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Inside-English Grammar for KEC's Courses

VIEWS: 21 PAGES: 114

									                                      Contents


Preface                                                                             vii

Learning to use the dictionary for vocabulary and for grammar                        1
   Using dictionaries for definitions                                                1
   Using dictionaries for noun grammar                                               4
   Using dictionaries for verb grammar                                               9

Parts-of-speech -- basic definitions of nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs       13
   What is a noun?                                                                  13
   What is an adjective?                                                            13
   What is a verb?                                                                  13
   What is an adverb?                                                               13
   Practice with parts-of-speech:                                                   14

Subjects and Main Verbs                                                             15
   What is the subject of a sentence?                                               15
   Practice: Identification of Subjects and Main Verbs - OS                         17
   Compound Sentences - OS                                                          18
   More Practice: Identification of Subjects and Main Verbs - OS                    19

Verbs                                                                               21
   Review of Verbs: Present and Past                                                21
   Review of present and past BE verbs (is, are, was, were)                         22
   Practice Writing Be Verbs: Present and Past                                      22
   Review of Verbs: Positive and Negative Present and Past                          23
   Practice Writing Verbs: Present and Past                                         24
   Review of Basic English Verb Forms (Past, Progressive, Present) in Affirmative
       Sentences, Negative Sentences, and Questions                                 26
   Full Sentence Answers to Questions with Present and Past Verb Forms              28
   Grammar in context (FD) -- Different meanings for the word had                   31

Answering Questions                                                                 33
   Yes/No vs. Information Questions                                                 34
   Yes/No Questions                                                                 35
    IS, ARE, WAS, and WERE:                                                         35
    DOES, DO, DID:                                                                  35
   Information Questions                                                            35
    WHO and WHAT:                                                                   35
    WHERE and WHEN:                                                                 36
    WHY:                                                                            37
    WHAT ... DO:                                                                    37



                                          iii
Answering More Question Forms                                               39
   Information Questions                                                    39
    WHOSE                                                                   39
    WHICH                                                                   40
    WHAT KIND(S) OF ... :                                                   40
    WHAT HAPPENED TO SOMETHING/SOMEONE ...:                                 41
    HOW ... : (quantity)                                                    42
    HOW: (adverb)                                                           42

Direct Objects and Other Verb Complements                                   45
   What comes after the main verb in a simple sentence?                     45
   A Simple Test for Transitive Verbs                                       46
   Transitive Verb Practice Paragraph - OS                                  48
   Practice: Direct Objects - P                                             49
   More review of direct objects in the sentences of your paragraphs - OS   50
   Transitive Verb Practice – OS                                            51
   More Practice: Direct Objects - P                                        52

Pro-forms                                                                   53
   Understanding Pronouns and Possessives in English                        53
    Pronouns:                                                               53
    Possessives                                                             55
   Understanding Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns in English           56

Independent Clauses                                                         57
   What are independent clauses?                                            57
   Practice: Identifying Independent Clauses                                58

Conjunctions                                                                59
  Connecting Words (conjunctions)                                           59
  Complex sentences                                                         60

Infinitives                                                                 61
    Study and Practice 1- OS                                                61
    Study and Practice 1- P                                                 63
    Study and Practice 2                                                    65
    Study and Practice 3                                                    67

Gerunds                                                                     69
   STUDY and PRACTICE #1 - NCW                                              69
   STUDY and PRACTICE #2 - NCW                                              71
   STUDY and PRACTICE #3 - NCW                                              73




                                           iv
That Noun Clauses                                                                 75
   Study and Practice 1 - OS                                                      75
   Study and Practice 1 - P                                                       77
   Study and Practice 2                                                           79
   Infinitives and THAT Noun Clauses After Linking Verbs                          81
   List of Verbs and Their Infinitive, Gerund, and THAT noun clause Complements   83

Adverb Phrases and Clauses                                                        85
  Understanding WHEN, WHILE and DURING                                            85
  Understanding BEFORE and AFTER                                                  86
   Practice with BEFORE and AFTER                                                 87

Adverb Clauses - Dependent Clauses                                                 89
  Introduction --- What are Adverb clauses?                                        89
  Adverb Clauses of Time                                                           90
   Practice 1: Prepositions and Subordinate Conjunctions                           90
   Practice 2: Adverb Clauses of Time - RW                                         91
  Adverb Clauses of Reason                                                         92
   Practice 1: Prepositions and Subordinate Conjunctions                           93
   Practice 2: Subordinate Conjunctions in Clauses of Reason - RW                  94
   Practice 3: Subordinate Conjunctions in Clauses of Reason                       95
  Adverb Clauses of Condition                                                      96
   Practice 1: If and Unless Adverb Clauses - RW                                   97
   Practice 2: If and Unless Adverb Clauses - RW                                   98
  Adverb Clauses of Opposition                                                     99
   Practice 1: Although (Even though) Adverb Clauses - RW                         100

Passive Verbs and Adjectives                                                      103
   Passive Verb / Adjectives - FD                                                 103
   Grammar in context (Passive Verb Sentences) - FD                               104
   More Grammar in Context: Passive verbs - FD                                    105
   Practice Recognizing and Changing From Active to Passive Verbs                 106

Grammar of adjective clauses - Introduction                                       107




                                         v
vi
                                       Preface

In this book, the student of English language will find materials to foster growth and
independent learning of the grammar items that are included in some of my courses.

These materials are designed to be used together with four texts, four feature films, and
course web sites at people.rit.edu/kecncp. Some of the grammar materials in this text are
not context specific; however, the grammar materials used with the text about Frederick
Douglass, and those used with the films are. In the courses, the films are shown in either
5 or 10 installments with specific vocabulary and writing assignments. The grammar
assignments based on these films are in this booklet. For each installment, there should be
sufficient time allotted to develop the grammar skills included for each film segment as
well as the vocabulary and writing assignments.

The grammar materials in this booklet generally consist of explanatory information
followed by reinforcing activities that can be done in small groups or individually. Most
of the materials have examples that draw on the content of the course materials. In the
class notes that accompany the courses in which this text is used, there are self-checking
opportunities so students can monitor their own learning and progress. The self-checking
resources are found on the course web sites.

       The materials in this booklet are arranged by grammar topics and are not in the
       order necessarily suggested for presentation in the courses. Materials specific to
       the text Independent Reading and Study Guide for Davidson’s Frederick
       Douglass Fights for Freedom by Kathleen Eilers-crandall are labeled FD. The
       materials that accompany the films are also labeled -- October Sky (OS), Pollock
       (P), Never Cry Wolf (NCW), and Rosewood (RW).

Students and their teachers should modify and supplement these materials as needed, and
they should have fun and interesting learning experiences with the activities.


KEC
First edition - August 2006
Second edition - August 2008
Third edition – August 2011




                                            vii
viii
Learning to use the dictionary for vocabulary and
                  for grammar

      Using dictionaries for definitions
       Activity 1a
       Activity 1b
      Using dictionaries for noun grammar
       Activity 2a (Nouns -- Single and Plural)
       Activity 2b (Be Verb Forms)
       Activity 2c (Count and Uncount Nouns)
       Activity 2d (More about Single and Plural Nouns)
       Activity 2e (More about Count and Uncount Nouns)
       Activity 2f (Rules for n[C] and n[U])
      Using dictionaries for verb grammar
       Learn about transitive, intransitive and linking verbs
       Activity 3a (Verbs T, I, and L)
       Activity 3b (Analyzing sentences with T, I, and L verbs)



Using dictionaries for definitions
Information in the Longman Dictionary of American English

The Longman Dictionary contains:

      definitions
      example sentences
      parts-of-speech
      grammar codes

You will learn to identify and use this information in the Longman Dictionary.




                                           1
Dictionary Activity 1a

Look at these entries from the Online Longman Dictionary for the word learn.




