Super Station Inc Getty 30687
        The Sundial
        Unitil Fitchburg Gas & Electric Company Inc
        Wallace Civic Center
        Wallace Tower




                                                                                   19
LIST OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS BY COMMUNITY (continued)
         Water Street Getty 30661

Gardner
       American (Cell) Tower #305106 Gardner MA 8
       Cumberland-Gulf
       Gardner Fire Station
       Gardner Highway Department
       Gardner Landfill LFG/Methane Destruction Project
       Gardner Police Station
       Hannaford, 21 Timpany Blvd.
       Helen Mae Sauter Elementary School
       Hess, 19 Pearson Blvd.
       Leo P. LaChance Ctr for Rehab & Nursing
       Montachusett Veterans Outreach Center, Inc.
       Mr. Mikes #327 Mobil
       MWCC Advanced Biomass Power Conversion
       North Central Corrections Inst
       Peoples Fuel Inc
       Sacred Heart of Jesus Elementary School
       Timpany Shell
       USPS, 69 Pleasant St.

Groton
         Groton Electric Department
         Groton Fire Administration
         Groton Fire Station 3 Primary
         Groton Highway Department
         Groton Police Station
         Groton Senior Center
         Groton- Station 1
         Groton- Station 2
         Groton- Station 3
         Grotonwood Baptist Camp and Conference Center
         Mr Mikes 14 Mobil
         Petapawag Place
         Seven Hills at Groton, Inc.

Harvard
       American (Cell) Tower #305021 Boxboro
       Bromfield School
       Devens Fire Station
       Harvard Elementary School
       Harvard Highway Department

Hubbardston
      Housing for Elderly Hubbardston House
      Hubbardston Fire Station 1
      Hubbardston Fire Station 2
      Hubbardston Highway Department
      Hubbardston Police Station

Lancaster
       American (Cell) Tower #305102 Shirley
       Bigelow Gardens
       Cumberland Farms 194, 14 Main St.


                                                          20
LIST OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS BY COMMUNITY (continued)
       Cumberland-Gulf, Still River Rd.
       Lancaster Police Station
       USPS, 771 Main St.
       USPS, 85 Sawyer St.

Leominster
       Al Prime Energy
       American (Cell) Tower #10103 Leominster 2
       American (Cell)Tower #5840 Leominster 1
       Armistice Homestead
       Boys & Girls Club of North Central Mass
       City of Leominster Cell Tower#1210601
       Community Health Outreach Center
       Cumberland-Gulf, 1289 Main St.
       Dicks Auto Service Citgo
       Fall Brook School
       Fraticelli Oil Co
       Global Tower Partners #MA-5154
       Hannaford, 118 Lancaster Rd.
       Hannaford, 977 Merriam Ave.
       Hero Homestead
       Hess, 482 Main St.
       Johnny Appleseed School
       Leominster Center for Technical Education
       Leominster DPW
       Leominster Fire Station 2 (Central Street)
       Leominster Fire Station 3 (The Village)
       Leominster Fire Station Headquarters
       Leominster Office of Emergency Management
       Leominster Police Station
       Leominster Senior High School
       Market Basket, 71 Sack Blvd.
       Mr. Mikes Market #29 Mobil, 76 Main St.
       Mr. Mikes Market #6 Mobil, 280 New Lancaster Rd.
       Northwest School
       Presentation Health Care Center, Inc
       Samoset School
       Shaw's, 25 Water Tower Plaza
       Southeast Middle School
       St. Leo's School
       State Police Barracks- Leominster (Station C-4)
       Summit ElderCare
       Sunoco, 344 N. Main St.
       UMASS Mem Health Alliance Hosp- Leominster Campus
       Unified Petroleum, 592 N. Main St.
       VNA Care Network & Hospice

Lunenburg
      American (Cell) Tower #222165
      Electric Ave Citgo
      Hannaford, 333 Mass Ave.
      Lunenburg DPW
      Lunenburg Fire Station
      Lunenburg High School
      Lunenburg Police Station


                                                           21
LIST OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS BY COMMUNITY (continued)
           Lunenburg Primary School
           Lunenburg Town Well
           Lunenburg Water District #1239215 (Cell Tower)
           Mr Mikes #5 Mobil
           Thomas C Passios Elementary School
           Turkey Hill Middle School

Petersham
        Harvard University
        Petersham Center School
        Petersham Fire Station
        Petersham Highway Department
        Petersham Police Station
        Petersham Town Hall
        Petersham Town Office Building
        Sisters of the Assumption Infirmary
        USPS, 32 Spring St.

Phillipston
         Phillipston Highway Department
         Phillipston Public Safety Complex

Royalston
        Royalston Community School
        Royalston Highway Department
        The Village School

Shirley
           Hazen Memorial Library
           NET 4 U Citgo
           Roux Market
           Shirley DPW Building
           Shirley Fire Station
           Shirley Fuel and Gas
           Shirley Police Station

Sterling
           Apple Town Market Inc.
           First Church
           Hope Chapel
           J&J West Sterling Garage Getty 94652
           Saint Richard's of Chichester Church
           Sterling Fire Department
           Sterling Healthcare Nursing & Rehab Ctr
           Sterling Police Department

Templeton
       Baldwinville Nursing & Rehab Center
       Cottage Hill Academy
       Crown Castle International Inc, (Cell) Tower #1009580
       Cumberland-Gulf, 198 Patriots Rd
       Phoenix Court
       Templeton Highway Department
       Templeton Municipal Light Co
       USPS, 132B Patriots Rd


                                                               22
LIST OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS BY COMMUNITY (continued)
Townsend
       Apple Meadow True Value Hardware
       Atwoood Acres
       Energy ToGo/Townsend Citgo
       Hannaford
       Mr. Mikes in Townsend
       Townsend Fire Department Headquarters
       Townsend Fire Station 1
       Townsend Harbor Fire Station
       Townsend Highway Department
       Townsend Police Station
       West Townsend Fire Station

Westminster
       Hager Park Regional Water Treatment
       Larry Streeter Gulf
       Pinetree Power Fitchburg, Inc.
       Trw Fasteners
       Westminster Fire Station
       Westminster Police Station
       Westminster Public Safety Building

Winchendon
       American (Cell) Tower #15767
       Central Supermarket
       Cumberland-Gulf 2083
       Ipswich Drive Elderly Housing
       Memorial School
       Mr Mikes Market #20 Mobil
       Murdock Middle/High School
       Winchendon Fire Station
       Winchendon Highway Department
       Winchendon Housing Authority
       Winchendon Police Station
       Winchendon Town Hall




                                                      23
Critical Assets with Backup Generators




                                         24
LIST OF REGION’S CRITICAL ASSETS WITH BACKUP GENERATORS

Community    Critical Asset with Generator                  Address
Ashburnham   American Tower #88023 ASHBURNHAM               87 Byfield Rd
Ashburnham   Ashburnham Municipal Light Plant               24 Williams Rd
Ashburnham   Briggs Elementary School                       96 Williams Road
Ashburnham   Roy Bros Oil & Propane                         4 S Main Street
Ashburnham   Oakmont Regional High School                   9 Oakmont Drive
Ashby        Ashby Fire Station                             1093 Main Street
Ashby        Ashby Highway Department                       92 Breed Road
Ashby        Sunoco                                         704-1 Fitchburg State Rd (RT 31)
Athol        Athol Fire Station                             2251 Main Street
Athol        Athol Highway Department                       338 Unity Avenue
Athol        Athol Memorial Hospital                        2033 Main Street
Athol        Athol Town Hall                                584 Main Street
Athol        State Police Barracks- Athol (Station C-1)     2289 Main Street
Ayer         Ayer DPW                                       25 Brooks Street
Ayer         Ayer Fire Station                              1 West Main Street
Ayer         Ayer Police Station                            54 Park Street
Ayer         Global Tower Partners #MA-5158                 2a Willow Road
Ayer         Hannaford                                      22 Fitchburg Rd, Rt 2A
Ayer         Ice House Hydroelectric Project                323 West Main St
Ayer         Nashoba Park                                   15 Winthrop Avenue
Ayer         Nashoba Valley Medical Center                  200 Groton Road
Ayer         Page-Hilltop School                            115 Washington Street
Ayer         State Police Barracks- Devens (Station C-9)    59 Buena Vista Street
Clinton      Clinton DPW                                    99 Woodlawn Street
Clinton      Clinton Fire Station                           555 Main Street
Clinton      Clinton Middle School                          100 West Boylston Street
Clinton      Clinton Police Station                         176 Chestnut Street
Clinton      Hannaford                                      333 Brook St
Clinton      Shaw's                                         1175 Main St
Fitchburg    Applewild School                               120 Prospect Street
Fitchburg    Arthur Longsjo Middle School                   98 Academy Street
Fitchburg    Central Broadcasting Company #1007445          470 Alpine Rd
Fitchburg    Central Broadcasting Company #1007446          470 Alpine Rd
Fitchburg    Central Broadcasting Company #1007447          470 Alpine Rd
Fitchburg    Cleghorn                                       409 Princeton Rd
Fitchburg    Crocker Elementary School                      200 Bigelow Road
Fitchburg    Falulah Water Treatment Facility               1200 Rindge Road
Fitchburg    Fitchburg- Central Fire Station                33 North Street
Fitchburg    Fitchburg East Wastewater Treatment Facility   24 Lanides Lane
Fitchburg    Fitchburg Fire Department #1211554             33 North Street
Fitchburg    Fitchburg Fire Department #1214650             Flat Rock Rd
Fitchburg    Fitchburg High School                          140 Arn-How Farm Road
Fitchburg    Fitchburg Highway Department                   301 Broad Street
Fitchburg    Fitchburg- Oak Hill Fire Station               231 Fairmont Street
Fitchburg    Fitchburg Police Station                       20 Elm Street
Fitchburg    Fitchburg State College                        160 Pearl Street
Fitchburg    Fitchburg State Recreation Center              130 North Street
Fitchburg    Fitchburg- Summer Street Fire Station          42 John Fitch Highway
Fitchburg    Hillcrest Nursing Center                       94 Summer Street



                                                                             25
LIST OF REGION’S CRITICAL ASSETS WITH BACKUP GENERATORS (continued)


Fitchburg     Lacava Pump Station                                150 Royal Plaza Drive
Fitchburg     Market Basket                                      399 John Fitch Hwy
Fitchburg     Market Basket                                      90 Water St
Fitchburg     Memorial Intermediate School                       615 Rollstone Street
Fitchburg     Reingold Elementary School                         70 Reingold Avenue
Fitchburg     South Street Elementary School                     376 South Street
Fitchburg     South Street Elementary School                     396 South Street
Fitchburg     The Highlands, A Life Care Center                  335 Nichols Rd
Fitchburg     The Sundial                                        29 Merriam Parkway
Fitchburg     Unitil Fitchburg Gas & Electric Company Inc        285 John Fitch Highway
Fitchburg     Unitil Fitchburg Gas & Electric Company Inc        840 Oak Hill Rd
Fitchburg     Wallace Civic Center                               1000 John Fitch Highway
Fitchburg     Wallace Tower                                      54 Wallace Avenue
Gardner       Gardner Fire Station                               70 City Hall Avenue
Gardner       Gardner Highway Department                         416 West Broadway
Gardner       Gardner Landfill LFG/Methane Destruction Project   744 West St
Gardner       Gardner Police Station                             31 City Hall Avenue
Gardner       Hannaford                                          21 Timpany Blvd
Gardner       Leo P. LaChance Ctr for Rehab & Nursing            59 Eastwood Circle
Gardner       MWCC Advanced Biomass Power Conversion             444 Green St
Gardner       North Central Corrections Inst                     500 Colony Rd
Groton        Groton Electric Department                         23 Station Ave
Groton        Groton Fire Administration                         99 Pleasant Street
Groton        Groton Fire Station 3 Primary                      185 Lost Lake Drive
Groton        Groton Police Station                              99 Pleasant Street
Groton        Groton Senior Center                               163 West Main Street
Groton        Groton- Station 1                                  20 Station Ave
Groton        Groton- Station 2                                  46 West Main Street
Groton        Groton- Station 3                                  185 Lost Lake Drive
Groton        Petapawag Place                                    19 Lowell Road
Groton        Seven Hills at Groton, Inc.                        22 Hillside Avenue
Harvard       Devens Fire Station                                104 MacArthur Avenue
Harvard       Bromfield School                                   14 Massachusetts Avenue
Harvard       Bromfield School                                   141 Massachusetts Avenue
Harvard       Harvard Elementary School                          27 Massachusetts Avenue
Harvard       Harvard Highway Department                         47 Depot Road
Hubbardston   Housing for Elderly Hubbardston House              1 Old Princeton Road
Hubbardston   Hubbardston Fire Station                           36 Main Street
Hubbardston   Hubbardston Highway Department                     64 Worcester Road
Hubbardston   Hubbardston Police Station                         7 Main Street
Lancaster     Lancaster Police Station                           1053 Main Street
Leominster    Armistice Homestead                                16 Pearl Street
Leominster    City of Leominster Cell Tower#1210601              Sunrise Ave
Leominster    Fall Brook School                                  25 DeCicco Drive
Leominster    Global Tower Partners #MA-5154                     31 Palmer Road
Leominster    Hannaford                                          118 Lancaster St
Leominster    Hannaford                                          977 Merriam Ave
Leominster    Hannaford Pharmacy                                 977 Merriam Avenue
Leominster    Hero Homestead                                     25 Grove Avenue