   1. What is the part of speech for learn? _________________
   2. How many meanings do you see here for learn? ________________
   3. How many example sentences do you see for the first meaning?
      _________________
      What is one of the example sentences?
      ____________________________________________________
   4. How many example sentences do you see for the second meaning?
      _________________
      What is one of the example sentences?
      ____________________________________________________


                                          2
   5. Is there an example sentence for the third meaning? ________________
      What is it? ____________________________________________________
   6. Do you see [transitive] and [intransitive]? ________________
      These are grammar codes. What do they mean?
      ____________________________________________________
      ____________________________________________________
   7. Do you see the bold words above the example sentences? ________________
      This information will help you use the word in your own writing. What are some
      words that often go together with learn? __________________,
      ___________________, ___________________


Dictionary Activity 1b

Now, look at the word, surface, below. This is from the book, Longman Dictionary of
American English.


surface1 /'serfus/ n[C] 1 the outside or top layer of something: a cleaner for all
your kitchen surfaces | the Earth’s surface | leaves floating on the surface of the
lake 2 the surface the qualities that someone or something seems to have until
you learn more about him, her, or it: He seems quiet on the surface, but he
really likes to talk. | Under the surface, there were problems at the bank.
surface2 v 1 [I] to rise to the surface of water: Whales were surfacing near our
boat. 2 [I] to become known about or easy to notice: Old arguments are starting
to surface. 3 [T] to put a surface on the road


   1. What parts of speech can surface be? ________ and ________
   2. How many meanings does surface have? _______
   3. Do you see example sentences for the noun surface? _______
      Can you find some partial (incomplete) example sentences? _______
      What is one? __________________________________________
   4. Do you see example sentences for the verb surface? _______
      Are these complete or partial sentences? ____________________
   5. Do you see [C]? ________________
      It is a noun grammar code. What does [C] mean? (Use the online Longman)
      ____________________________________________________



You will find this kind of information in the Longman Dictionary for your vocabulary
words in this course.


Complete and study Dictionary Activity 1(a and b) before the next class meeting.




                                             3
Using dictionaries for noun grammar

Dictionary Activity 2a

      Use the Longman Dictionary to get information about nouns.
       Look up these words. Are they singular or plural? Do they have both a single and
       a plural form?




               Nouns                  Single                 Plural
               people                 --                     people
               police
               news
               pants
               clothes
               cactus
               south
               deer




Dictionary Activity 2b

You will need to use the above information about single and plural nouns to select the
correct verb. First we will review the be verbs of English.


       Review of present be verbs:
       I am                                     We are
       You are                                  You are
       He (a male) is                           They (people) are
       She (a female) is                        They (things) are
       It (a thing) is




       Review of past be verbs:
       I was                                    We were
       You were                                 You were
       He (a male) was                          They (people) were
       She (a female) was                       They (things) were
       It (a thing) was




                                            4
Now, select the correct present be verbs for these sentences. Use the information
above to help you.

   1. People are in the theater.
   2. Police ______ asking him about the car.
   3. The news ______ not good today.
   4. His pants ______ new. He bought them yesterday.
   5. John's clothes ______ not new.
   6. The saguaro cactus ______ a large plant that grows only in the Sonoran
      desert.
   7. The south ______ warmer than the north.


Now, select the correct past be verbs for these sentences.

   1. People were in the theater.
   2. Police ______ asking him about the car.
   3. The news ______ not good today.
   4. His pants ______ new. He bought them yesterday.
   5. John's clothes ______ not new.
   6. The saguaro cactus ______ a large plant that grows only in the Sonoran
      desert.
   7. The south ______ warmer than the north.




                                     5
Dictionary Activity 2c

      English nouns can be countable (C) or uncountable (U).
       Use your Longman Dictionary to tell if these nouns are Countable or
       Uncountable. The Longman Dictionary shows [U] for Uncount nouns, [C,U] for
       nouns that are both Count and Uncount, and nothing for Count nouns.

               Nouns                            C/U
               idea                             C
               dollar
               money
               rice
               hair
               skin
               sandwich


       In the sentences below, add a in front of Countable nouns, but add nothing in
       front of Uncountable nouns.

          1.   Mary has _____ good idea.
          2.   Do you have _____ dollar?
          3.   People work to earn _____ money.
          4.   Did you ever throw _____ rice at a wedding?
          5.   She has _____ very clean hair.
          6.   She has _____ tan skin.
          7.   Would you like _____ sandwich?

Dictionary Activity 2d

      Use the Longman Dictionary to get information about nouns.
       Look up these words. Are they singular or plural? Do they have both a single and
       a plural form?

               Nouns                        Single             Plural
               people                       --                 people
               furniture
               chair
               vegetable
               news
               knowledge
               west
               caribou
               mouse
               data



                                           6
       Use the above information about single and plural nouns to select the correct be
       verb of English.

       Present be verbs of English: is -- are
       Past be verbs of English: was -- were

       Select the correct present be verbs for these sentences.

          1. People are in the theater.
          2. My furniture ______ very old.
          3. The vegetables ______ not fresh.
          4. Which vegetable ______ your favorite?
          5. The news ______ on at 6 PM on channel 10.
          6. The west ______ where the sun sets.
          7. A caribou ______ a large animal and it is sometimes called "reindeer."
          8. Some caribou ______ endangered species.
          9. Mice _____ not an endangered species.
          10. Make sure your data ______ correct.




Dictionary Activity 2e

      English nouns can be countable (C) or uncountable (U).
       Use your Longman Dictionary to tell if these nouns are Countable or Uncountable




              Nouns                              C/U
              person                             C
              furniture
              table
              cotton
              apartment
              money
              shoe
              heat




                                            7
Dictionary Activity 2f


Here are some rules for Countable and Uncountable nouns of English.



Single Countable         Plural Countable          Uncountable
Nouns                    Nouns                     Nouns
a + n(C)                 -- + n(C)+s               -- + n(U)
                         a few + n(C)+s            a little + n(U)
                         some + n(C)+s             some + n(U)
                         many + n(C)+s             much + n(U)

Use the rules in the above table to figure out what word goes in the blanks. HINT: Some
of these have more than one answer (and meaning).

   1.   Mary is _____ good person.
   2.   Do you have _____ furniture in your apartment?
   3.   John has _____ tables in his office.
   4.   The Wallace Company owns _____ apartments.
   5.   I plan to lease _____ small apartment next year.
   6.   Do you need _____ money for college tuition?
   7.   Mary lost _____ shoe.




                                            8
Using dictionaries for verb grammar

English has three kinds of verbs: (From page 468, Longman Dictionary of American
English)



   1. Transitive verbs - v[T] These verbs must have an object after them.
      Examples:

      Alicia thanked Mr. Quintero.                 Darren was fixing his bike.




   2. Intransitive verbs - v[I] These verbs do not have an object after them.
      Examples:

      Kate and Rob were arguing.           The ball bounced.




                                           9
3. Linking verbs - v [linking verb] These verbs connect a noun with another noun,
   adjective, or adverb. The word after the verb tells us about the subject of the
   sentence.
   Examples:

    In 1960, Kennedy became president. The students felt guilty.

    - president tells about Kennedy          - guilty tells about students




Dictionary Activity 3a

   Use the Longman Dictionary to get information about these verbs. Are they
    transitive [T], intransitive [I], or linking verbs? NOTE: Some verbs are both
    transitive and intransitive.




           Verbs                (T), (I), (linking)

           thank                (T)
           argue                (I)
           feel                 (linking)
           contact
           contain
           contend
           open
           operate
           oppose
           become




                                        10
    Dictionary Activity 3b

   Read these sentences. Are the verbs in them transitive [T], intransitive
    [I], or linking verbs?




    Sentences                                                  (T), (I), (linking)

    1. John thanked the tutor.                                 1. T
       Subj. Verb       Obj.
    2. My parents argue.                                       2. I
       Subj.          Verb
    3. I don't feel good.                                      3. linking
      S Verb Adj.
    4. You should contact your advisor.
       Subj.       Verb        Obj.
    5. The dictionary contains many definitions.
       Subj.              Verb       Obj.
    6. Several teams are contending for the title.
         Subj.            Verb            Adv. Phr.
    7. The door won't open.
         Subj.       Verb
    8. Mr. Blake can operate a lathe.
        Subj.        Verb       Obj.
    9. Mr. Bush opposed Mr. Gore in the election.
        Subj.        Verb        Obj.
    10. Who will become president?
          Subj. Verb          Noun




                                         11
Notes
Use this space to write down things you want to remember about this section.




                                          12
     Parts-of-speech -- basic definitions of nouns,
            adjectives, verbs, and adverbs

What is a noun?
Nouns are names.

   1. Some nouns are names for things. Example: We have yellow chairs in this room.
      (Chairs and room are things.)
   2. Some nouns are names for people or other living creatures. Example: The new
      student has a large fish. (Student and fish are living creatures.)
   3. Some nouns are names for ideas or concepts. Example: Love and hatred are
      strong emotions. (Love, hatred and emotions are concepts or ideas.)

What is an adjective?
Adjectives tell about (describe) nouns.

   1. Adjectives can describe things. Example: We have yellow chairs in this room.
      (Yellow describes chairs.)
   2. Adjectives can describe people or other living creatures. Example: The new
      student has a large fish. (New describes student; large describes fish.)
   3. Adjectives can describe ideas or concepts. Example: Love and hatred are strong
      emotions. (strong describes emotions.)

What is a verb?
Verbs express action or states (experiences, conditions).

   1. Some verbs are actions. Example: Helen ran to class fast. (Ran is an action. Ran
      tells what Helen did.)
   2. Some verbs are states. Example: Bob really enjoys college. (Enjoys is a
      condition. Enjoys tells us about Bob's feelings.)

What is an adverb?
Adverbs tell about (describe) verbs.

   1. Adverbs can describe actions. Example: Helen ran to class fast. (Fast tells how
      Helen ran.)
   2. Adverbs also describe states. Example: Bob really enjoys college. (Really tells
      how much Bob enjoys college.)



                                            13
Practice with parts-of-speech:
Answer each question. Then check your work.

   1. Find six nouns:

     My new roommate grew up in a large city. She came to college on an airplane. She
likes her classes. We are already becoming good friends.

   2. Find four verbs:

     My new roommate grew up in a large city. She came to college on an airplane. She
likes her classes. We are already becoming good friends.

   3. Find three adjectives:

     My new roommate grew up in a large city. She came to college on an airplane. She
likes her classes. We are already becoming good friends.

   4. Find one adverb:

     My new roommate grew up in a large city. She came to college on an airplane. She
likes her classes. We are already becoming good friends.




                                          14
                        Subjects and Main Verbs
What is the subject of a sentence?
   1. The subject is usually near the beginning of a sentence.
   2. The subject is the topic of sentence.
   3. It tells WHO or WHAT.
   4. It is a noun/pronoun phrase
           o A phrase is one or more words (Examples - the famous actor, some new
               students.)
           o A noun phrase includes all determiners (Examples - the, some)
               and adjectives (Examples - famous, new) with the noun.
           o A noun is a person, thing, or idea. (Examples - actor, students)
   5. Examples [subjects are underlined]
             Homer and his brother play football. WHO
             The coal mine is dangerous. WHAT

   6.   Practice: First, find the subject in each sentence. Then indicate if the subject tells
        WHO or WHAT.

   1. Quentin likes science.
      Subject = __________________ WHO or WHAT
   2. Pollock drinks too much alcohol.
      Subject = __________________ WHO or WHAT
   3. Then, he falls on the stairs.
      Subject = __________________ WHO or WHAT
   4. Pollock's paintings are at an art gallery.
      Subject = __________________ WHO or WHAT
   5. Later, Lee Krasner comes to Pollock's apartment.
      Subject = __________________ WHO or WHAT
   6. His picture is on the cover of LIFE magazine.
      Subject = __________________ WHO or WHAT
   7. Many important people visit the art gallery.
      Subject = __________________ WHO or WHAT



What is the main verb of a sentence?

       usually right after the subject
       express action, emotions, ideas -- RUN, PLAY, WORK, LIKE, THINK, HOPE
        OR
        connect the subject with the rest of the sentence -- BE (is, are, was, were)
       Examples [verbs are underlined]
             Homer and his brother are playing football. PRESENT
             The coal mine is dangerous.              PRESENT


                                              15
   Review present and past verbs first.

   Practice: Find the verb in each sentence. Then tell if it is PRESENT or PAST.
       1. Quentin likes science.
            Verb = __________________ PRESENT or PAST
       2. Pollock drank too much alcohol.
            Verb = __________________ PRESENT or PAST
       3. Then, he fell on the stairs.
            Verb = __________________ PRESENT or PAST
       4. Pollock's paintings are at an art gallery.
            Verb = __________________ PRESENT or PAST
       5. Later, Lee Krasner came to Pollock's apartment.
            Verb = __________________ PRESENT or PAST
       6. His picture is on the cover of LIFE magazine.
            Verb = __________________ PRESENT or PAST
       7. Many important people were visiting the art gallery.
            Verb = __________________ PRESENT or PAST




                                           16
Practice: Identification of Subjects and Main Verbs - OS

                               (October Sky, parts 3 & 4)

Directions: Read this paragraph. Underline the subjects and main verbs in each
sentence.


              Homer's father had some strong feelings about the mine. He was

       strict about following rules. One time, Mr. Bykovski broke a rule; he was

       helping Homer weld a rocket. Homer’s father was angry with Homer, and

       he transferred Mr. Bykovski from the machine shop to the mine. Homer’s

       father and other miners were very proud of the coalmine. Coal was

       important to the United States. Coal provided power for the country, and

       many businesses depended on the mine. Mr. Hickam wanted Homer to

       become a coal miner.




                                           17
Compound Sentences - OS

These sentences have two subjects and two main verbs:


These sentences use and, but, or.

Subject + Verb + ...(,) and (Subject) + Verb + ....

  Example: Homer's mother went outside, and she was scared. OR
           Homer's mother went outside and was scared. *

  Example: Quentin helped him, and Homer built his second rocket.



Subject + Verb + ..., but Subject + Verb + ....


  Example: The first rocket wasn't successful, but Homer didn't quit.



Subject + Verb + ..., or Subject + Verb + ....

  Example: They needed to learn how to weld, or they needed to get help from
someone.




*If the subject is the same in both clauses, you do not need to repeat it. Also, do not use a
comma.




                                             18
More Practice: Identification of Subjects and Main Verbs - OS

                               (October Sky, parts 3 & 4)

Directions: Read this paragraph. Underline the subjects and main verbs in each
sentence. Then change the main verbs to present form.


                              has
              Homer's father had some strong feelings about the mine. He was

       strict about following rules. One time, Mr. Bykovski broke a rule; he was

       helping Homer weld a rocket. Homer’s father was angry with Homer, and

       he transferred Mr. Bykovski from the machine shop to the mine. Homer’s

       father and other miners were very proud of the coalmine. Coal was

       important to the United States. Coal provided power for the country, and

       many businesses depended on the mine. Mr. Hickam wanted Homer to

       become a coal miner.




                                           19
Notes
Use this space to write down things you want to remember about this section.




                                          20
                                     Verbs
Review of Verbs: Present and Past

Present: (happens often)
      She works … (OR) Dr. Ellen Smith works …
      He works … (OR) Steven works …
      It works … (OR) The rocket works …
      They work … (OR) Steven and Ray work …
      You work …
      We work …
      I work …

Present Continuous: (is happening right now)
      She is working …
      He is working …
      It is working …
      They are working …
      You are working …
      We are working …
      I am working …

Past: (happened in the past)
       She worked ... (OR) Dr. Wilson worked …
       He worked... (OR) Steven worked...
       It worked... (OR) The rocket worked...
       They worked ... (OR) Steven and Ray worked...
       You worked...
       We worked...
       I worked ...

Past continuous: (was happening in the past)
       She was working...
       He was working...
       It was working...
       They were working...
       You were working...
       We were working...
       I was working...




                                         21
Review of present and past BE verbs (is, are, was, were)

Present:
      She is … (OR) Dr. Ellen Smith is …
      He is … (OR) Steven is …
      It is … (OR) The rocket is …
      They are … (OR) Steven and Ray are …
      You are …
      We are …
      I am …

Past:
         She was ... (OR) Dr. Wilson was …
         He was... (OR) Steven was...
         It was... (OR) The rocket was...
         They were ... (OR) Steven and Ray were...
         You were...
         We were...
         I was ...



Practice Writing Be Verbs: Present and Past
Directions: Write the correct present BE verb (is, are) in each sentence.

1.      My friend __________ from Chicago.
2.      John and Mary Billings __________ my parents.
3.      I __________ a student at RIT.
4.      Jerry and I __________ friends.

Directions: Write the correct past BE verb (was, were) in each sentence

5.      Homer __________ the main character in the film.
6.      I __________ interested in computer graphics.
7.      Last year, some of my teachers __________ new.
8.      My friends and I __________ anxious about the first day of classes.