                                                                                 26
LIST OF REGION’S CRITICAL ASSETS WITH BACKUP GENERATORS (continued)



Leominster    Johnny Appleseed School                           845 Main Street
Leominster    Leominster Center for Technical Education         122 Granite Street
Leominster    Leominster DPW                                    109 Graham Street
Leominster    Leominster Fire Station 2 (Central Street)        598 Central Street
Leominster    Leominster Fire Station 3 (The Village)           534 Main Street
Leominster    Leominster Fire Station Headquarters              19 Church Street
Leominster    Leominster Office of Emergency Management         37 Carter Street
Leominster    Leominster Police Station                         29 Church Street
Leominster    Leominster Senior High School                     122 Granite Street
Leominster    Market Basket                                     71 Sack Blvd
Leominster    Northwest School                                  45 Stearns Avenue
Leominster    Presentation Health Care Center, Inc              99 Church Street
Leominster    Samoset School                                    100 DeCicco Drive
Leominster    Shaw's                                            25 Water Tower Plaza
Leominster    Southeast Middle School                           95 Viscoloid Avenue
Leominster    State Police Barracks- Leominster (Station C-4)   30 Hawes Street
              UMASS Mem Health Alliance Hosp- Leominster
Leominster    Campus                                            60 Hospital Rd
Lunenburg     Hannaford                                         333 Mass Ave
Lunenburg     Lunenburg DPW                                     520 Chase Road
Lunenburg     Lunenburg Fire Station                            655 Massachusetts Avenue
Lunenburg     Lunenburg Police Station                          655 Massachusetts Avenue
Lunenburg     Lunenburg Town Well                               100 Wintergreen Court
Lunenburg     Lunenburg Water District #1239215                 9 Chase Rd
Lunenburg     Thomas C Passios Elementary School                1025 Massachusetts Avenue
Lunenburg     Turkey Hill Middle School                         129 Northfield Road
Petersham     Harvard University                                324 North Main St
Petersham     Petersham Center School                           2 Spring Street
Petersham     Petersham Fire Station                            16 East Street
Petersham     Petersham Highway Department                      31 South Street
Petersham     Petersham Police Station                          15 East Street
Petersham     Petersham Town Office Building                    3 South Main Street
Petersham     Sisters of the Assumption Infirmary               211 North Main Street
Phillipston   Phillipston Highway Department                    95 Templeton Road
Phillipston   Phillipston Public Safety Complex                 90 State Road
Shirley       Shirley DPW Building                              158 Great Road
Shirley       Shirley Fire Station                              158 Great Road
Shirley       Shirley Fire Station                              8 Leominster Road
Shirley       Shirley Police Station                            11 Keady Way
Sterling      Sterling Fire Department                          5 Main Street
Sterling      Sterling Healthcare Nursing & Rehab Ctr           18 Dana Hill Road
Sterling      Sterling Police Department                        135 Leominster Road
Templeton     Baldwinville Nursing & Rehab Center               51 Hospital Road
Templeton     Crown Castle International Inc, Tower #1009580    23 Johnson Ave
Templeton     Templeton Highway Department                      381 Baldwinville Road
Templeton     Templeton Municipal Light Co                      86 Bridge Street
Templeton     Cottage Hill Academy                              83 Hospital Road
Townsend      Hannaford                                         18 Main Street
Townsend      Hannaford Pharmacy                                18 Main Street
Townsend      Townsend Fire Station 1                           13 Elm Street
Townsend      Townsend Harbor Fire Station                      47 Main Street


                                                                                27
  LIST OF REGION’S CRITICAL ASSETS WITH BACKUP GENERATORS (continued)


Townsend      Townsend Highway Department           133 Main Street
Townsend      Townsend Police Station               70 Brookline Road
Townsend      West Townsend Fire Station            460 Main Street
Westminster   Hager Park Regional Water Treatment   Hager Park Road-Route 140
Westminster   Trw Fasteners                         180 State Road East
Westminster   Westminster Fire Station              7 South Street
Westminster   Westminster Police Station            7 South Street
Westminster   Westminster Public Safety Building    7 South Street
Winchendon    Ipswich Drive Elderly Housing         108 Ipswich Drive
Winchendon    Memorial School                       32 Elmwood Road
Winchendon    Murdock Middle/High School            3 Memorial Drive
Winchendon    Winchendon Fire Station               405 Central Street
Winchendon    Winchendon Housing Authority          108 Ipswich Drive
Winchendon    Winchendon Police Station             15 Pleasant Street
Winchendon    Winchendon Town Hall                  109 Front Street




                                                                    28
Region’s Renewable Energy Assets




                                   29
LIST OF REGION’S RENEWABLE ENERGY ASSETS

Community      Facility                                    Address

Athol          Hydro Facility-LP Athol                     134 Chestnut Hill Ave
                Cresticon Hydroelectric Rehabilitation
Athol          Hydro Facility – LS Starrett Company
                Hydroelectric Rehabilitation               121 Crescent Street
Ayer           Hydro Facility – Ice House
                Hydroelectric Project                      323 West Main Street
Baldwinville   Wind Facility – Naragansett Regional
                School District                            464 Baldwinville Road
Clinton        Hydro Facility – Cosgrove Intake Facility   301 Boylston Street
Gardner        Biomass Facility – MWCC Advanced
                Biomass Power Conversion                   444 Green Street
Gardner        Landfill Gas Facilities – Gardner           744 West Street
                Landfill LFG/Methane Destruction
                Project
Gardner        Solar Photovoltaic Facility – MWCC          444 Green Street
                Photovoltaic
Townsend       Hydro Facilities – Townsend Historical
                Society Spaulding Grist Mill               72 Main Street
Westminster    Landfill Gas Facility- Unitil Pinetree
                Station Landfill Gas Facility              2 Rowtier Drive
Westminster    Biomass Facility – Unitil Pinetree
                Station 17 MW Wood Burning Plant           2 Rowtier Drive




                                                                                 30
5. ANALYSIS OF EMERGENCY BACK-UP POWER SOURCES

The Emergency Back-Up Power System survey data received was tallied, analyzed and
organized by its overall responses to the questions, by critical assets categories and by
location of the critical assets. From this analysis, recommendations were developed and
are explained at the end of the report.
A. Survey Results and Analysis


Overall Results

Overall the response rate to the survey was 33.17%. There were a total of 267 responses
from 805 unique critical assets. The full data set was 963. Some of the buildings serve a
dual purpose, such as, a school being used as an emergency shelter. The unique assets
number is only counted once when the same building is used for a dual purpose. The
charts that follows breaks down the survey results. Please note that the line item in each
of these charts labeled “unknown” indicates the respondent did not answer the question.

Out of the 267 responses, 157 said that they did have an emergency back-up power
system. This equals 58.8% of the respondents.

About a third of the generators are fueled by diesel, 31.85%. See the chart below for the
full break down.

                                 Generator Fuel Type
                     FUEL TYPE                    COUNT       PCT
                     DIESEL                         50      31.85%
                     GASOLINE                       37      23.57%
                     LIQUID PROPANE                  6       3.82%
                     MULTIPLE VALUES GIVEN           7       4.46%
                     NATURAL GAS                    19      12.10%
                     OIL                             1       0.64%
                     PROPANE                        13       8.28%
                     UNKNOWN                        24      15.29%
                     TOTAL                         157      100.00%

About a third of the respondents, who have a back-up emergency system, test their
generators weekly. Over half the respondents didn’t answer this question or answered
something other than annually, monthly or weekly. See below for the full break out
percentages for the generator testing schedule question.




                                                                                       31
                             Generator Testing Schedule
                      TEST SCHEDULE           COUNT        PCT
                      ANNUALLY                   5        3.18%
                      MONTHLY                   18       11.46%
                      WEEKLY                    51       32.48%
                      OTHER/UNKNOWN             83       52.87%
                      TOTAL                    157       100.00%

More of the respondents had a power outage contingency plan than a hazard contingency
plan. Out of all the responses, 43.31% had power outage contingency plans and 34.39%
had hazard contingency plans. Over half the respondents didn’t respond to either of these
questions. The reason for the lack of response may be that they might have been a
critical asset that was called by MRPC or surveyed by the American Red Cross and the
question was not asked. A small number of critical assets do not have contingency or
hazard plans. See below for the full breakout of percentages for both questions.

                           Power Outage Contingency Plan
                    CONTINGENCY PLAN             COUNT       PCT
                    NO                              6       3.82%
                    YES                            68       43.31%
                    UNKNOWN                        83      52.87%
                    TOTAL                         157      100.00%

                              Hazard Contingency Plan
                     HAZARD CONTINGENCY          COUNT       PCT
                     NO                            17      10.83%
                     YES                           54      34.39%
                     UNKNOWN                       86      54.78%
                     TOTAL                        157      100.00%

Only 17.2% of the assets with a generator were interested in upgrading their systems and
82.2% weren’t or didn’t answer this question in the survey. Cost was the most popular
reason given for not having a generator. Only three respondents said that a generator was
unnecessary. Below is the reasons given for not having a generator and their percentage
breakdown.

                         Reasons for Not Having a Generator
                      REASON                  COUNT        PCT
                      COST                      32       29.09%
                      NOT NECESSARY              3        2.73%
                      BOTH                       5        4.55%
                      OTHER                      7        6.36%
                      UNKNOWN                   63       57.27%
                      TOTAL                    110       100.00%




                                                                                      32
Category Results

From the survey responses, it was found that the following data sets all have emergency
back-up power in the region: police stations, pharmacies, colleges, nursing home and
hospitals.

On the other hand, no shipping facilities, home improvement stores (only one responded,
Apple Meadow True Value Hardware), cable-TV facilities (only one responded,
Fitchburg Access Television) or general medical centers that responded to the survey
have emergency back-up power.

Supermarkets

Most supermarkets that responded to the survey have generators. Out of 12, nine have
emergency back-up power and three do not. The chain supermarkets are equipped with
generators and the smaller supermarkets are not. The generators at the chain
supermarkets are generally fueled by propane and they power life safety systems such as
(lights, fire alarm) and computers (cash registers). These generators are not large enough
to run refrigerators, freezers or other equipment. The corporate office for Hannaford
Supermarkets indicated that they would contract with a third party to truck in portable
generators in case of a prolonged emergency.

Schools

The majority of the schools in the region have generators. Out of 40 schools that
responded, 27 have generators and about one quarter (13) does not. Some schools double
as emergency shelters.

Major Employers

Out of those major employers who responded to the survey (nine), only two didn’t have
emergency back-up power: L.S. Starrett Company (approximately 600 employees in
region) and Weetabix Co (approximately 280 employees in region). L.S. Starrett stated
that they hadn’t acquired an emergency back-up system because they didn’t find it
necessary and there was only one time that they needed to rent a generator. Weetabix
noted cost as the reason they have not acquired a generator.

Health Care

Hospice and elderly housing facilities were found to have a lower percentage of
generators than nursing homes. Out of the four hospice facilities responding, two had
generators. Out of the 13 elderly housing facilities that provided survey information, five
had generators and eight did not.




                                                                                        33
Shelters

Not all emergency shelters, operation centers or dispensing sites in the Montachusett
Region have emergency back-up power systems. MRPC obtained information about 47
emergency shelters. Of those, 33 had generators, and 14 did not. Almost all emergency
operations centers that responded to the survey have generators. Hubbardston is the only
community that doesn’t have a generator at its emergency operations center. Out of the
16 emergency dispensing sites, 11 have generators and five do not.

Gas Stations

Most gas stations surveyed do not have generators. Out of the 41 gas stations called only
one gas station in Ashby had a generator. Hess Station in Gardner indicated that it had
contracted with a third party to rent a generator during the Ice Storm of 2008. Citgo Gas
Station in Fitchburg noted that it did not lose power during the Ice Storm of 2008 because
it was on the same distribution line as the Fitchburg Fire Station. Out of the oil facilities
that responded in our region, only two out of five have emergency back-up power
systems.

Fire Stations

Almost all the fire stations that responded had generators. Hubbardston and Townsend
each have a fire station without a generator, but both have other fire stations within their
jurisdiction with an emergency back-up system.

Public Water and Wastewater Treatment

Public water and wastewater treatment emergency back-up systems information was only
received from Fitchburg. It was found that all the water and wastewater treatment
facilities in Fitchburg had emergency back-up systems. Fitchburg East Wastewater
Treatment Facility noted that they would like an upgrade to serve the entire system. The
generator currently powers preliminary and primary treatment, disinfection, heat and
some light.

Highway Departments/DPW Facilities

Most community highway departments have emergency back-up power systems. Out of
the 19 departments that responded to the survey, only four did not have generators:
Ashburnham, Groton, Royalston and Winchendon.