                                             22
    Review of Verbs: Positive and Negative Present and Past

     POSITIVE VERBS                                      NEGATIVE VERBS
Present: (happens often)                       Present (does not happen often)
She eats … Dr. Smith walks                     She does not eat … Dr. Smith does not walk
He eats … Steve walks                          He does not eat … Steve does not walk
It eats … The robot walks                      It does not eat … The robot does not walk
They eat … Steve and Ray walk                  They do not eat … Steve and Ray do not walk
You eat …                                      You do not eat …
We eat …                                       We do not eat …
I eat …                                        I do not eat …

Present Continuous: (is happening right now)   Present Continuous: (is not happening right now)
She is eating …                                She is not eating …
He is eating …                                 He is not eating …
It is eating …                                 It is not eating …
They are eating …                              They are not eating …
You are eating …                               You are not eating …
We are eating …                                We are not eating …
I am eating …                                  I am not eating …

Past: (happened in the past)                   Past: (did not happen in the past)
She ate ... Dr. Smith walked                   She did not eat … Dr. Smith did not walk
He ate ... Steve walked                        He did not eat … Steve did not walk
It ate ... The robot walked.                   It did not eat … The robot did not walk
They ate … Steve and Ray walked                They did not eat … Steve and Ray did not walk
You ate ...                                    You did not eat …
We ate ...                                     We did not eat …
I ate ...                                      I did not eat …

Past continuous: (was happening in the past)   Past continuous: (was not happening in the past)
She was eating ...                             She was not eating ...
He was eating ...                              He was not eating ...
It was eating ...                              It was not eating ...
They were eating ...                           They were not eating ...
You were eating ...                            You were not eating ...
We were eating ...                             We were not eating ...
I was eating ...                               I was not eating ...




                                               23
Practice Writing Verbs: Present and Past
Present: (happens often)
  Example: Ms. Smith works hard.
Present Continuous: (is happening right now)
  Example: The students are working hard.
Past: (happened in the past)
  Example: My friend worked hard.
Past continuous: (was happening in the past)
  Example: We were working hard.



Directions: Write the correct verb form in each sentence.

1. Present: (happens often) -- Write the correct form of study.

  a. Lester ______________ every day.

  b. My roommate ______________ almost every day.

  c. I often ______________ for my English class.

  d. Bill and Sandy ______________ on Wednesday.

2. Present Continuous: (is happening right now) -- Write the correct form of work.

   a. Lester ______________ now.

  b. My roommate ______________, too.

  c. You ______________ on grammar for your English class.

  d. Bill and Sandy ______________ right now.

3. Past: (happened in the past) -- Write the correct form of write.

   a. Lester ______________ his paragraphs already this morning.

  b. My roommate ______________ her paragraphs last night.

  c. I already ______________ my paragraphs for my English class.

  d. Bill and Sandy ______________ their paragraphs at 2 PM yesterday.




                                            24
4. Past continuous: (was happening in the past) -- Write the correct form of chat.

   a. Lester ______________ with friends at breakfast.

  b. My roommate ______________ with her mom.

  c. You ______________ about the assignment with your teacher.

  d. Bill and Sandy ______________ with each other.




                                            25
Review of Basic English Verb Forms (Past, Progressive, Present) in
Affirmative Sentences, Negative Sentences, and Questions

Past Verbs          These verbs tell us what happened in the past.

Sentences:
Affirmative         You came to NTID in August.                           came
                    He studied for the test.                              studied

Negative            Jacques did not come to NTID in August.               did not come
                    Marg did not study for the test.                      did not study

Questions:
YES/NO              Did you come to NTID?                                 did . . . come
                    Did he study for the test?                            did . . . study

WH (Subject)        Who came to NTID in August?                           came
                    Who studied for the test?                             studied

WH (After Verb)     When did you come to NTID?                            did . . . come
                    What did he study for?                                did . . . study



Progressive Verbs   These verbs tell us what is happening right now, or
                    what was happening for a while in the past.

Sentences:
Affirmative         You are reading this paper.                           are reading
                    Ms. Miller is looking at the newspaper.               is looking
                    John was working at a large factory.                  was working
                    They were watching a movie last night.                were watching

Negative            Mary and Joe aren't reading this paper.               aren't reading
                    Mr. Miller isn't looking at the newspaper.            isn't looking
                    Bill was not working at a large factory.              was not working
                    We were not watching a movie last night.              were not watching

Questions:
YES/NO              Are you reading this paper?                           are . . . reading
                    Is Ms. Miller looking at the newspaper?               is . . . looking
                    Was John working at a large factory?                  was . . . working
                    Were they watching a movie last night?                were . . . watching

WH (Subject)        Who is reading this paper?                            is reading
                    Who was working at a large factory?                   was working

WH (After Verb)     What are you reading?                                 are . . . reading
                    Where was John working?                               was . . . working




                                                 26
Present Verbs     These verbs tell us what often happens.


Sentences:
Affirmative       He/She/It eats every day at 6 pm.         eats
                  I/You/We/They play football on Monday.    play


Negative          Mark does not eat every day at 6 pm.      does not eat
                  We do not play football on Monday.        do not play


Questions:
YES/NO            Does Jane eat every day at 6 pm?          does . . . eat
                  Do they play football on Monday?          do . . . play

WH (Subject)      Who eats every day at 6 pm?               eats
                  Who plays football on Monday?             plays

WH (After Verb)   When does Jane eat?                       does . . . eat
                  What do they play on Monday?              do . . . play




                                           27
Full Sentence Answers to Questions with Present and Past Verb Forms


Past Verbs           Questions                                 Full sentence answers

YES/NO               Did you go to NYC?                        Yes, I went to NYC. (OR)
                                                               No, I did not go to NYC.
                     Did he study for the test?                Yes, he studied for the test. (OR)
                                                               No, he did not study for the test.
WH (Subject)         Who came to NTID in August?               Bill came to NTID in August.
                     Who studied for the test?                 Bill studied for the test.
WH (After Verb)      When did you come to NTID?                I came to NTID in August.
                     What did he study for?                    He studied for the math test.

Present Verbs        Questions

YES/NO               Does Jane eat every day at 6 pm?          Yes, she eats every day at 6 pm.
(OR)
                                                               No, she does not eat every day at 6
pm.
                     Do they play football on Monday?          Yes, they play football on Monday.
(OR)
                                                               No, they do not play football on
Monday.
WH (Subject)         Who eats every day at 6 pm?               Bill eats every day at 6 pm.
                     Who plays football on Monday?             Bill plays football on Monday.
WH (After Verb)      When does Jane eat?                       She eats at 5:30 pm.
                     Why do they meet on Monday nights?        They meet on Monday nights to
                                                               discuss their
                                                                         assignments.
ING Verbs (present and past)

YES/NO               Are you reading this paper?               Yes, I am reading this paper. (OR)
                                                               No, I am not reading this paper.
                     Is Ms. Miller looking at the newspaper?   Yes, she is looking at the
newspaper. (OR)
                                                               No, she is not looking at the
newspaper.
                     Was John working at a large factory?      Yes, he was working at a large
factory. (OR)
                                                               No, he was not working at a large
factory.
                     Were they watching a movie last night?    Yes, they were watching a movie.
(OR)
                                                               No, they were not watching a
move.
WH (Subject)         Who is reading this paper?                Julie is reading this paper.
                     Who was working at a large factory?       Julie was working at a large
factory.
WH (After Verb)      What are you reading?                     I am reading the newspaper.
                     Where was John working?                   He was working in NYC.




                                              28
Review of verbs with can, could, will, would, must, might, may
1. Learn the meanings for these words:

Word         Meaning                     Example sentence
             ability
can / could                              Joan can fix her friend's computer.
             (be able to)
will / would future time                 We will study more words later this week.
can / could permission                   You can see me at 4:30 this afternoon.
may          (have permission to)        You may see me at 4:30 this afternoon.
might                                    Our team might win tonight.
             possibility
may                                      Our team may win tonight.
             obligation
Should                                   People should brush their teeth.
             (ought to)
             necessity
Must                                     He must finish this project today.
             (have to)
             reasonable conclusion
Must                                     My roommate must be 21 years old already.
             probability

2. Learn the grammar for these words:

  A. Use can, could, will, would, must, might, may with a main verb.

      Correct: Mildred may receive a letter today.
      Wrong: Mildred may a letter today.

  B. Do not add -s, -ed, -ing to the main verb.

      Correct: Mildred may receive a letter today.
      Wrong: Mildred may receives a letter today.

  C. Move can, could, will, would, must, might, may before the subject for questions.

      Can Martha understand Spanish?
      Will Mr. Wilson graduate in May?
      When will Mr. Wilson graduate?

  D. For negative verbs, add not after can, could, will, would, must, might, may.

      Martha cannot understand Spanish. OR Martha can't understand Spanish.
      Mr. Wilson will not graduate in May. OR Mr. Wilson won't graduate in May.




                                             29
Practice

Tell if these sentences are correct or incorrect. If they are incorrect, write them correctly.

Examples:    Incorrect    Jack will went to the gym tonight.

                     Jack will go to the gym tonight.

     Correct    Billy might not go to the gym with Jack tonight.

                     ________________________________



1. ___________      The students must start classes on Tuesday this year.

                     ____________________________________________

2. ___________      Should Mr. Jones studied in the library?

                     ____________________________________________

3. ___________ Mr. Jones will not to study in the library.