Cell Towers

Out of the 21 cell towers owners who were contacted, 14 have emergency back-up power
systems and seven don’t. Generally, the responsibility for back-up power is with the
tenant of the tower rather than the cell tower owner.



                                                                                          34
Community Results

According to the survey results, every community, but one, Royalston, had at least one
generator in its jurisdiction. The following chart (column labeled “Count”) shows the
amount of generators at unique critical assets in each community. Since there is range of
populations in each community, a ratio was taken of how many generators there were per
10,000 people. The following chart (column labeled “Ratio – P”) displays these results.
Petersham, for its population, has quite a few generators at its critical assets. Petersham
has the smallest population of any of the Montachusett Region’s communities, but it has
a similar population to Royalston and Phillipston who only have zero and three
generators, respectively. Lancaster has the lowest ratio of generators, other than
Royalston, to its population at 1.4. Since communities have a range in area, a ratio was
taken between how many generators to how many square miles are in a community. The
highest ratios were found in Fitchburg, Ayer, Clinton and Leominster, in that order.
Given that Fitchburg and Leominster are the two of the largest cities in the region, the
amount of generators needed to serve their higher populations would be higher. Ayer and
Clinton happened to have the smallest jurisdictions in the region making their ratios
higher. The lowest ratios are for Royalston, Lancaster and Sterling. See the chart below
(in the sixth column) for the area ratio.

          Generators by Community with Population Ratio and Area Ratio
        COMMUNITY          COUNT    POPULATION      RATIO - P   SQ MILES   RATIO - A
        ASHBURNHAM              5           5,546         9.0     40.95        0.12
        ASHBY                   3           2,845        10.5     24.07        0.12
        ATHOL                   5          11,299         4.4     33.36        0.15
        AYER                   10           7,287        13.7       9.5        1.05
        CLINTON                 6          13,435         4.5      7.26        0.83
        FITCHBURG              32          39,102         8.2     28.12        1.14
        GARDNER                 8          20,770         3.9     23.01        0.35
        GROTON                  9           9,547         9.4     33.78        0.27
        HARVARD                 4           5,981         6.7     27.15        0.15
        HUBBARDSTON             4           3,909        10.2     41.99        0.10
        LANCASTER               1           7,380         1.4     27.98        0.04
        LEOMINSTER             24          41,303         5.8     29.68        0.81
        LUNENBURG               8           9,401         8.5     27.75        0.29
        PETERSHAM               7           1,180        59.3     68.24        0.10
        PHILLIPSTON             3           1,621        18.5     24.64        0.12
        ROYALSTON               0           1,254         0.0     42.55        0.00
        SHIRLEY                 4           6,373         6.3      15.9        0.25
        STERLING                3           7,257         4.1     31.66        0.09
        TEMPLETON               5           6,799         7.4     32.38        0.15
        TOWNSEND                6           9,198         6.5     32.98        0.18
        WESTMINSTER             4           6,907         5.8     37.25        0.11
        WINCHENDON              6           9,611         6.2     44.11        0.14
        TOTAL                 157         228,005                684.31



                                                                                        35
   The chart below portrays by category type which critical assets have generators in a
   certain community. The “Y” indicates that at least one critical asset in that community in
   the particular data set has a generator. There might be certain critical assets that do not
   have generators for a data set within a certain municipality and they still will be noted
   with a “Y”. For example, if there are multiple schools in a community, one school might
   have a generator and another school may not, but that community will still get a “Y”
   under the school data set. If “N” is displayed, this means that within that data set there
   are no generators in that community. If nothing is noted, this means that either no
   responses were returned for that data set or the community doesn’t have that particular
   critical asset. This chart shows both the gaps in data response and the deficiencies in
   certain critical assets within certain communities.

      Emergency Back-Up Systems within Communities per Category and Data Set
                Public Safety                                                   Shelters                                                                                                                          Health Care                                                                 Fuel




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Gas Stations
                                                                                                                                     Highway Departments
                                                                                Emergency Shelters

                                                                                                     Emergency Distribution Center




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Assisted Living Facility




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Oil Facilities
                 Police Stations



                                                  Emergency Operations Center




                                                                                                                                                                                                Medical Centers
                                   Fire Station




                                                                                                                                                           Cell Phones Towers




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Schools

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supermarkets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Elderly Housing



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Hospice
                                                                                                                                                                                Nursing Homes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Pharmacies
ASHBURNHAM                                                                      Y                                                    N                     Y                                                                                                                            N                               Y
ASHBY                              Y              Y                             Y                    N                               Y                                                                                                                                                  Y                               N
ATHOL           Y                  Y              Y                             Y                    Y                               Y                                                          N                  N                                                                    N                               N
AYER            Y                  Y              Y                             Y                                                    Y                     Y                                                                          Y                                                 N                               Y         Y
CLINTON         Y                  Y                                            Y                                                    Y                                                                             N                                                                    N                               Y         Y
FITCHBURG       Y                  Y              Y                             Y                    Y                               Y                     Y                    Y               N                  Y                                                                    N                               Y
GARDNER         Y                  Y              Y                                                                                  Y                     N                    Y                                                                                N                      N              N                N         Y
GROTON          Y                  Y              Y                             Y                                                    N                                          Y                                  Y                                                                    N                               Y
HARVARD                                                                         Y                                                    Y                     N                                                                                                                                                            Y
HUBBARDSTON     Y                  Y              N                             Y                                                    Y                                                                             Y
LANCASTER       Y                                 Y                                                                                                        N                                                       N                                                                    N
LEOMINSTER      Y                  Y              Y                             Y                                                    Y                     Y                    Y               N                                     N                          Y         Y            N                               Y         Y
LUNENBURG       Y                  Y                                            Y                    Y                               Y                     Y                                                                                                                            N                               Y         Y
PETERSHAM       Y                  Y              Y                             Y                    Y                               Y                                                                                                                                                                                  Y
PHILLIPSTON                        Y                                            Y                                                    Y
ROYALSTON                                                                       N                    N                               N                                                                                                                                                                                  N
SHIRLEY                            Y              Y                             Y                                                    Y                                                                                                                                                  N              N                N         N
STERLING        Y                  Y              Y                             N                                                                                               Y                                                                                                       N
TEMPLETON                                                                                                                            Y                     Y                    Y                                  N                                                                    N                               Y
TOWNSEND        Y                  Y              Y                                                                                  Y                                                                             N                                                       Y            N                                         Y
WESTMINSTER     Y                  Y              Y                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     N
WINCHENDON      Y                  Y              Y                             Y                    Y                               N                     N                                                       Y                                                                    N                               Y         N



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36
6. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRIC GRID STRUCTURE

Consulting Engineers Group Inc. completed an in-depth analysis of the electric grid
structure with assistance from SourceOne. Tasks undertaken by CEG to achieve the
analysis for this report are described below. For definitions of technical terms and
acronyms, see Attachment F.

Task 1 – Data Collection

CEG meet with MRPC personnel to identify stakeholders and review any previously
collected data and any historical deficiencies/areas. The following information was
provided:

       SAIFI: System Average Interruption Frequency Index (sustained interruptions).
       This index is designed to give information about the average frequency of
       sustained interruptions per customer over a predefined area.

       SAIDI: System Average Interruption Duration Index. This index is commonly
       referred to as customer minutes of interruption and is designed to provide
       information about the average time the customers are interrupted.

       CAIDI: Customer Average Interruption Duration Index. CAIDI represents the
       average time required to restore service to the average customer per sustained
       interruption
               .
CEG meet with each utility to identify what resources/data would be shared. Often times,
mapping and other documents are restricted as either proprietary or are withheld due to
system security concerns.

Task 2 – Review of Existing System

CEG performed an onsite assessment as to the condition, construction of the electrical
distribution assets and identified opportunities for operational improvements. CEG met
with utility operational personnel to gain insight into any operational
(operation/safety/reliability, etc.) issues of its system. They evaluated existing and
proposed utility power infrastructure’s ability to meet power capacity and reliability
requirements.

    Conducted site visits to establish/confirm/determine electrical system infrastructure
     (i.e. transmission and distribution infrastructure).

    Reviewed existing utility infrastructure for single points of failure, weaknesses in
     distribution or transmission systems.



                                                                                       37
             Reviewed documents, material, and information in the possession or control of the
              owner, in connection with its due diligence review and inspections of the utility
              infrastructure and or reports, data and information secured by MRPC.

             Identified Local Distribution Company (LDC) management personnel responsible
              for capacity planning and overall system reliability and conduct interviews to
              determine historic reliability indices and recent power quality trends of the existing
              utility supply infrastructure.

             Developed infrastructure upgrade plan as required, including conceptual level one-
              line diagrams.

     Task 3 – Identification of other beneficial methods/means to improve reliability of
     the system

     CEG evaluated other options to improve reliability of the system and/or MRPC member
     assets that may be candidates for opportunities for on-site generation such as Combined
     Heat and Power and renewable energies.

     Task 4 – Report Preparation

     CEG developed the report and prepared a presentation. The report prioritizes the
     developed options based upon the opportunities that provide the greatest return on
     investment for improved reliability.

     Task 5 – Presentation of Analysis

     CEG meet with all stakeholders to present and discuss the completed study. 1
A. Summary of Findings


     This section describes a summary of the findings of the analysis of the electrical grid
     structure for the region and its communities.

     Task 1 - Data Collection efforts. The table below illustrates a summary of the findings
     from this task.




     1
         Information obtained from http://www.mrpc.org/Ice%20Stom/CEGtasks.pdf



                                                                                                 38
                     Table 1 Montachusett Region Reliability Statistics
                   2009 Montachusett Region Electric Utility Performance
                                         Results

             Investor Owner Utilities:            SAIFI SAIDI       CAIDI
             National Grid                        1.431    153.98    107.60
             Unitil                               1.327     99.07    74.68
             Municipal Owned Utilities:
             Ashburnham Municipal Light Plant        -        58       -
             Groton Electric Light Department      1.35    129.13     95.4
             Templeton Municipal Water &             -        58       -
             Light Department
             Sterling Municipal Light             0.599     47.85    79.89
             Department
             Mass Development Devens              0.056        6      108
          (Ashburnham and Templeton Municipal Light Plants do not track SAIFI and
                                CAIDI nor are they obligated to.)

The data as provided indicates that the municipal utilities reported having fewer
interruptions, and when they do have one, the interruption durations are less than those of
National Grid. These results are typical for a small municipal electric utility that does not
have the geographic exposure of a large utility. This can be seen when comparing the
average SAIDI between the Municipal and Investor Owned Utilities. As shown in Table
1 above, the average SAIDI for a Municipal Owned Utility is approximately 49 minutes,
and the average SAIDI for an Investor Owned Utility is approximately 126 minutes.

Task 2 - Review of the Existing System efforts. Below is a summary of findings that
impact reliability:

      There are a variety of electric utility providers, with National Grid, and Unitil, as
       well as a number of municipally owned utility companies, namely Ashburnham
       Municipal Light Plant, Groton Electric Light Department, Templeton Municipal
       Water and Light Plant, Sterling Municipal Light Department and Mass
       Development Devens.

      There is considerable difference in supply infrastructure with some communities
       with several substations, while others rely on infrastructure in other towns or
       cities for its electric supply which puts those without their own supply
       infrastructure at risk of being “last on the list” during restoration activities. For
       example, the City of Fitchburg is supplied by 11 different electric supplying
       stations all located in the City of Fitchburg, while the Town of Ashby is supplied
       by an electric supply station located in Townsend.

      Distribution construction is varied across utility companies.

      There is a wide range of the amount of vegetation amongst the communities.


                                                                                          39
             Installed infrastructure, vegetation growth and population drive the priority of the
              need for back up emergency generation planning efforts.

             Based upon the infrastructure and type/style of construction installed by the
              various utilities, there are some communities that are at significant risk should
              another large weather event happen in the near future.

   Table 2 outlines each town’s utility, vegetation profile, types of construction and
   electrical source in addition to the respective back up generation priority. Each of these
   factors plays a significant role in the reliability of a particular distribution system. While
   tree trimming is a separate, maintenance issue for those in charge of rights-of-way and is
   not covered in this report, we acknowledge that it does play a significant role in the
   reliability of the overall electrical grid.