                     ____________________________________________

4. ___________     I might should visit my advisor before I register for classes this year.

                     ____________________________________________

5. ___________ My friend may apply for a job in Boston this summer.

                     ____________________________________________




                                              30
Grammar in context (FD) -- Different meanings for the word had

Read these sentences:

   1. Frederick Douglass had his own opinion.
   2. Miss Lucretia had a letter in her hand.
   3. Frederick liked the Aulds -- the family that Frederick's owners had sent him to
      serve.
   4. Frederick had watched Miss Sophie read many times.
   5. Baltimore had to be better than the Big House Farm.
   6. Often Master Hugh had to go out on business.

There are three different usages for had.

A. Sentences 1 and 2:
   had means -- owned, possessed; held; got
   had is a simple past verb
   had is the main verb of the sentence
   had is a transitive verb
   Look at the word order -- had + object

B. Sentences 3 and 4:
   had means -- already done; finished in the past
   had is part of a past perfect verb -- had sent, had watched (had is NOT the main verb)
   Look at the word order -- had + perfect verb

C. Sentences 5 and 6:
   had to means -- must
   had is part of a verb expression -- had to be, had to go
   Look at the word order -- had + to + verb

Practice with these sentences:

   1. She thought all people had the right to learn.
      had means:
      A. owned; got      B. already done         C. must
      The word order is:
      A. had + object B. had + perfect verb C. had + to + verb
   2. Frederick had learned all the letters of the alphabet.
      had means:
      A. owned; got      B. already done         C. must
      The word order is:
      A. had + object B. had + perfect verb C. had + to + verb
   3. He had no pencils or pens or paper or books.
      had means:
      A. owned; got      B. already done         C. must



                                            31
   The word order is:
   A. had + object B. had + perfect verb C. had + to + verb
4. He had to be careful.
   had means:
   A. owned; got      B. already done     C. must
   The word order is:
   A. had + object B. had + perfect verb C. had + to + verb
5. Frederick knew that Master Hugh had taught his a much bigger lesson that night.
   had means:
   A. owned; got      B. already done     C. must
   The word order is:
   A. had + object B. had + perfect verb C. had + to + verb




                                      32
                         Answering Questions
Question Forms

There are two kinds of questions in English:

1. Yes/No questions
   These questions start with words like: IS, ARE, WAS, WERE, DOES, DO, DID,
HAS, HAVE, HAD, WILL, CAN, SHOULD, ...
2. Information questions
   These questions start with words like: WHAT, WHO, WHOM, WHERE, WHEN,
HOW.




Contents

1. Yes/No questions:

Is, Are, Was, Were

Does, Do, Did

Has, Have, Had

Will, Can, Should, ...

2. Information questions:

What, Who

Where, When

Why

What ... do




                                           33
Yes/No vs. Information Questions

Question words:


       Yes / No Questions                  Information Questions
       The question clause starts with:    The question clause starts with WH-
                                           words:
             do, does, did
             modal words:                        what
                   o will, would                  when
                   o can, could                   who
                   o should                       why
                   o shall                        where
                   o may                          how
                   o might                        which
                   o must
             have, has, had
             is, are, am, was, were


        Always pay attention to these words when you read and answer questions.

What kind of questions are these?

      (Yes/No or Information) Does a ball obey certain physical laws if you throw it?

      (Yes/No or Information) Would the ball obey these laws if there were no order to
       the universe?

      (Yes/No or Information) Who continues to go along with the hero on the
       journey?

      (Yes/No or Information) Can the hero go to heaven if he has his dog with him?

      (Yes/No or Information) What country governed Ireland in 1892?

      (Yes/No or Information) From which continent did many people come to
       America at the end of the 19th century?

      (Yes/No or Information) Where did immigrants usually enter America 100 years
       ago?




                                          34
Yes/No Questions



IS, ARE, WAS, and WERE:

Answer IS, ARE, WAS, WERE questions with one word -- yes or no.
Examples: Are you in room 3771? yes
            Were you in college last year?



DOES, DO, DID:

Answer DOES, DO, DID questions with one word -- yes or no.
Examples: Do you attend college? yes
          Does your roommate know ASL?
          Did your parents go to college?




Information Questions


WHO and WHAT:

Answer WHO, WHAT questions with a complete noun phrase.

Example:   Who is your roommate?

Possible answers:
     Diana
     Phillip

Example:   Who is absent from this class today?

Possible answers:
     two people
     Milford and Alice

Example:   What is your roommate's name?




                                         35
Possible answers:
     Janet
     Anthony

Example:    What courses are you taking?

Possible answers:
     Nonfiction Reading I, Fundamentals of Algebra, Environmental Studies
     math, science, reading, writing

Example:    What jobs did you have this summer?

Possible answers:
     mowing lawns
     washing clothes
     taking care of children




WHERE and WHEN:

Answer WHERE, WHEN questions with a complete adverb phrase.
Example: Where were you last year?

Possible answers:
     in Jacksonville
     at home
     on vacation
     in high school

Example:     When did you graduate from high school?

Possible answers:
     last year
     three months ago
     two years ago
     in 2009
     in June 2010
     on May 19, 2011




                                           36
WHY:

Answer WHY questions with a complete adverb phrase or a complete adverb clause.

Example: Why did you come to NTID?

Possible answers (to + verb + ...):
     to get a good education
     to meet deaf people
     to study applied computer technology
     to live in a deaf culture

Possible answers (for + noun phrase):
     for a good education
     for my major
     for a good social life

Possible answers (because of + noun phrase):
     because of my major
     because of the social life
     because of the climate [smile]

Possible answers (because + sentence):
     because I wanted to get a good education
     because I like to be with other deaf people
     because I want to communicate easily with other people
     because I want to learn about computers
     because I want to study graphic arts




WHAT ... DO:

Answer WHAT ... DO questions with a verb phrase + ...

Example: What will you do this summer?

Possible answers: (start with a verb to match "do")
     attend school
     work at Wendy's
     visit friends in Europe
     look for a job

Example: What were you doing this summer?



                                            37
Possible answers: (start with a verb to match "doing")
     attending school
     working at Wendy's
     visiting friends in Europe
     looking for a job




                                           38
               Answering More Question Forms



More Information Questions:

Whose (possession answers)
Which (choice answers)
What kind of ... (adjective answers)
What happened to something ... (short sentence answers about something/someone)
How (quantity answers)
How (adverb answers)




Information Questions




WHOSE

Answer WHOSE questions with:

      a possessive noun or a possessive pronoun

Example: Whose books are on the desk?

1. Possible answers:
   the teacher's
   John's
   hers
   mine




                                         39
WHICH

Answer WHICH questions with:

      a noun phrase

Example: Which book do you want -- the math book or the science book?

1. Possible answers:
   the math book
   the science book




WHAT KIND(S) OF ... :

Answer WHAT KIND OF or WHAT TYPE OF questions with:

   1. a noun phrase with an adjective in it
      OR
   2. a noun phrase + an adjective phrase
      OR
   3. an adjective clause



Example:    What kind of student gets good grades?

1. Possible short answers -- a noun phrase with an adjective in it
    a hard-working student
    a serious student
    a well-organized student

2. Possible short answers -- a noun phrase + an adjective phrase
    a student with a challenging major
    a student with good study habits

3. Possible short answers -- an adjective clause
    a student who works hard
    a student who is serious and well organized
    a student who has good study habits




                                            40
Full sentence answers:
1. A hard-working student gets good grades.
2. A student with a challenging major gets good grades.
3. A student who has good study habits gets good grades.



Example:    What kinds of women were willing to change things in the New World?


1. Possible short answers -- a noun phrase with an adjective in it
    brave women
    strong women

2. Possible short answers -- a noun phrase + an adjective phrase
    women with firm goals
    women with understanding husbands

3. Possible short answers -- an adjective clause
    women who were willing to take chances
    women who did not give up easily

Full sentence answers:
1. Brave women were willing to change things in the New World.
2. Women with firm goals were willing to change things in the New World.
3. Women who did not give up easily were willing to change things in the New World.



WHAT HAPPENED TO SOMETHING/SOMEONE ...:

Answer WHAT HAPPENED TO ... questions with a short full sentence to tell what
happened.

Example: What happened to your friend?
Answer: He moved to Arizona.

Example: What happened to the big tree in your yard?
Answer: It got hit by lightning and fell over.




                                           41
HOW ... : (quantity)

Answer HOW MANY, HOW MUCH, HOW LONG, HOW LARGE, HOW OFTEN,
etc. questions with a noun phrase of quantity


Example: How many brothers do you have?
Answer: five

Example: How much homework does she have to do?
Answer: a lot

Example: How much beer can you drink?
Answer: three bottles

Example: How old is your sister?
Answer: 16 months


HOW: (adverb)

Answer HOW + verb questions with an adverb phrase

Example: How does he drive?