                                                       Table 2


                                                                       No. of         No. of
                                           Tree    Distribution or Distribution or Distribution              Back Up
                          Vegetation     Trimming Transmission     Transmission    Circuits in    Type of   Generation
 Town/City      Utility     Profile        Cycle       Sources        Sources       Town/City Construction   Priority
Ashburnham      AMLP        Heavy        4-5 Years   115kV Trans          2              2         Spacer    Medium
Ashby            Unitil     Heavy         5 Years    13.8kV Dist          1              1      Spacer/Xarm   High
Athol           NGrid     Mod to Heavy    5 Years     69kV Trans          2              3      Spacer/XArm   High
Ayer            NGrid     Mod to Light    5 Years    115kV Trans          2              4      Spacer/Xarm  Medium
Clinton         NGrid     Mod to Light    5 Years     69kV Trans          3              5      Spacer/Xarm    Low
Fitchburg        Unitil   Mod to Light    5 Years    115kV Trans          2             38      Spacer/Xarm   High
Gardner         NGrid     Mod to Heavy    5 Years     69kV Trans          2             10      Spacer/Xarm   High
Groton          GELD      Mod to Heavy   4-5 Years    69kV Trans          2              3         Spacer    Medium
Harvard         NGrid     Mod to Heavy    5 Years    13.8kV Dist          1              1      Spacer/Xarm   High
Hubbardston     NGrid       Heavy         5 Years    13.8kV Dist          3              3      Spacer/Xarm   High
Lancaster       NGrid       Heavy         5 Years    13.8kV Dist          2              2      Spacer/Xarm   High
Leominster      NGrid     Mod to Light    5 Years 115kV/69kV Trans       2/2            14      Spacer/Xarm   High
Lunenburg        Unitil     Heavy         5 Years     69kV Trans          2              4      Spacer/Xarm   High
Petersham       NGrid       Heavy         5 Years    13.8kV Dist          4              4      Spacer/Xarm   High
Phillipston     NGrid       Heavy         5 Years    13.8kV Dist          1              1      Spacer/Xarm   High
Royalston       NGrid       Heavy         5 Years     69kV Trans          2              2      Spacer/Xarm   High
Shirley         NGrid     Mod to Heavy    5 Years    115kV Trans          2              3      Spacer/Xarm  Medium
Sterling        SMLD      Mod to Heavy   4-5 Years   115kV Trans          2              4      Spacer/Xarm  Medium
Templeton      TMWLP      Mod to Heavy   4-5 Years    69kV Trans          1              4         Spacer     High
Townsend         Unitil   Mod to Heavy    5 Years     69kV Trans          2              3      Spacer/Xarm  Medium
Westminster     NGrid     Mod to Heavy    5 Years     69kV Trans          2              5      Spacer/Xarm  Medium
Winchendon      NGrid       Heavy         5 Years 115kV/69kV Trans       2/2             4      Spacer/Xarm  Medium
Devens           DU       Mod to Low      5 Years     69kV Trans          2             10         Spacer      Low




   The type of construction plays an important role in the reliability of an overhead
   distribution system especially when moderate to heavy vegetation is also present. Cross-
   Arm construction (Xarm) consists of the most common form of construction represented
   in Figure 2 on Page 41. The cable shown is not insulated and when put in contact with a


                                                                                                             40
      tree limb or other foreign object could cause an outage. Spacer Cable as shown in Figure
      3 on page 41 is insulated and provides more protection from tree limbs and foreign
      objects that could fall or bump into the cable.

      The type of source (transmission or distribution) as well as the number of source circuits
      is vital to the overall electrical system as well. The number of source circuits listed
      above represents the total number of circuits each town has (transmission or distribution)
      that supply the electricity within the town itself. Those towns with just one distribution
      source circuit are more susceptible to an outage versus those towns with more than one
      due to redundancy that is built into the overall operation. In the event of a loss of a
      circuit, a second circuit typically can provide backup until that circuit is restored.
      During the data collection efforts there were a number of items that surfaced that lend
      themselves as areas for consideration as other beneficial methods/means to improve
      reliability of the system. Some areas for additional focus are as follows:

            Consider additional analysis and planning for installing or providing back up
             generation to local communities.

            Many efforts that the MRPC is striving to achieve are inherent in the
             responsibility of the Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency. Therefore
             consideration of formalized discussion and interaction with MEMA should occur
             as part of a plan.

            Consider discussions with the host electric utilities to discuss the benefits of De-
             Energized Restoration during a catastrophic event such as tornado, ice or
             hurricane. A more in depth explanation is represented on page 70.


B. Electrical Supply Description by Community


      Most of the twenty two (22) communities in the Montachusett Region are served
      electricity from either Unitil or National Grid, with the exception of Ashburnham,
      Devens, Groton, Sterling and Templeton which each has their own municipally owned
      electric system. It should be noted, that the municipally owned electric systems are still
      inter-connected via distribution or transmission lines with Unitil and/or National Grid. A
      map depicting MRPC’s region is color coded providing each town’s electric utility can be
      found in Attachment G. The majority of the region is served by National Grid.

      Single points of failure, system weaknesses, and capacity restrictions of substations or
      critical Transmission or Distribution circuits are considered Critical Energy Infrastructure
      Information (CEII) by the Federal Energy and Regulatory Commission (FERC) and are
      not to be disclosed to the public as it can by used for acts of terrorism or harmful doing.
      In order to identify areas that would benefit from on-site generation and simultaneously
      comply with FERC - CEII, a back up generation priority has been developed.




                                                                                               41
    Table 3 provides a summary of the electrical descriptions for MRPC communities. A
    back up emergency generation priority was determined for each community. The basis of
    this ranking is to allow for prioritization from a planning perspective. The methodology
    for determining this priority is provided in the following sections.

                                  Table 3: Findings Summary – Backup Generation
     
                             No. of Local No. of Remote    No. of                  Population           Back Up
              Vegetation      Supplying     Supplying   Distribution   Population Density Per MEMA     Generation
 Town/City      Profile      Substations   Substations    Circuits      of Town   Square Mile Region    Priority
Ashburnham      Heavy             1              0            2           5,433       140       4       Medium
Ashby           Heavy             0              1            1           2,717       114       1        High
Athol         Mod to Heavy        1              0            3          11,451       351       4        High
Ayer          Mod to Light        1              0            4           6,871       762       1       Medium
Clinton       Mod to Light        1              0            5          13,222      2,320      4         Low
Fitchburg     Mod to Light        11             0           38          41,194      1,484      4        High
Gardner       Mod to Heavy        2              0           10          20,125       907       4        High
Groton        Mod to Heavy        1              0            3           7,511       229       1       Medium
Harvard       Mod to Heavy        0              1            1          12,329       468       4        High
Hubbardston     Heavy             0              2            3           2,797       68        4        High
Lancaster       Heavy             0              2            2           6,661       241       4        High
Leominster    Mod to Light        2              1           14          38,145      1,321      4        High
Lunenburg       Heavy             1              0            4           9,117       345       4        High
Petersham       Heavy             0              2            4           1,131       21        4        High
Phillipston     Heavy             0              1            1           1,485       61        4        High
Royalston       Heavy             1              0            2           1,147       27        4        High
Shirley       Mod to Heavy        2              1            3           6,118       386       1       Medium
Sterling      Med to Heavy        1              0            4           6,481       212       4       Medium
Templeton     Mod to Heavy        1              0            4           6,438       201       4        High
Townsend      Mod to Heavy        2              0            3           8,496       258       1       Medium
Westminster   Mod to Heavy        2              0            5           6,191       174       4       Medium
Winchendon      Heavy             2              0            4           8,805       203       4       Medium
Devens        Mod to Low          5              0           10            n/a        n/a       1         Low
     
    Understanding Electric Distribution

    Understanding how modern day electric transmission and distribution systems work is
    crucial in understanding the findings in this study. Electricity is created at generation
    stations from many different sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, water, wind,
    sun, methane etc. Because generators require large amounts of fuel, they are typically
    located near the availability of the resources they consume (e.g. coal powered plants are
    typically located near rivers or oceans to allows easy access to transport barges). The
    generation station, as depicted in Figure 1, is connected to a generator step up transformer
    (substation) and then to transmission lines. In order to efficiently transport the electricity
    from these remote locations, the voltage level of the electricity must be stepped-up in
    order to travel long distances on transmission lines. The act of stepping voltages up or
    down is performed with large power transformers in substations, and so the primary roles
    of substations are to step voltages up or down depending on the need. At the end of
    transmission lines, the voltage level is stepped down to a medium voltage level, so it is
    safe to distribute throughout cities and towns. Depending on the type of customer, the


                                                                                                          42
  voltage level will be stepped down one last time in order to supply residential and
  commercial customers.




(Figure taken from http://www.thefullwiki.org/Electric_power_transmission)


                                                  Figure 1: Distribution Diagram


  Understanding the Reliability of Electric Distribution

  Reliability of Transmission Lines:

  Transmission lines provide the highest level of reliability because of their advanced
  lightning protection, redundant designs, and large maintained right of ways.
  Transmission lines have less exposure to vegetation and public access, which provide a
  higher level of security and reliability. During an Ice Storm, transmission and distribution
  lines can be subjected to heavy ice loading , however, due to the location of the lines in
  dedicated rights of ways, transmission lines are less susceptible to falling trees that can
  damage towers and line conductors. Since transmission lines have a higher level of
  reliability, a town being supplied by a robust transmission design and a local substation is
  most likely to have power restored before a town supplied by distribution line with a
  supplying substation located in adjacent town.

  Reliability of Distribution Lines:

  Overhead Distribution lines have a lower level of reliability because of their close
  proximity to trees and public exposure, and as a result, they are more susceptible to
  frequent outages. The type of construction plays an important role in the day to day
  reliability of an overhead distribution system especially when moderate to heavy
  vegetation is present. Cross-Arm construction (Xarm) consists of the most common form
  of construction represented in Figure 2 below. The cable shown is not insulated and
  when inadvertent contact is made with tree limbs or other foreign objects it usually
  results in an electrical outage. Spacer Cable, as shown in Figure 3 below, is insulated and
  tightly bundled, which provides more protection from tree limbs and foreign objects that
  could fall or bump into the cable. However, during an Ice Storm the type of construction


                                                                                           43
can be irrelevant because fallen trees can cause the heavily loaded lines or poles to break,
regardless of construction type.


                                                  




   Figure 2: Typical Cross Arm Construction                  Figure 3: Typical Spacer Construction


During the 2008 Ice Storm both Transmission and Distribution lines incurred outages.
The difference between the two types of electric outages was the amount of time needed
for restoration. The Transmission lines were restored within several days and the
Distribution lines were restored within a week or longer. Since substations essentially
serve as the source of electricity for a community, and given the fact that transmission
lines which supply substations have a high level of reliability, the proximity to a
substation is the most important factor in prioritizing back up generation for a
community.

Discussion on Back-Up Generation Priority

The backup emergency generation priority allocates a weight to the communities need,
vegetation exposure, and electrical design or dependency on remote electric supplies in
other towns. Every town and every community has the right to have access to back up
emergency generators, however:

      Not every town can easily access an electric source such as a substation and the
       amount of exposure on a distribution system can drive the need to prepare for
       emergency back up generation to be available.

      The impact of an electric outage is also driven by the amount of residents that
       occupy a community, and their reliance on municipal services.




                                                                                          44
Therefore, in addition to the electrical infrastructure, the population along with the
population density for each town has been considered, and will be discussed within the
individual community discussion.

A review of the table indicates that six communities do not have a substation located
within their boundaries, and rely on a supply station in an adjacent community. Seven
communities have at least one substation, and six communities have at least two
substations. Two communities have four or more substations within their community
boundaries. Proximity to the supply station is a critical driver in the ability to restore
power quickly, since length of repair is distance of electric line driven.

Large cities with large populations rely on infrastructure to be in place for their existence.
Urban cities have much more reliance on street lighting, security and traffic management,
since they have higher populations to manage on a day to day basis. In spite of the fact
that they may have more access to electric infrastructure, the larger cities, are assigned
priority due to the impact to life safety in these highly populated areas.

In summary, there are eleven communities that have been prioritized with a high need for
back up generation. The largest of these communities include Fitchburg, Leominster, and
Gardner and during a mass power outage, these communities would be significantly
impacted due to their population accounting for 45% of the total population within the
MRPC communities. Such an event would cause these communities and their respective
economies to freeze, similar to the 2008 Ice Storm.

The following section provides an electrical infrastructure overview, geographic
description of the MRPC’s member towns, as well as development of the basis for the
proposed backup generation priorities.

Town of Ashburnham:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Ashburnham is supplied electric service from a substation located within
the town via two 13,800 volt circuits spanning 100 miles throughout the rural town and
supplying over 2900 electric customers. The distribution system is owned and operated
by Ashburnham Municipal Light Department (AMLP). The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a spacer cable type overhead construction. The Town of
Ashburnham is a heavily treed region, so the use of a spacer cable design is imperative.
The performance of spacer cable construction in heavily treed areas provides a higher
level of reliability due to its low level of insulation on the conductors and small spacing.
AMLP uses a 4-5 year cycle for tree trimming on their overhead distribution circuits,
which is a typical utility standard in New England. The Town of Ashburnham has one
115,000 volt to 13,800 volt substation, which supplies power to the two 13,800 volt
circuits serving the town. The substation is jointly owned with National Grid. The town
has no authority to operate the National Grid owned portion of the substation, which
creates an operational issue for AMLP. The transmission lines supplying the



                                                                                           45
Ashburnham substation are owned and operated by National Grid. The 115,000 volt
lines were recently refurbished as part of a local transmission system upgrade. The
transmission system is redundant, and the recent upgrades allow the Town of
Ashburnham the ability to be fed from two different directions improving the operational
flexibility of the transmission system.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that Ashburnham is supplied electric
service by a local substation and does not depend on the operation of external distribution
substations, the town is considered a medium priority for back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Town Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Rindge and New Ipswich,
New Hampshire, on the north; Ashby on the east; Westminster on the south; Gardner on
the southwest; and Winchendon on the west. Ashburnham is 9 miles north of Fitchburg,
31 miles north of Worcester, 55 miles northwest of Boston, and 200 miles from New
York City.

       Total Area: 41.00 sq. miles
       Land Area: 38.67 sq. miles
       Population: 5,433
       Density: 140 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Ashby:

Electrical Supply Description:

The town of Ashby is supplied electric service through one 13,800 volt circuit. Electric
service is provided by Unitil, who owns and operates 500 miles of overhead distribution
and 180 miles of underground distribution in the Montachusett Regional Planning
Commission’s Region. The 13,800 volt distribution circuits are a combination of spacer
cable and cross arm type overhead construction. The Town of Ashby is a rural
community with a heavy vegetation profile. The reliability performance of the spacer
cable construction provides a higher level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its
insulation on the conductors and small spacing. The reliability performance of cross arm
construction provides a poor level of reliability as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat
or partially sloped conductors and cause an outage. The difference is that spacer cable is
more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a higher likelihood to preventing an outage.
The performance of cross arm construction can be improved with proper vegetation
clearance. Unitil uses a 5 year tree trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which
is a typical utility standard in New England. In an effort to improve their reliability,
Unitil has hired a vegetation consultant to review their trimming practices and standards
as a result of the ice storm. Unitil does not have any substations in the Town of Ashby.



                                                                                          46
The town of Ashby is supplied by a 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt substation located in the
Town of Townsend. Distribution lines from the Town of Townsend supply the Town of
Ashby with electric service.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Ashby is supplied
electric service by a substation in the Town of Townsend, the town is considered a high
priority for back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by New Ipswich and Mason, New
Hampshire on the north side; Townsend on the east; Lunenburg and Fitchburg on the
southeast and south; and Ashburnham on the west. Ashby is 8 miles north of Fitchburg,
32 miles north of Worcester, and 49 miles northwest of Boston.

       Total Area: 24.17 sq. miles
       Land Area: 23.80 sq. miles
       Population: 2,717
       Density: 114 per sq. mile
       County: Middlesex

Town of Athol:

Electrical Supply Description:
The Town of Athol is supplied electric service through three 13,800 volt circuits. Several
regions of the town are supplied by 4,160 volts through the use of step-down
transformers located on pole structures. The distribution system is owned and operated
by National Grid. The 13,800 and 4,160 volt distribution circuits are built with a
combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The Town of Athol is a
combination of urban and rural community with a moderate to heavy vegetation profile.
The reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of
reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing.
The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability
as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an
outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has
a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction
can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year cycle for
tree trimming on their overhead distribution circuits. The 13,800 volt circuits are
supplied by one 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt substation located in the City of Athol. The
substation is supplied by two 69,000 volt transmission lines owned and operated by
National Grid.




                                                                                          47
Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the dependency that the Towns of Philipston, Petersham, and Royalston have
on the food and fuel resources in the City of Athol, and also considering the moderate to
heavy vegetation profile, the city is considered to be a high priority for back-up
generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by New Salem and Orange on the west,
Royalston on the north, Phillipston on the east, and Petersham on the southeast. Athol is
25 miles west of Fitchburg, 38 miles northwest of Worcester, 72 miles northwest of
Boston, and 182 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 33.40 sq. miles
       Land Area: 32.58 sq. miles
       Population: 11,451
       Density: 351 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Ayer:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Ayer is supplied electric service through four 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Ayer is mostly a suburban community with moderate to light vegetation profile.
The reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of
reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing.
The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability
as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an
outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has
a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction
can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree
trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is typical utility standard in New
England. The 13,800 volt circuits are supplied by a 115,000 volt to 13,800 volt
substation located in the Town of Ayer. The substation is supplied by two 115,000 volt
transmission lines owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the dependency that the Towns of Harvard, Shirley, and Devens have on the
food and fuel resources in the Town of Ayer, and also considering the moderate to light
vegetation profile, the Town is considered to be a medium priority for back-up
generation.



                                                                                          48
Geographical Data:

Location: Northeastern Massachusetts, bordered by Shirley on the west, Groton on the
north, Littleton on the east, and Harvard on the south. Ayer is located 27 miles northeast
of Worcester, 35 miles northwest of Boston, and 207 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 9.57 sq. miles
       Land Area: 9.02 sq. miles
       Population: 6,871
       Density: 762 per sq. mile
       County: Middlesex

Town of Clinton:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Clinton is supplied electric service through five 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Clinton is mostly a suburban community with moderate to low tree growth. The
reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of
reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing.
The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability
as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an
outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has
a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction
can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree
trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard in New
England. The 13,800 volt circuits are supplied by a 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt substation
located in the Town of Clinton. The substation is supplied by three 69,000 volt
transmission lines owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the light to moderate vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Clinton is
supplied electric service by a local substation and does not depend on the operation of
external distribution substations, the town is considered a low priority for back-up
generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: Central Massachusetts, bordered by Bolton and Berlin on the east, Boylston on
the south, Sterling on the west, and Lancaster on the northwest and north. Clinton is 13
miles north of Worcester, 16 miles south of Fitchburg, 35 miles west of Boston, and 200
miles from New York City.



                                                                                          49
       Total Area: 7.29 sq. miles
       Land Area: 5.70 sq. miles
       Population: 13,222
       Density: 2,320 per sq. mile
       County: Middlesex

Devens:

Electrical Supply Description:

Devens is supplied electric service by five 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt electrical
substations with four miles of 69,000 volt transmission lines, 80 miles of 13,800 volt
power lines supply electric service to the businesses and residents of Devens. As
reported by Devens Utilities, they supplied 180 million kilowatt hours of electricity
through the end of calendar year 2009 to over 240 customers. The Mass Development
Utilities Department serves as the distribution company for the community of Devens.
National Grid provides two 69,000 volt transmission lines to Devens. Devens is a
suburban community with a large industrial park with a moderate to light vegetation
profile.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the light to moderate vegetation profile and the fact that the Devens is supplied
electric service by local substations and does not depend on the operation of external
distribution substations, the town is considered a low priority for back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: Northeastern Massachusetts, bordered by Shirley on the west, Ayer on the
north, Harvard on the east, and Harvard on the south. Devens is located 27 miles
northeast of Worcester, 35 miles northwest of Boston, and 207 miles from New York
City.

       Total Area: 8.1 sq. miles
       Land Area: 8.1 sq. miles
       Population: Included in Harvard and Ayer total
       County: Middlesex

City of Fitchburg:

Electrical Supply Description:

The City of Fitchburg is supplied electric service through thirty eight 13,800 volt and
4,160 volt distribution circuits. Unitil owns and operates 500 miles of overhead
distribution and 180 miles of underground distribution in the Fitchburg, Lunenburg,



                                                                                       50
Townsend, and Ashby. The 13,800 & 4,160 volt distribution circuits are a combination
of spacer cable and cross arm type overhead construction. There is a significant portion
of underground electric distribution in the city of Fitchburg. The City of Fitchburg has a
large urban community with a small suburb around the city. The vegetation profile of
community is low to moderate in the suburban areas. The underground distribution is
completely immune to large emergency events such as an ice storm. The underground
electric distribution is most susceptible to outages during heat waves, where significant
stress is placed on the insulation of the underground system. The underground system is
an area network. An area network supplies the customer from a common grid that is
supplied by multiple feeders and transformers. This is extremely reliable since a failure
of one supply feeder or transformer does not cause an interruption of service.  The
reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of
reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing.
The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability
as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an
outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a
higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction
can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. Unitil uses a 5 year tree trimming
cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard in New England.
In an effort to improve their reliability, Unitil has hired a vegetation consultant to review
their trimming practices and standards as a result of the ice storm. There are 11
substations supplying the City of Fitchburg, in which two substations are 4,160 volt
substations and the remaining nine are 13,800 volt substations. The substations are
supplied by a 69,000 volt sub transmission system own and operated by Unitil. The sub
transmission system did incur several outages during the 2008 Ice Storm, but as reported
by Unitil, a proactive reinforcement program has been established addressing any
deficiencies identified in the 2008 Ice Storm. The 69,000 sub transmission system is
supplied by a 115,000 volt to 69,000 volt substation in the City of Fitchburg. There are
four 115,000 volt transmission lines providing service to the electric substation. The
115,000 transmission service is owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the operational experience of transmission lines, and the fact that the City of
Fitchburg is supplied electric service by a local substation. The City of Fitchburg has a
large population, thus the impact of a mass power outage will have a more significant
impact on the community and the economy. Therefore the City of Fitchburg is considered
to be a high priority for backup generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central section of Massachusetts, bordered by Westminster on the west,
Ashby on the north, Lunenburg on the east, and Leominster on the south. Fitchburg is 25
miles north of Worcester, 46 miles northwest of Boston, and 211 miles from New York
City.




                                                                                           51
       Total Area: 28.06 sq. miles
       Land Area: 27.76 sq. miles
       Population: 41,194
       Density: 1,484 per sq. mile
       County: Middlesex

City of Gardner:

Electrical Supply Description:

The City of Gardner is supplied electric service through five 13,800 volt and five 4,160
volt overhead distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt
distribution circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm
construction, and the 4,160 volt circuits are built with cross arm construction. The City
of Gardner has a small urban area with a light vegetation profile and a large rural area
with a heavy vegetation profile. The reliability performance of the spacer cable
construction provides a higher level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its
insulation on the conductors and small spacing. The reliability performance of cross arm
construction provides a poor level of reliability as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat
or partially sloped conductors and cause an outage. The difference is that spacer cable is
more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a higher likelihood to preventing an outage.
The performance of cross arm construction can be improved with proper vegetation
clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree trimming cycle for their entire service
territory, which is a typical utility standard in New England. The 13,800 and 4,160 volt
circuits are supplied by a 69,000 volt to 13,800 & 4,160 volt substation located in the
City of Gardner. The substation is supplied by two 69,000 volt transmission lines owned
and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the operational experience of transmission lines, and the fact that the City of
Gardner is supplied electric service by a local substation. The City of Gardner has one
the largest population in of all MRPC communities, thus the impact of a mass power
outage will have a more significant impact on the community and the economy.
Therefore, the City of Gardner is considered to be a high priority for backup generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North Central Massachusetts, bordered by Winchendon and Ashburnham on
the north, Templeton on the west, Westminster on the east, and Hubbardston on the
south. Gardner is 28 miles northwest of Worcester, 59 miles northwest of Boston, 61
miles northeast of Springfield, and 195 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 23.00 sq. miles
       Land Area: 22.19 sq. miles




                                                                                          52
       Population: 20,125
       Density: 907 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester


Town of Groton:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Groton is supplied electric service from a substation located within the town
of Groton via three 13,800 volt circuits spanning 106 miles throughout the rural town.
The distribution system is owned and operated by Groton Electric Light Department
(GELD). The 13,800 volt distribution circuits are almost all built with a spacer cable
type overhead construction. The Town of Groton is a heavily treed region, and so the use
of spacer cable design is imperative. The characteristics of the spacer cable construction
provides the highest level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its low level of
insulation on the conductors and small spacing. Since the Ice Storm, GELD has
implemented a 4-5 year cycle for tree trimming on their overhead distribution circuits,
which is a typical utility standard for New England. The Town of Groton has one 69,000
volt to 13,800 volt substation, which supplies power to the three 13,800 volt circuits. The
substation is jointly owned with National Grid. The town has no authority to operate the
National Grid owned portion of the substation, which creates an operational issue for
GELD. The transmission lines supplying the Groton substation are owned and operated
by National Grid. The 69,000 volt lines are redundant allowing the substation to be
supplied from two sources.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the moderate to heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Groton is
supplied electric service by a local substation and does not depend on the operation of
external distribution substations, the town is considered a medium priority for back-up
generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: Northeastern Massachusetts, bordered by Littleton and Ayer on the south,
Shirley and Townsend on the west, Pepperell and Dunstable on the north, and
Tyngsborough and Westford on the east. Groton is 15 miles west of Lowell, 31 miles
northwest of Boston, and 210 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 33.72 sq. miles
       Land Area: 32.78 sq. miles
       Population: 7,511
       Density: 229 per sq. mile
       County: Middlesex




                                                                                        53
Town of Harvard:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Harvard is supplied electric service through one 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Harvard is a rural community with a heavy vegetation profile. The reliability
performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of reliability in
heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing. The
reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability as a
falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an outage.
The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a higher
likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction can be
improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree trimming
cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard for New England.
The 13,800 volt circuit is supplied by one 115,000 volt to 13,800 volt substations located
in the Town of Ayer, which is owned and operated by National Grid. The substation is
supplied transmission service by two 115,000 volt transmission lines owned and operated
by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Harvard is supplied
by a remote substation in remote community, the town is considered a high priority for
back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Ayer and Shirley on the north;
Littleton, Boxborough, and Stow on the east; Bolton on the south; and Lancaster on the
west. Harvard is 22 miles northeast of Worcester, 31 miles northwest of Boston, and 206
miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 26.97 sq. miles
       Land Area: 26.36 sq. miles
       Population: 12,329
       Density: 468 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Hubbardston:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Hubbardston is supplied electric service through three 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution



                                                                                           54
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Hubbardston is a rural community with a heavy vegetation profile. The
reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of
reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing.
The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability
as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an
outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has
a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction
can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree
trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard for
New England. The 13,800 volt circuits are supplied by two 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt
substations located in the Towns of Gardner and Westminster. The substations are
supplied by two 69,000 volt transmission lines owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Hubbardston is
supplied by two remote substations in remote communities, the town is considered a high
priority for back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: Central Massachusetts, bordered by Gardner and Westminster on the northeast,
Princeton and Rutland on the southeast, Barre on the southwest, and Phillipston and
Templeton on the northwest. Hubbardston is 19 miles northwest of Worcester and 56
miles northwest of Boston.