Possible Answers: adverb(s)

  very fast          carefully
  slowly             safely
  recklessly

Example: How will you get to NTID next year?

Possible Answers: preposition + noun phrase (NOTE: These are often related to travel.)

  by bus             in my dad’s car
  by car             on my motorcycle
  by airplane




                                          42
Example: How did they write that essay?

Possible Answers: preposition + noun phrase

  on a computer
  with a pen
  by hand

Example: How can we pass this course?

Possible Answers: by + verbal noun (ing) + ...

  by studying everyday
  by completing all assignments
  by attending class regularly

Example: How did you get to Florida?

Possible Answers: by + verbal noun (ing) + ...

  by driving with my friend




                                           43
Notes
Use this space to write down things you want to remember about this section.




                                          44
     Direct Objects and Other Verb Complements
What comes after the main verb in a simple sentence?

1. Direct Object

       - A direct object comes after a transitive verb -- v(T).
       - A direct object is a noun phrase.
       - A direct object answers WHOM or WHAT questions.

2. Adverb phrase

       - An adverb phrase may come after an intransitive verb -- v(I).
       - An adverb phrase may be a prepositional phrase or a simple adverb.
       - An adverb phrase answers WHEN, WHERE, WHY, HOW questions.

3. Period (.)

       - A period (.) may come after an intransitive verb -- v(I).

4. Noun or Adjective

       - A noun or adjective comes after a linking verb -- v(L).
       - The most common linking verbs are: is, are, was, were
       - Linking verbs connect the subject with a noun or adjective.

5. TO Verb phrase

       - A TO verb phrase may come after some verbs.
       - A TO verb phrase is called an "infinitive phrase."
       - A TO verb answers WHAT ... TO DO questions.
       - Verbs like – want, hope, decide, plan – can have TO phrases after them.

6. THAT Noun Clause

       - A THAT noun clause may come after some verbs.
       - A THAT noun clause is called a “THAT complement”
       - A THAT noun clause answers WHAT DID SHE SAY kinds of questions.
       - Verbs like – say, learn, think – can have THAT clauses after them.




                                            45
A Simple Test for Transitive Verbs
Does the phrase right after the main verb tell WHO OR WHAT? If yes, the verb is
transitive.

Example:
A. John thanked the tutor.
  Subj. Verb
John thanked WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW
ANSWER: WHO

In this sentence, the tutor is/isn’t a direct object; thanked (is/isn’t) a transitive verb.

Example:
B. My parents argue every day.
  Subj.       Verb
My parents argue WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW
ANSWER: WHEN

In this sentence, argue (is/isn't) a transitive verb; everyday (is, isn't) a direct object.




1. We can’t sleep in the afternoon.
   S     Verb

We can’t sleep WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN WHY, HOW

In this sentence, sleep (is/isn't) a transitive verb; in the afternoon (is, isn't) a direct object.

2. You should contact your advisor.
   Subj.    Verb

You should contact WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN WHY, HOW

In this sentence, should contact (is, isn't) a transitive verb; your advisor (is, isn't) a direct
object.

3. The dictionary contains many definitions.
   Subj.            Verb

The dictionary contains WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN WHY, HOW

In this sentence, contains (is, isn't) a transitive verb; many definitions (is, isn't) a direct
object.


                                                46
4. The door won't open because the lock is frozen.
   Subj.     Verb


The door won’t open WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN WHY, HOW

In this sentence, won't open (is, isn't) a transitive verb; because the lock is frozen (is, isn't)
a direct object.

5. Mr. Jeffers works in a chemistry lab.
   Subj.       Verb

Mr. Jeffers works WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN WHY, HOW

In this sentence, works (is, isn't) a transitive verb; in a chemistry lab (is, isn't) a direct
object.




                                               47
Transitive Verb Practice Paragraph - OS

Directions: Read this paragraph. The verbs are underlined. Find six transitive verbs and
their objects.



               Homer's father had some strong feelings about the mine. He was

       strict about following rules. One time, Mr. Bykovski broke a rule; he was

       helping Homer weld a rocket. Homer’s father was angry with Homer, and

       he transferred Mr. Bykovski from the machine shop to the mine. Homer’s

       father was very proud of the coal mine. Coal provided power for the

       country, and the country depended on the mine. Mr. Hickam wanted

       Homer to become a coal miner.




Write down the six transitive verbs and their objects:

1. _____________________________             ___________________________________

2. _____________________________             ___________________________________

3. _____________________________             ___________________________________

4. _____________________________             ___________________________________

5. _____________________________             ___________________________________

6. _____________________________             ___________________________________




                                           48
Practice: Direct Objects - P

DIRECTIONS: Underline all main verbs. If the main verb is transitive, there is a direct
object right after the main verb. Underline the direct objects of the transitive verbs. Then
write down the 12 transitive verbs and their direct objects.

                Positive and Negative Events in Jackson Pollock’s Life

   A few positive events occur in Jackson Pollock’s life. First, Peggy Guggenheim helps

him. Peggy Guggenheim sponsors a one-man show for Pollock. Pollock will get $150

every month from Peggy Guggenheim. He can pay her back when he sells his paintings.

She also wants a large mural for her home. She hires Pollock to paint the mural. Second,

Pollock has very good art skills. He demonstrates great creativity in his art; he is painting

in a new style. Pollock enjoys painting, and he feels good about painting. Last, Pollock

finally receives positive feedback about his work. Finally, he is getting a few good

reviews; a few people are saying positive things about his work. Howard, Peggy’s art

collector, feels very enthusiastic about Pollock’s paintings. There are not many positive

things in Jackson Pollock’s life in part 2, but these events are important.

   Negative things also occur in Jackson Pollock’s life. […. etc.]

Write down the 12 transitive verbs and their direct objects:

1. ______________ _________________ 7. ______________ __________________

2. ______________ _________________ 8. ______________ __________________

3. ______________ _________________ 9. ______________ __________________

4. ______________ _________________ 10. ______________ _________________

5. ______________ _________________ 11. ______________ _________________

6. ______________ _________________ 12. ______________ _________________




                                             49
More review of direct objects in the sentences of your paragraphs - OS

All verbs that are v(T) must have direct objects.
Direct objects are noun phrases.
Direct objects tell what or who.

Examples: [Underline the direct objects in these
sentences.]

   1. Homer builds rockets.
   2. Mr. Hickam fractured his skull.
   3. Mr. Bykovsky lost his life.

Examples: [Which sentences have direct objects?
Remember: Direct objects are Noun Phrases right
after main verbs. Underline the direct objects in
these sentences.]

   1.   Mr. Hickam was injured.
   2.   Homer earns money.
   3.   Jim attends high school.
   4.   Mr. Bykovsky died in the mine.
   5.   The mine collapsed.
   6.   Mr. Hickam saved lives of many men.




                                            50
Transitive Verb Practice – OS

Directions: Read this paragraph. The verbs are underlined. Find the five transitive verbs
and their objects. (OS Part 7)




       There is a terrible accident at the mine. Homer is in a car with Dorothy. They hear

an emergency alarm, and Homer goes to the mine. Part of the mine collapsed, and some

men are hurt. Some men are underground. The elevator comes up with the men. Homer’s

friend, Mr. Ike Bykovsky, is dead. Homer’s father is still in the mine. He is saving

people’s lives. Finally, Homer’s father comes up the elevator. Homer’s father is injured.

He has a fractured skull. Also, his eye is damaged. He might lose his eye. Homer takes

Ike Bykovsky’s tag. Homer feels guilty; he feels responsible for Ike Bykovsky’s death. It

was an awful accident.




Write down the five transitive verbs and their objects:

1. _________________________          _______________________________________

2. _________________________          _______________________________________

3. _________________________          _______________________________________

4. _________________________          _______________________________________

5. _________________________          _______________________________________




                                            51
More Practice: Direct Objects - P

Directions:
   1. Underline the main verbs and the direct objects. There are
   2. Then, write questions about the direct object. Start your questions with WHO or
       WHAT.


                        Positive Events in Jackson Pollock’s Life


   A few positive events occur in Jackson Pollock’s life. First, Peggy Guggenheim helps

him. Peggy Guggenheim sponsors a one-man show for Pollock. Pollock will get $150

every month from Peggy Guggenheim. She also wants a large mural for her home. She

hires Pollock to paint the mural. Second, Pollock can paint very skillfully. He

demonstrates great creativity in his art; he is painting in a new style. Pollock enjoys

painting, and he feels good about painting. Last, Pollock finally receives positive

feedback for his work. He is getting a few good reviews; a few people are saying positive

things about his work. Howard, Peggy’s art collector, feels very enthusiastic about

Pollock’s paintings. There are not many positive things in Jackson Pollock’s life, but

these events are important.



BE SURE TO UNDERLINE ALL MAIN VERBS and THE DIRECT OBJECTS OF
TRANSITIVE VERBS.




                                             52
                                    Pro-forms
Understanding Pronouns and Possessives in English
Pronouns for Subjects and Objects

Possessives (ownership) Pro-Forms




Pronouns:

Writers use these words for people and things. We use pronouns in place of a noun
phrase.


Subject Pronouns for      Object Pronouns for
One Person (Single)       One Person (Single)
I                         me
you                       you
he                        him
she                       her

Examples:

My name is Kathy I am a teacher. [I = Kathy]
You are reading about pronouns. [you = ?? ... I don't know who is looking at this now.]
Joseph is a student. He lives on the fifth floor of the dorm. [he = Joseph]
My roommate is an art student, too. She lives next door to Joseph. [she = My roommate]


Maria will see me this afternoon.. [me = Kathy]
Maria asked me about you. [you = ?? ... I don't know who is looking at this now.]
I didn't see the professor yesterday. I missed him. [him = the professor]
I saw Maria yesterday. I saw her in class. [her = Maria]




                                           53
Subject Pronouns for        Object Pronouns for
One Thing (Single)          One Thing (Single)
it                          it
one                         one

Examples:

Ellingson Hall is near the LBJ building. It is a dorm. [it = Ellingson Hall]
Have you seen it? [it = Ellingson Hall]
Jeff bought a car last year and took me for a ride in it. [it = Jeff's car]
Jeff bought a car last year, and I bought one, too. [one = a car] NOTE: not Jeff's car, a
different car



Subject Pronouns for        Object Pronouns for
More Than One Person        More Than One Person
(Plural)                    (Plural)
we                          us
you                         you
they                        them

Examples:

My friends and I are going to Water Street this evening. We will have a good time. [we =
my friends and I]
Do you want to come with us? [us = my friends and me]
My friends, Bill and Tom, will drive. They have a new car. [they = my friends, Bill and
Tom]
Do you know them? [them = Bill and Tom]



Subject Pronouns for        Object Pronouns for
More Than One Thing         More Than One Thing
(Plural)                    (Plural)
they                        them

Examples:

Ellingson Hall and Peterson Hall are near the LBJ building. They are dorms. [they =
Ellingson Hall and Peterson Hall]
NTID remodeled them last year. [them = Ellingson Hall and Peterson Hall]




                                             54
Possessives

Writers use these words for the owner.

 Single Possessive    Single Possessive
Adjectives [NOTE: Use Pronouns [NOTE: Do
these before a noun.] not use a noun with
                      these.]
my + N                mine
your + N              yours
his + N               his
her + N               hers

Examples:

That car is my car. It is mine.
I have not seen your car. Is that one yours?
I saw Jim's new car. Have you seen his?
I rode in Martha's car. Have you been in hers?



Plural Possessive         Plural Possessive
Pronouns [NOTE: Use       Pronouns [NOTE: Do
these before a noun.]     not use a noun with
                          these.]
our + N                   ours
your + N                  yours
their + N                 theirs

Examples:

That is our apartment. It is ours.
I saw Jim and Martha's apartment. Have you visited theirs? It is in Colony Manor.




Did you study this information?




                                           55
Understanding Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns in English

Demonstratives: [this, that, these, those]

Writers use these words for things that are

        "here" -- close by -- often something you can touch
        "there" -- not close by -- often something you cannot touch

                   "here"             "there"
Single             this               that

Plural             these              those

Examples of Demonstrative Adjectives: [NOTE: this, that, these, those + noun

I am trying to use my Webster's Dictionary. I don't like this dictionary. [this dictionary =
my Webster's dictionary] close by
My roommate has a Longman's Dictionary. I like that dictionary. [that dictionary = my
roommate's Longman Dictionary] not close by

Here are the pictures of my trip to Florida. I like these pictures. [these pictures = pictures
of my trip to Florida] close by
My Dad went to the Bahamas last year and took some pictures. Those pictures were
awful. [those pictures = my Dad's pictures of the Bahamas] not close by


Examples of Demonstrative Pronouns: [NOTE: this, that, these, those]

What is this? [this = something close by you; often something you can touch]
What is that? [that = something not close by you; often something you cannot touch]
Jack is eating cookies. He says, "I like these." [these = the cookies that he is eating]
Maria is thinking about her science projects from last year. She says, "I got an A on
those." [those = her science projects from last year]



Did you study this information?




                                              56
                           Independent Clauses

What are independent clauses?

       Independent clauses are complete sentences.



Here are some independent clauses:|

        Jeff Mitchell was John's and Martha's new friend.
        John wanted to study optical technology.
        Martha and John were dating each other.
        Jeff Mitchell was a chemical engineer.
        Jeff Mitchell taught science at the new college.



Here are some clauses that are not independent clauses: (These are dependent clauses.
They are not complete sentences.)

        when Jeff Mitchell met John and Martha
        because they knew each other for a long time
        after Jeff Mitchell graduated from college and had 5 years of experience in
         industry
        that he was a good student
        who met in high school




                                             57
Practice: Identifying Independent Clauses

Study these examples. Then count the number of clauses in each sentence and circle
the independent (main) clauses:

Examples: The students arrived at NTID before the fall quarter started. (2 clauses)
          If students study regularly, they can get good grades in their courses. (2 clauses)

   1. Homer decided to learn about rockets. (____)
   2. Homer decided to learn about rockets because he wanted to go to college. (____)
   3. Homer wanted to go to college and he didn't want to be a coal miner. (____)
   4. Mr. Hickam was upset. (____)
   5. After Mr. Hickam talked with the mine owners, he was upset. (____)
   6. One boy's father died in a mine accident, and another boy's stepfather was a
       drunk. (____)
   7. Homer and his friends couldn't launch more rockets on mine company property,
       but they could launch rockets if they were not on company property. (____)
   8. They had to hike 8 miles to Snakeroot, which was not company property. (____)
   9. Homer walked to Snakeroot with things that he needed to build a rocket. (____)
   10. When Homer's friends realized that they didn't want to become coal miners, they
       decided to join Homer. (____)

Here are some more to try. Count the number of clauses and circle the independent
clauses:

   1. When Jeff came to NTID, he decided to study business technology. (____)
   2. After Jeff finished his first year of college, he changed his major, but his friend
       did not change his major. (____)
   3. Martha and John were dating each other for about 3 years before they were
       engaged. (____)
   4. I was lucky because I got a roommate who I knew from high school. (____)




                                            58
                               Conjunctions
Connecting Words (conjunctions)

Here are some connecting words:

COORDINATE          SUBORDINATE
conjunctions        conjunctions
    and                because
    or                 when
    but                while
                        before
                        after
                        if
                        although




   1. Coordinate conjunctions (connect 2 equal ideas; there are two main ideas)
         o and, or, but




          o   Example: She works hard in college, and she works hard at her job, too.
          o   Example: You can learn math, or you can learn physics.
          o   Example: He was ill, but he passed his courses. (but + idea that is
              somewhat surprising)



   2. Subordinate conjunctions (connect 2 unequal ideas; one idea depends on the
      other)
          o because, when, while, before, after, if, although, ...




          o   Example 1: We attend class because we want to learn to read better.
              (because + idea that is a reason for the 1st idea)
          o   Example 2: Many people finished other reading courses before they took
              Reading II. (before + idea that happens after 1st idea)
          o   Example 3: Most students graduate when they are 22 years old. (when +
              idea that happens at the same time as the other idea)




                                         59
           o   The MAIN idea is a full sentence. In example 1 and 2, the main ideas =
               We attend class. Most people finished other reading courses.
           o   The DEPENDENT idea is not a full sentence. In example 1 and 2, the
               dependent (not main) ideas = because we want to learn to read better --
               before they took Reading II --



Notice the grammatical difference between subordinate conjunctions and
prepositions.

      Subordinate conjunction grammar = Sentence + conjunction + sentence. OR
       Conjunction + sentence, + sentence.
      Preposition grammar = (inside a sentence; not between two sentences) Example:
       Subject + verb(I) + preposition. (They will eat after class.)



Complex sentences

Complex sentences have one or more dependent clauses.