       Total Area: 41.95 sq. miles
       Land Area: 41.03 sq. miles
       Population: 2,797
       Density: 68 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Lancaster:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Lancaster is supplied electric service through two 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Lancaster is a rural community with a heavy vegetation profile. The reliability
performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of reliability in
heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing. The
reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability as a
falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an outage.
The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a higher



                                                                                          55
likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction can be
improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree trimming
cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard for New England.
The 13,800 volt circuits are supplied by two 115,000 volt to 13,800 volt substations
located in the Town of Sterling and Shirley. The substations are supplied by two 115,000
volt transmission lines owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Lancaster is supplied
by two remote substations in remote communities, the town is considered a high priority
for back-up generation.

       Geographical Data:
       Total Area: 28.20 sq. miles
       Land Area: 27.68 sq. miles
       Population: 6,661
       Density: 241 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

City of Leominster:

Electrical Supply Description:

The City of Leominster is supplied electric service through fourteen 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The City
of Leominster is mostly a suburban and urban community with moderate to low tree
growth. The reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher
level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small
spacing. The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of
reliability as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and
cause an outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs,
and has a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm
construction can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5
year tree trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility
standard for New England. The 13,800 volt circuits are supplied by three substations one
69,000 volt to 13,800 volt substation located in Leominster and two 115,000 volt to
13,800 volt substation located in Leominster and Sterling. The 115,000 volt substations
are supplied by a redundant 115,000 volt transmission line owned and operated by
National Grid. The 69,000 volt substations are supplied by two 69,000 volt transmission
lines.

Backup Generation Priority:




                                                                                           56
Based on the design of the local transmission system and the fact that the City of
Leominster is supplied electric service by a local substation the Backup Generation
Priority would have been low. However, the City of Leominster has the largest
population of all MRPC communities, thus the impact of a mass power outage will have a
more significant impact on the community and the economy, therefore our proposal is for
the City of Leominster to be considered a high priority for backup generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Fitchburg and Lunenburg on the
north, Lancaster on the east, Sterling and Princeton on the south, and Westminster on the
west. Leominster is about 20 miles north of Worcester; 41 miles northwest of Boston; 42
miles from Manchester, New Hampshire; and 198 miles from New York City.

Total Area: 29.76 sq. miles
Land Area: 28.88 sq. miles
Population: 38,145
Density: 1,321 per sq. mile
County: Worcester

Town of Lunenburg:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Lunenburg is supplied electric service through four 13,800 volt electric
distribution circuits. The distribution lines are owned and operated by Unitil, who owns
and operates 500 miles of overhead distribution and 180 miles of underground
distribution in the Fitchburg, Lunenburg, Townsend, and Ashby. The distribution lines
are a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The 13,800 volt
distribution circuits are a combination of spacer cable and cross arm type overhead
construction. The Town of Lunenburg is a rural community with a heavy vegetation
profile. The reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher
level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small
spacing. The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of
reliability as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and
cause an outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs,
and has a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm
construction can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. Unitil uses a 5 year tree
trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard in New
England. In an effort to improve their reliability, Unitil has hired a vegetation consultant
to review their trimming practices and standards as a result of the ice storm. The
distribution circuits are supplied by one 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt substation located in
Lunenburg. The substation is supplied by a 69,000 volt sub transmission system own and
operated by Unitil. The sub transmission system did incur several outages during the
2008 Ice Storm, but as reported by Unitil, a proactive reinforcement program has been
established addressing any deficiencies identified in the 2008 Ice Storm. The 69,000 sub



                                                                                          57
transmission system is supplied by a 115,000 volt to 69,000 volt substation in the City of
Fitchburg. There are two 115,000 volt transmission lines providing service to this bulk
type power substation. The 115,000 transmission service is owned and operated by
National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile, the Town of Lunenburg is considered a high
priority for back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Townsend on the north, Shirley on
the east, Leominster and Lancaster on the south, and Fitchburg and Ashby on the west.
Lunenburg is about 29 miles north of Worcester, 43 miles northwest of Boston, and 203
miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 27.69 sq. miles
       Land Area: 26.42 sq. miles
       Population: 9,117
       Density: 345 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Petersham:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Petersham is supplied electric service through four 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Petersham is a rural community with a heavy vegetation profile. The reliability
performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of reliability in
heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing. The
reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability as a
falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an outage.
The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a higher
likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction can be
improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree trimming
cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard for New England.
The 13,800 volt circuit is supplied by one 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt substations located
in the Town of Athol and a 115,000 volt to 13,800 volt substation located in the Town of
Barre. The substations are supplied with redundant 69,000 volt and 115,000 transmission
lines owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:




                                                                                           58
Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Petersham is supplied
by remote substations in remote communities, the town is considered a high priority for
back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: West central Massachusetts, bordered by Phillipston on the northeast; Barre on
the southeast; Harwick, Ware, and Quabbin Reservoir on the south; New Salem and
Quabbin Reservoir on the west; and Athol on the northwest. Petersham is 24 miles
southwest of Fitchburg, 69 miles west of Boston, and 178 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 68.31 sq. miles
       Land Area: 54.24 sq. miles
       Population: 1,131
       Density: 21 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Phillipston:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Phillipston is supplied electric service through one 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Philipston is a rural community with a heavy vegetation profile. The reliability
performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of reliability in
heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing. The
reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability as a
falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an outage.
The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a higher
likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction can be
improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree trimming
cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard for New England.
The 13,800 volt circuit is supplied by one 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt substations located
in the Town of Athol. The substation is supplied by two 69,000 volt transmission lines
owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Philipston is supplied
by a remote substation in a remote community, the town is considered a high priority for
back-up generation.

Geographical Data:




                                                                                           59
Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Templeton on the east, Barre on the
south, Petersham and Athol on the southwest and west, and Royalston on the north.
Phillipston is 20 miles west of Fitchburg, 65 miles northwest of Boston, and 180 miles
from New York City.

       Total Area: 24.64 sq. miles
       Land Area: 24.26 sq. miles
       Population: 1,485
       Density: 61 per sq. mile

Town of Royalston:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Royalston is supplied electric service through two 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Royalston is a rural community with a heavy vegetation profile. The reliability
performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of reliability in
heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing. The
reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability as a
falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an outage.
The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a higher
likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction can be
improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree trimming
cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard for New England.
The 13,800 volt circuit is supplied by one 69,000 volt to 13,800 volt substations located
in the Town of Athol and a 115,000 volt to 13,800 volt substation located in the Town of
Winchendon. The substations are supplied with redundant 69,000 volt and 115,000
transmission lines owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Royalston is supplied
by two remote substations in remote communities, the town is considered a high priority
for back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Richmond and Fitzwilliam, New
Hampshire, on the north; Winchendon on the east; Templeton, Phillipston, and Athol on
the south; and Orange and Warwick on the west. Royalston is about 28 miles west of
Fitchburg, 43 miles northwest of Worcester, 74 miles northwest of Boston, and 193 miles
from New York City.




                                                                                           60
       Total Area: 42.47 sq. miles
       Land Area: 41.88 sq. miles
       Population: 1,147
       Density: 27 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Shirley:

Electrical Description:

The Town of Shirley is supplied electric service through three 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Shirley is a suburban and rural community with a moderate to heavy vegetation
profile. The reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher
level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small
spacing. The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of
reliability as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and
cause an outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs,
and has a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm
construction can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5
year tree trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility
standard in New England. The 13,800 volt circuits are supplied by two 69,000 volt to
13,800 volt substations located in the Town of Shirley and Ayer. The substations are
supplied by 115,000 volt transmission lines owned and operated by National Grid. The
115,000 transmission lines are capable of supplying the substations with two sources.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that a portion of Shirley is supplied
electric service by a local substation and does not completely depend on the operation of
external distribution substations, the town is considered a medium priority for back-up
generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: Northeastern Massachusetts, bordered by Townsend and Groton on the north,
Ayer and Harvard on the east, Lancaster on the south, and Lunenburg on the west.
Shirley is located 11 miles east of Fitchburg, 25 miles northeast of Worcester, 39 miles
northwest of Boston, and 179 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 15.91 sq. miles
       Land Area: 15.83 sq. miles
       Population: 6,118
       Density: 386 per sq. mile
       County: Middlesex



                                                                                          61
Town of Sterling:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Sterling is supplied electric service from a substation located within the
town of Sterling via four 13,800 volt circuits spanning 160 miles throughout the rural
town. The distribution system is owned and operated by Sterling Municipal Light
Department (SMLD). The 13,800 volt distribution circuits are almost all built with a
spacer cable type overhead construction. The Town of Sterling is a heavily treed region,
and so the use of spacer cable design is imperative. The characteristics of the spacer
cable construction provides the highest level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its
low level of insulation on the conductors and small spacing. Since the Ice Storm, SMLD
has implemented a 4-5 year cycle for tree trimming on their overhead distribution circuits
with an outside contractor. The Town of Sterling has one 115,000 volt to 13,800 volt
substation, which supplies power to the four 13,800 volt circuits. The transmission lines
supplying the Sterling substation are owned and operated by National Grid. The 115,000
volt lines are redundant allowing the substation to be supplied from two sources.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Sterling is supplied
electric service by a local substation, the town is considered a medium priority for back-
up generation.

Geographical Data:

Central Massachusetts, bordered by Leominster on the north, Lancaster and Clinton on
the east, West Boylston on the south, and Holden and Princeton on the west. Sterling is
12 miles north of Worcester, 41 miles west of Boston, and 186 miles from New York
City.

Total Area: 31.61 sq. miles
Land Area: 30.53 sq. miles
Population: 6,481
Density: 212 per sq. mile
County: Worcester

Town of Templeton:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Templeton is supplied electric service through four 13,800 volt circuits
spanning a 112 miles throughout the rural town. The distribution system is owned and
operated by Templeton Municipal Water and Light Plant (TMWLP). The 13,800 volt
distribution circuits are all built with a spacer cable type overhead construction. The



                                                                                           62
Town of Templeton has a moderate to heavy vegetation profile. The reliability
performance of the spacer cable construction provides the highest level of reliability in
heavily treed areas due to its low level of insulation on the conductors and small spacing.
TMWLP has a 4-5 year cycle for tree trimming their overhead distribution circuits, which
is a typical utility standard for New England. The Town of Templeton has one 69,000
volt to 13,800 volt substation located in the Town of Templeton. TMWLP owns less
than a mile of transmission lines supplying the substation. National Grid provides a
69,000 volt transmission service to TMWLP. TMWLP reported that the transmission
system incurred a long duration outage from National Grid during the Ice Storm.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the poor transmission service reported during
the Ice Storm, the town of Templeton is considered a high priority for back-up
generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Royalston and Winchendon on the
north, Gardner on the east, Hubbardston on the southeast, and Phillipston on the west.
Templeton is 5 miles west of Gardner, 15 miles west of Fitchburg, 62 miles northwest of
Boston, and 212 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 32.42 sq. miles
       Land Area: 32.04 sq. miles
       Population: 6,438
       Density: 201 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Townsend:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Townsend is supplied electric service through three 13,800 volt electric
distribution circuits. The distribution lines are owned and operated by Unitil, who owns
and operates 500 miles of overhead distribution and 180 miles of underground
distribution in the Fitchburg, Lunenburg, Townsend, and Ashby. The distribution lines
are a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction.

The 13,800 volt distribution circuits are a combination of spacer cable and cross arm type
overhead construction. The Town of Townsend is a rural community with a heavy
vegetation profile. The reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a
higher level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and
small spacing. The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor
level of reliability as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors
and cause an outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree



                                                                                            63
limbs, and has a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm
construction can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. Unitil uses a 5 year tree
trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard in New
England. In an effort to improve their reliability, Unitil has hired a vegetation consultant
to review their trimming practices and standards as a result of the ice storm. There are
two substations that feed the Town of Townsend and Ashby. The substations are supplied
by a 69,000 volt sub transmission system own and operated by Unitil. The sub
transmission system did incur several outages during the 2008 Ice Storm, but as reported
by Unitil, a proactive reinforcement program has been established addressing any
deficiencies identified in the 2008 Ice Storm. The 69,000 volt sub transmission system is
supplied by a 115,000 volt to 69,000 volt substation in the City of Fitchburg. The
115,000 volt transmission service is owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of Townsend is supplied
electric service by a local substation, the town is considered a medium priority for back-
up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Ashby on the west; Mason and
Brookline, New Hampshire, on the north; Pepperell, Groton, and Shirley on the east; and
Lunenburg on the south. Townsend is 9 miles north of Fitchburg, 33 miles north of
Worcester, 42 miles northwest of Boston, and 210 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 33.11 sq. miles
       Land Area: 32.87 sq. miles
       Population: 8,496
       Density: 258 per sq. mile
       County: Middlesex

Town of Westminster:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Westminster is supplied electric service through five 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Westminster is a suburban and rural community with a moderate to heavy
vegetation profile. The reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides
a higher level of reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors
and small spacing. The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor
level of reliability as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors
and cause an outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree
limbs, and has a higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross



                                                                                            64
arm construction can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a
5 year tree trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility
standard in New England. The 13,800 volt circuits are supplied by two 69,000 volt to
13,800 volt substations located in the Town of Westminster. The substations are supplied
by two 69,000 volt transmission lines owned and operated by National Grid.

Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the moderate to heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of
Westminster is supplied electric service by a local substations and does not depend on the
operation of external distribution substations, so the town is considered a medium priority
for back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Ashburnham on the north, Fitchburg
and Leominster on the east, Princeton and Hubbardston on the south, and Gardner on the
west. Westminster is 6 miles west of Fitchburg, 24 miles north of Worcester, 53 miles
northwest of Boston, and 198 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 37.34 sq. miles
       Land Area: 35.51 sq. miles
       Population: 6,191
       Density: 174 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester

Town of Winchendon:

Electrical Supply Description:

The Town of Winchendon is supplied electric service through four 13,800 volt overhead
distribution circuits owned and operated by National Grid. The 13,800 volt distribution
circuits are built with a combination of spacer cable and cross arm construction. The
Town of Winchendon is a rural community with a heavy vegetation profile. The
reliability performance of the spacer cable construction provides a higher level of
reliability in heavily treed areas due to its insulation on the conductors and small spacing.
The reliability performance of cross arm construction provides a poor level of reliability
as a falling tree limb can rest on the flat or partially sloped conductors and cause an
outage. The difference is that spacer cable is more resilient to falling tree limbs, and has a
higher likelihood to preventing an outage. The performance of cross arm construction
can be improved with proper vegetation clearance. National Grid uses a 5 year tree
trimming cycle for their entire service territory, which is a typical utility standard in New
England. The 13,800 volt circuit is supplied by one 115,000 volt to 13,800 volt and one
69,000 volt substations to 13,800 volt both located in the Town of Winchendon. The
substations are supplied with redundant 69,000 volt and 115,000 transmission lines
owned and operated by National Grid.



                                                                                           65
Backup Generation Priority:

Based on the moderate to heavy vegetation profile and the fact that the Town of
Winchendon is supplied electric service by a local substations and does not depend on the
operation of external distribution substations, so the town is considered a medium priority
for back-up generation.

Geographical Data:

Location: North central Massachusetts, bordered by Royalston on the west; Fitzwilliam
and Rindge, New Hampshire, on the north; Ashburnham on the east; and Gardner and
Templeton on the south. Winchendon is 16 miles west of Fitchburg, 40 miles east of
Greenfield, 63 miles northwest of Boston, and 199 miles from New York City.

       Total Area: 44.07 sq. miles
       Land Area: 43.29 sq. miles
       Population: 8,805
       Density: 203 per sq. mile
       County: Worcester




                                                                                        66
C. Montachusett Region Reliability Statistics


      Definition of Reliability Indices

      SAIDi - System Average Interruption Duration Index in Minutes

      This index is the average number of minutes that a customer is interrupted during a year.
      It is determined by dividing the total annual number of minutes of system interruption by
      the number of customers served by that system. A customer interrupted is considered to
      be one interruption to one customer. This is the same as one customer affected.


                                  Σ Customer Interruption Durations
      SAIDi =
                                        Total Customers Served

      CAIDi - Customer Average Interruption Duration Index in Minutes

      This is the average interruption duration time for those customers that experience an
      interruption during the year. It approximates the average length of time required to
      complete service restoration. It is determined by dividing the annual sum of all customer
      interruption durations by the sum of customers experiencing an interruption over a one-
      year period.


                                  Σ Customer Interruption Durations
      CAIDi =
                                       Σ Customer Interruptions


      SAIFi - System Average Interruption Frequency Index in Customer Outages

      This index is the average number of times that a customer is interrupted during a year. It
      is determined by dividing the total annual number of customers interrupted by the
      average number of customers served during the year. A customer interrupted is
      considered to be one interruption to one customer. This is the same as one customer
      affected.


                                       Σ Customer Interruptions
      SAIFi =
                                        Total Customers Served




                                                                                               67
    Region Utility Reliability Statistics

The Investor Owned Utilities are required by the Massachusetts Department of Public
Utilities to report their reliability performance on an annual basis. These reports are
limited in access as they contain Critical Energy Infrastructure Information (CEII) that
requires redacted treatment. The following information was provided by the participating
electric utilities. Municipal lighting plants are not required to monitor performance, but
the municipal lighting plants in the Montachusett Regional Planning Commission’s
communities have tracked several performance indices as shown.  
 

                        Table 1 Montachusett Region Reliability Statistics
                      2009 Montachusett Region Electric Utility Performance
                                            Results

                Investor Owner Utilities:            SAIFI SAIDI       CAIDI
                National Grid                        1.431    153.98    107.60
                Unitil                               1.327     99.07    74.68
                Municipal Owned Utilities:
                Ashburnham Municipal Light Plant        -        58       -
                Groton Electric Light Department      1.35    129.13     95.4
                Templeton Municipal Water &             -        58       -
                Light Department
                Sterling Municipal Light             0.599     47.85    79.89
                Department
                Mass Development Devens              0.056        6      108
             (Ashburnham and Templeton Municipal Light Plants do not track SAIFI and
                                   CAIDI nor are they obligated to.)

As indicated earlier in the report, the table above illustrates a summary of the findings
from the Data Collection efforts. As indicated previously, Ashburnham and Templeton
Municipal Light Plants do not track SAIFI and CAIDI, but the data as shown to date
indicates that the municipal utilities reporting have fewer interruptions and when they do
have an occurrence the interruptions are less than those of National Grid. This is not
unusual results for a small municipal that does not have the geographic exposure of a
large utility.




                                                                                       68
D. Utility Outage Management Systems


     The following depicts the Outage Management Systems used by utility providers in the
     Montachusett Region. Emergency contact information for utility providers can be found
     in Attachment H.

     Ashburnham Municipal Light Plant (AMLP)

     AMLP’s uses a power line carrier system to communicate with each electric meter. The
     power line carrier system sends a communication signal through the distribution lines,
     which notifies AMLP when a meter is energized or de-energized. AMLP can easily
     determine the magnitude of outages with precise accuracy using this power line carrier
     system. Having accurate outage information is critical for restoration planning.

     Devens Utilities

     Devens does not have an electronic outage management system. Outages are determined
     using maps and local experiential knowledge of the distribution system. Devens primarily
     has large commercial customers and few residential customers totaling approximately
     240 customers, which is capable of being managing without an outage management
     system.

     Groton Electric Light Department: (GELD)

     GELD uses a radio frequency communication network to communicate bi-directionally
     with electric meters on each customer’s home or business. GELD can easily determine
     the magnitude of outages with precise accuracy using Mueller Systems metering
     communication system. The benefits of having accurate outage information are critical
     for restoration planning. GELD’s metering system also serves as a smart meter, with the
     ability to regulate power consumption in their customers home. The benefit of the smart
     metering system has allowed GELD to save their customers money during the electrical
     system peaks when electricity is most expensive. The smart meter system will also have
     the ability to prolong the service life of their distribution system transformers, by
     identifying the overloaded transformers thus allowing GELD the ability to proactively
     replace the transformers in order to optimize their service life.

     National Grid (NG)

     National Grid uses the GE Power On outage management system. The outage
     management system uses one interface for obtaining outage information and customer
     calls. The customer service department manually enters the outage record into the outage
     management system using an electronic interface. If the customer fails to call in their
     outage than it will never be reported. The Power On software uses a database with
     customer information, an electric supply database, and a GIS system to predict outages.
     This information is used to dispatch crews and prioritize outage restoration. Furthermore,
     in a meeting with National Grid, it was noted that they are purchasing the ABB’s


                                                                                            69
      Network Manager DMS in order to improve on their existing outage management
      system.

      Templeton Municipal Light and Water Plant (TMWLP)

      Templeton does not have an electronic outage management system. Outages are
      determined using paper maps and local experiential knowledge of the distribution system.
      It is recommended that a smart meter application, similar to Groton Municipal Light
      Plant’s Mueller Systems metering.

      Sterling Municipal Light Plan (SMLD)

      Sterling does not have an electronic outage management system. Outages are determined
      using paper maps and local experiential knowledge of the distribution system. Sterling
      may want to look at something similar to what the Groton Municipal Light Plant is using
      in order to give Sterling the ability to improve storm restoration and having the added
      benefit using smart metering. However, it recommended that a cost benefit analysis be
      conducted prior to implementation.

      Unitil

      Unitil has recently purchased ABB’s Network Manager DMS for use as their outage
      management system. The outage management system uses several interfaces for
      obtaining outage information, which is reported to be rolled out in a 2 stage process. The
      first stage integrated the OMS system to the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system to
      automatically record an outage when a customer calls. This does depend on customers to call in
      to notify Unitil of the outage.  The second stage will integrate the Supervisory Control and
      Data Acquisition (SCADA) system and the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
      system. The SCADA system will allow the OMS system to recognize any operation of an
      automated switch or breaker to determine outage and restoration. The second stage of the
      new outage management system will employ a power line carrier system from a two way
      meter at the customer’s home to a central communication hub. The two way
      communication will allow Unitil to talk to the meters and determine if the customer has
      power with precise accuracy. The final system will have three sources of outage
      information, which will allow Unitil to accurately assess damage from a large emergency
      event.
E. Other Considerations


      Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency (MEMA)

      According to the Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency, its mission is the
      following:

               The Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency (MEMA) is the state agency
               responsible for coordinating federal, state, local, voluntary and private resources



                                                                                                 70
       during emergencies and disasters in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
       MEMA provides leadership to: develop plans for effective response to all hazards,
       disasters or threats; train emergency personnel to protect the public; provide
       information to the citizenry; and assist individuals, families, businesses and
       communities to mitigate against, prepare for, and respond to and recover from
       emergencies, both natural and man made. 2

MEMA is divided into 4 regions throughout the state. The MRPC communities fall into
region 1 (Middlesex county) and region 4 (Worcester County).

Region 1:                                   Region 4:
Ashby                                       Ashburnham
Ayer                                        Athol
Groton                                      Clinton
Shirley                                     Fitchburg
Townsend                                    Gardner
Devens                                      Harvard
                                            Hubbardston
                                            Lancaster
                                            Leominster
                                            Lunenburg
                                            Petersham
                                            Philipston
                                            Royalston
                                            Sterling
                                            Templeton
                                            Westminster
                                            Winchendon

Each town is allocated an Emergency Management Director (EMD) whose roll is to
coordinate all resource request, such as a backup generators, from the municipal to
MEMA via several established communications paths as shown below in the MEMA
Resource Request Flow Chart. The availability of the EMD to public safety personnel is
imperative as illustrated by the flow chart. The EMD serves as the central communication
point for requesting all resources during an emergency event. The local fire chiefs
typically have dual roles serving as both the fire chief and EMD during emergency
events, which can be a problem during chaotic and complex emergency events such as an
Ice Storm. It is recommended that the local Fire Chiefs train an assistant to assist with
resource requesting during an emergency event. Furthermore, it is also recommended that
the assistant be trained to serve a backup EMD in the event that an EMD is not available.
A list of all the EMD’s for the MRPC communities can be found in Attachment I.


2
 Referenced from:
http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eopsmodulechunk&L=3&L0=Home&L1=Public+Safety+Agencies&L2=M
assachusetts+Emergency+Management+Agency&sid=Eeops&b=terminalcontent&f=mema_MEMAMissio
n&csid=Eeops


                                                                                      71
Backup generators may be requested through MEMA by the use of their WebEOC
program. From here, the request is sent to the Regional Office or the Storm Emergency
Operating Center (SEOC). The request is fulfilled by one of the Emergency Support
Functions and the resource is delivered to the site.


                        MEMA Resource Request Flowchart




Due to confidentiality requirements by MEMA, a report with all the available back
generators was not available. The resources are available to the EMD who should become
familiar with the available resources in order to expediently react with resource request
through MEMA. In the case that a resource is unavailable because of a high demand or
lack thereof, MEMA has established contracted rates with local rental companies in order
to assist with the allocation of these resources.




                                                                                      72
MEMA Regional Headquarters

       MEMA Region 1                                 MEMA Regions 3&4
       365 East Street                               1002 Suffield Street
       Tewksbury, MA. 01876                          Agawam, MA 01001
       Tel: (978) 328-1500                           Tel: (413) 821-1500
                                                     Fax: (413) 821-1599
       Leominster Office of Emergency Management
       37 Carter Street
       Leominster, MA 01453-3899
       Tel: (978) 534-7580
       Fax: (978)-534-0126

       Gardner Office of Emergency Management
       61 East Broadway
       Gardner, MA 01440

The Region 4, headquarters is located in Agawam, but it has been known to be
temporarily relocated to the Leominster Office of Emergency Management during
emergency events due to its proximity to the region.

The project team has discovered that most expenses spent during an official “state of
emergency” is subject to reimbursement by FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management
Agency). Since 1991, more than $558 million in federal aid and state aid has been
disbursed to assist Massachusetts residents recover from natural disasters. In order to be
eligible for federal aid, each town is required to have a Hazard Mitigation Plan filed with
MEMA/FEMA. As of 2010, all 22 Communities have filed and received approval for
their plan.

De-Energized Restoration/Debris Management

Following the ice storm of 2008, most of what was heard was the lack of response of the
utilities that serve the towns and municipalities in the MRPC region. However, after our
discussion with the Town of Groton’s Electric Light Department General Manager,
Kevin Kelly, and the Director of the Leominster Office of Emergency Management,
Charles Coggins, it was brought to the team’s attention the quick and efficient storm
response that occurred in the Town of Groton and the City of Leominster using De-
Energized Restoration. This approach, although not new, was used to efficiently restore
both the Town of Groton and of the City of Leominster. The use of De-Engergized
Restoration is to selectively de-energize a section of a town or city and allow removal
crews to remove all debris from the roads (including tree limbs, trees, ice and snow)
under the guidance of the local utility.

This approach requires the coordination of all local town offices and resources but pays
dividends with regards to reestablishing commerce, safe travel, and faster restoration.
Groton Electric Light Department collaborated with the Town’s Water and Sewer, and


                                                                                        73
Department of Public Works (DPW) workers, which allowed fast and safe removal of the
debris blocking the roadways thus allowing GELD linemen quick access to repair
damaged overhead lines.

The City of Leominster contracted outside debris removal companies to assist National
Grid with the clearing of public roadways in a similar manner, which again resulted in a
safe expedient recovery of the City’s electrical service. As reported by the City of
Leominster’s Office of Emergency Management, the debris removal companies
coordinated with National Grid line supervisors and developed a strategic plan to aid
National Grid by clearing the public road ways. Furthermore, the City of Leominster
applied for and received state aid to compensate for the out of pocket expenses, such as
the contracting of outside debris removal services.

Debris Management is a fundamental aspect to disaster restoration, and recognized by
FEMA as a reimbursable expense when performed on public property. FEMA has
published guidelines, FEMA 325 - PA Debris Management Guide, which describes the
proper procedures for using the aid.

          The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) encourages State and
          local governments, tribal authorities, and private non-profit organizations to take
          a proactive approach to coordinating and managing debris removal operations as
          part of their overall emergency management plan. Communities with a debris
          management plan are better prepared to restore public services and ensure the
          public health and safety in the aftermath of a disaster, and they are better
          positioned to receive the full level of assistance available to them from FEMA and
          other participating entities.

          The core components of a comprehensive debris management plan incorporate
          best practices in debris removal, reflect FEMA eligibility criteria, and are
          tailored to the specific needs and unique circumstances of each applicant. FEMA
          developed this guide to provide applicants with a programmatic and operational
          framework for structuring their own debris management plan or ensuring that
          their existing plan is consistent with FEMA’s eligibility criteria. 3

Disaster events such as the December 2008 Ice Storm, are the perfect application for
using debris management services as demonstrated by both the Town of Groton and the
City of Leominster. Regardless, of whom the electric distribution company is, either a
local municipal or Investor Owned Utility (IOU), the town can take a proactive approach
to mitigate the crimpling affects of disasters. With the assistance of state and federal aid,
the out of pocket expenses on the town can be alleviated resting assure that the quick
reestablishment of the local economies is worth the initial investment. A directory of
FEMA approved debris removal contractors is available at:

           https://asd.fema.gov/inter/drcr/home.htm


3
    http://www.fema.gov/government/grant/pa/demagde.shtm


                                                                                          74
Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities

As recognized by the MRPC, electric customers should have the ability and know how to
report reliability deficiencies, such as perpetual outages or damaged electric equipment
which may be harmful to the public. It has been recognized by the Massachusetts
Department of Public Utilities Consumer Division that such a need exists, and the
following procedure has been implemented for addressing these deficiencies. This
process can be found by going to the homepage for Energy and Environmental Affairs at
Mass.gov and then follow the path listed below.

Home Page for Energy and Environmental Affairs:
< http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eoeeahomepage&L=1&L0=Home&sid=Eoeea >

Path to Consumer Complaint Process from Home Page:
             > Energy, Utilities & Clean Technologies
             > Electric Power
             > Customer Rights and Information
             > Consumer Assistance
             > Consumer Complaint




                                                                                     75
7. RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS

 Recommendations for On-Site Generation

 Based on conversations with Emergency Management Directors, we recommend as a
 minimum the following infrastructure in all Montachusett communities to receive some
 form of on-site generation or provisions for connection to a portable generator.

          1. Primary & Secondary Shelters
          2. Public Safety Infrastructure:
                a. Fire Department
                b. Police Department
                c. Radio Repeater Sites
                d. Communication Cell Towers
                e. Emergency Operations Center
          3. Department of Public Works
                a. Light Departments
                b. Water & Sewer Pumping/Lifting Stations
                c. Water and Sewer Departments
                d. Highway Department
                e. Municipal Fuel Facilities
          4. Critical Care Facilities
                a. Hospitals
                b. Nursing Homes
                c. Assisted Living Facilities
          5. Public Health & Services
                a. Bus Transportation (Cities only)
                b. Gas Stations (At least one per a town or two per a city)
                c. Food Supplies
                d. Propane & Oil companies (Optional)

Recommended Next Steps

  Montachusett Region Communities should work with MRPC to maintain their
   respective Hazard Mitigation Plans. All Hazard Mitigation Plans were completed
   by the MRPC in 2008 and approved by MA Emergency Management Agency
   (MEMA) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 2009/2010.
   MRPC just recently applied to MEMA for grant funds to update the region’s Hazard
   Mitigation Plans beginning as early as Fall 2011. Award announcements are
   anticipated in Summer 2011.




                                                                                  76
 Communities within the Montachusett Region should review and communicate
  their risks and evaluate the need to improve those areas with high risk based
  upon CEG Input provided in this report. As with any change being implemented,
  the first step is to communicate why those changes are in fact needed. Although the
  reason for the change could easily be seen based upon the ice storm of 2008, the
  findings represented within this report will help the residents of the Montachusett
  Region better understand why the storm response of 2008 was impaired.

 Update and Populate GIS map with critical assets. One of the common themes
  heard as the project team was gathering data was the lack of information shared
  between the communities. The team sees a real-time GIS and resource map being a
  great asset in communicating with the various communities within the Montachusett
  region. The map would help provide the location and status of any given emergency
  resource in real time. Therefore if the whole region is not impacted by an event, the
  areas that are impacted could locate and utilize those resources immediately. This
  should be incorporated into any update of regions hazard mitigation plans.

 Local Emergency Management Directors should work to Create Lifeline lists for
  residents requiring emergency power. This lifeline list would be a comprehensive
  list of residents requiring the need for electricity for life support or health safety. For
  instance, if a resident is on a ventilator, their address would be listed as a critical
  resident to receive emergency power or to be transported to a shelter that has power
  available.

 Create database of emergency generators for public use along with their location
  and maintenance schedule. During a power outage, not all facilities that should
  have an emergency generator to operate actually have one. Therefore it would be
  useful to be able to see if an emergency power source is available in another
  community that either was not affected with the power outage, or is not in dire need
  of one. This should be incorporated into any updates of region’s hazard mitigation
  plans.

 Local Emergency Management Directors should create communications protocol
  for all individual communities to provide needed information to all residents
  during emergency situations. Another critical component of successful emergency
  management is the ability to communicate to the residents within the community.
  This recommendation was another common theme amongst those spoken to during
  the data collection period. This could be implemented using a reverse 9-1-1 protocol
  or other that would allow the local police, fire or town administrative staff to issue a
  public service message to the residents about where to find water, shelter or other
  critical life safety components.

 Chief Elected Officials (Mayors, Boards of Selectmen) should work to Establish a
  local MEMA emergency management director (if not done so already) in each
  town to ensure proper resource allocation during disaster/emergency situations.
  It is recommended not only to have a local emergency management director, but also


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 The region’s Emergency Management Directors, Department of Public Works, Fire
  Chiefs, and utility companies should examine the use of de-energized restoration
  for future storm related emergencies by coordinating efforts with local utility
  and local town offices (DPW, W&S etc). De-Energized restoration, as outlined
  earlier in this report, would provide a quicker and more efficient response to a
  catastrophic weather event in addition to restoring the power to a particular
  community. However, the coordination of all the local town governments and offices
  would be needed.

 MRPC and member communities should seek funding opportunities to
  implement a roll up generator “Feasibility Report” to investigate the installation
  of generator plugs at various critical buildings in each town. Such a report could
  provide costs and list grant funding options for the installation of “plugs” that could
  be used at the various designated shelters throughout the region. Most buildings that
  do have emergency generators are only large enough to supply electricity to “life
  safety” functions. In other words, only partial illumination of exit pathways and
  elevators are typically placed on the emergency generator sources.

 Prioritize and rank the needs for emergency back-up power systems within the
  region. It should be determined which critical assets are of the highest priority and
  see which communities lack generators in these certain categories using the data
  supplied by the Emergency Back-Up Power Sources Survey. MRPC should work
  with the Energy Advisory Committee to accomplish this task. This should be
  incorporated into any future updates of the regions Hazard Mitigation Plans and
  distributed to the regions Emergency Management Directors.

 Apply for funding for needed generators from the Central Massachusetts
  Homeland Security Council. As previously indicated in the bullet above, after the
  generator needs for the region are ranked and prioritize, funding can be sought. The
  generators with the highest priority should help the region as a whole by keeping the
  critical assets functioning and thus maintaining the regional economy. Communities
  and regional entities can apply for funding from the Central Regional Homeland
  Security Council on a rolling basis for generators. The application forms for the grant
  funds can be found on the Council's documents page:
  http://www.cmrpc.org/document_display.aspx?page_id=34&cat_id=49&cat_type=C
  AT


 MRPC should and will disseminate Emergency Back-Up Power Sources Survey
  information gathered about critical assets to local emergency management
  directors. This information will supply the emergency management director with



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    knowledge about emergency back-up power systems within their community, what
    type of fuel the generators use and how well they are maintained.

 The Commonwealth of Massachusetts should be encouraged by applicable
  entities throughout the region, to develop programs to help supplement the cost
  of emergency back-up power systems, especially for gas stations. The fuel
  category of critical assets is one of the largest gaps in emergency back-up power
  systems in the region. Cost was the most common reason given for not having a
  generator.

 Each community, through the appropriate municipal department, should work
  to distribute information to its critical assets about the proper way to correctly
  test generators. How to correctly test and maintain a generator has been discussed at
  EAC meetings and workshops. To get all critical assets in the region to adhere to
  proper testing and maintenance is essential. Information on testing and maintenance
  can be found at http://www.facilitiesnet.com/powercommunication/article/Backup-
  Generators-UPS-Systems-Provide-Power-in-an-Outage—11858

 Among others entities the regions Emergency Management Directors, Chambers
  of Commerce, and the MRPC should encourage major employers in the region
  to acquire emergency back-up power systems or make provisions to rent
  generators. Some of the major employers do not have emergency back-up power
  systems and in any future disasters would be forced to close leaving people without
  work. For a vital regional economy, businesses must remain open and citizens need
  steady employment.

 Consider hosting or owning a clean energy generating system in your
  community where resources and environmental conditions allow. Factors to
  consider include the availability of close biomass resources and water power,
  adequate wind, and access to the sun, and proximity to transmission lines. Having a
  renewable energy source on site might provide power when the local utility has a
  power outage.

 Local communities should apply for Massachusetts Clean Energy Center's
  (MassCEC) Community-Scale Wind Initiative Grants or Solar II Rebate
  Program to obtain renewable energy generators. Although funds are not currently
  available, communities should periodically check the following websites for future
  availability of funds. See http://www.masscec.com/index.cfm/pid/11159/cdid/11243
  or http://www.masscec.com/index.cfm/pid/11159/cdid/11241
   , respectively.

    Local Communities may want to consider including a requirement in their
     subdivision rules and regulations that all utilities within the subdivision shall
     be placed underground. Lunenburg, Harvard and Lancaster are examples of the
     communities in our region that currently implement this requirement.



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   Towns with Community Preservation Act Funds could investigate the possibility
    of utilizing some of those funds for emergency generators towards housing related
    projects.




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8.   APPENDICES




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