Some of these sentences have noun clauses and use words like that, what, where, why,
when, how. (See the chapter That Noun Clauses)

Some of these sentences have adverb clauses and use words like after, before, because,
since, when. (See the chapter Adverb Clauses - Dependent)

Some of these sentences have adjective clauses and use words like who, whom, that,
which.




                                           60
                                    Infinitives
Study and Practice 1- OS

Study: Grammar of Infinitives -- "to + V"

      Some verbs can use infinitives ["to + V"] to complete their meaning.
      Examples:
       Homer's dad decided to give Homer some cement.
       He is trying to get a scholarship.
       Miss Riley wants to help.
      Be careful -- the infinitive verb does not have an ending. Do not write:
       [WRONG] Homer's dad decided to gave Homer some cement.
       [WRONG] He is trying to getting a scholarship.
       [WRONG] Miss Riley wants to helps.
      Here are some verbs that can use this kind of grammar:

       LIST A

       Some verbs with
       infinitives
       attempt     need
       begin       neglect
       continue    offer
       deserve     plan
       fail        prefer
       hate        refuse
       hope        start
       hurry       struggle
       like        try
       love        want
       manage      wish

Practice: Using Main Verbs with Infinitives

Directions: Complete these sentences with the verbs below them. Decide which verb will
be the main verb and which will be the infinitive. You may use present or past main
verbs.

1. Roy Lee's step-father _____________________________ drinking.

  did not manage; stop




                                            61
2. Roy Lee _______________________ him drunk.

  see; hate

3. Quentin ________________________ advanced mathematics.

  study; love

4. He _________________________.

  refuse; quit

5. They both _________________________.

  struggle; continue

6. Finally, the rocket _______________________ successful.

  begin; be

7. Many students ____________________ the rocket launchings.

  watch; plan

8. Do Homer and his friends _________________________ successful?

  be; want

9. A newspaper reporter _____________________ Homer's attention.

  get; attempt

10. Nobody ______________________ him a lot of money.

  offer; pay




                                        62
Study and Practice 1- P

Study: Grammar of Infinitives -- "to + V"

      Some verbs can use infinitives ["to + V"] to complete their meaning.
      Examples:
       Pollock decided to stop drinking.
       He is trying to sell more paintings.
       Lee wants to help.
      Be careful -- the infinitive verb does not have an ending. Do not write:
       [WRONG] Pollock decided to stopped drinking.
       [WRONG] He is trying to selling more paintings.
       [WRONG] Lee wants to helps.
      Here are some verbs that can use this kind of grammar:

       List A

       Some verbs that can add
       infinitives
       attempt      need
       begin        neglect
       continue     offer
       decide       plan
       deserve      prefer
       fail         refuse
       hate         start
       hurry        struggle
       like         try
       love         want
       manage       wish

Practice: Using Main Verbs with Infinitives

Directions: Complete these sentences with the verbs below them. You may use present
or past main verbs.

1. Pollock _____________________________ drinking for several years

  manage; stop

2. Lee _______________________ him drunk.

 see; hate




                                            63
3. Pollock and Lee ________________________.

 paint; love

4. Lee _________________________.

  refuse; give up

5. They both _________________________.

  struggle; continue

6. Finally, the critics _______________________ Jackson good reviews.

  begin; give

7. Many collectors ____________________ Jackson's paintings.

  buy; start

8. Do you think that he _________________________ successful?

  be; deserve

9. Other galleries _____________________ his attention.

  get; attempt

10. They ______________________ him a lot of money.

  offer; pay




                                         64
Study and Practice 2

Study: Learn more about grammar of infinitives -- "to + V"

1. Some verbs use infinitives ["to + V"] after the object to complete their meaning.

      For example:
       They allowed him to work on his project.
       They paid him to do odd jobs.
       She wanted him to study advanced math.

      Here are some verbs that can use this kind of grammar:

       List B

       Some verbs that add
       infinitives after objects
       advise        hire
       allow         invite
       appoint       intend
       bribe         like
       dare          need
       elect         pay
       employ        permit
       encourage persuade
       force         select
       get           tell
       hate          want



2. Some verbs can use infinitives ["to + V"] without "TO" to complete their meaning.

       List C

       Verbs with infinitives
       with NO "to"
       see          let
       hear         make
       watch        have
       feel
       help [*with TO or without
       TO]




                                            65
      For example:
       They watched him start the car.
       They let him bring the project to class.
       The work made him become confident.
       He helped other students succeed.
       He helped other students to succeed.

      There are only a few verbs that can use this kind of grammar:



Practice: Using Main Verbs with Infinitives

Directions: Write sentences with the words below the lines. Use past main verbs and
objects. You may need to add "to."

1. __________________________________________
1. watch, the woman, the man, paint, that picture

2. __________________________________________
2. the teacher, the student, encourage, study, more often

3. __________________________________________
3. tell, Joey, his friend, stay, on Wednesday, home

4. __________________________________________
4. make, the class, the computer, crash

5. __________________________________________
5. the car, Marianne, her sister, allow, borrow

6. __________________________________________
6. get, quit, him, she, smoking




                                            66
Study and Practice 3



Study: Learn more about grammar of infinitive s -- "to + V" after
adjectives.



We can also use: BE + Adjective + to + V . This happens after V(L) main verbs like BE.

      In these sentences, the main verb and the infinitive verb have the same subject.

       We are ready to go on vacation.

       Jackson Pollock was happy to sell some of his paintings.

       Frederick and Anne were excited to find friends in New Bedford, Massachusetts.

      In these sentences, the main verb and the infinitive verb do NOT have the same
       subject.

       The water is safe to drink.
       (The water is safe for people to drink.)

       Those long words are difficult to remember.
       (Those long words are difficult for people to remember.)

       The homework was easy to finish.
       (The homework was easy for people to finish.)




                                            67
Practice: Using BE Verbs with Adjectives and Infinitives

Directions: Complete these sentences with words shown below. Use present or past
main verbs. You may not need to use all of the words.

1. __________________________________________
1. BE, Gail and Jill, happy, see, their friend, for them

2. __________________________________________
2. the food, Bill, BE, afraid, eat, for him

3. __________________________________________
3. BE this assignment, it, for us, to do, easy

4. __________________________________________
4. motivated, the students, to learn, BE, the new grammar, for them

5. __________________________________________
5. it, for people, smoking, BE, to quit, very hard




                                            68
                                   Gerunds
STUDY and PRACTICE #1 - NCW

Study: Grammar of Gerunds (-ing forms that are not main verbs)

      Some verbs can use a gerund phrase ["xxx+ing"] to complete their meaning.
      Examples:
       Tyler finished packing for his trip to the Arctic.
       Rosie enjoys flying.
       Tyler continued working on his research project.
      Be careful. Do not write:
       [WRONG] Tyler finished packs for his trip to the Arctic.
       [WRONG] Rosie enjoys fly.
       [WRONG] Tyler continued worked on his research project.
      Here are some verbs that can use this kind of grammar:

           List 1

          Some verbs that can add
          Gerunds
          (-ing forms that are not
          main verbs)
          admit          keep
          adore          mention
          anticipate     mind
          appreciate     miss
          avoid          omit
          celebrate      postpone
          confess        practice
          consider       quit
          delay          recall
          deny           recommend
          describe       regret
          dislike        report
          dread          resent
          enjoy          risk
          finish         suggest
          imagine        tolerate
          involve        understand




                                         69
Practice: Using Main Verbs with Gerunds (-ing forms that are not main
verbs)

Directions: Complete these sentences with the verbs below them. You may use present
or past main verbs.

1. Tyler _____________________ research in the Arctic.

imagine; do

2. He _______________________ many cases of Moose Beer with him on the airplane
flight to the Arctic.

consider; bring

3. Rosie _______________________ to take off, but the plane was too heavy.

keep; try

4. Finally, Rosie ____________________ some boxes off the plane.

suggest; throw

5. When they had engine trouble, Rosie _____________________ the plane and asked
Tyler to fly it.

quit; pilot

6. After Rosie repaired the engine, he _____________________ .

resume; fly

7. They narrowly _________________________ into the mountains.

miss; crash




                                         70
STUDY and PRACTICE #2 - NCW

Study: Grammar of Gerunds (-ing forms that are not main verbs)

      Be careful.
          1. Some verbs can add Infinitives or Gerunds. The grammar is correct for
              both sentences,
              and the meaning of the sentence is the same.

                [RIGHT] Tyler continued working on his research project.
                [RIGHT] Tyler continued to work on his research project.

           2. Some verbs can add Gerunds, but not Infinitives

                [RIGHT] Tyler finished packing for his trip to the Arctic.
                [WRONG] Tyler finished to pack for his trip to the Arctic.

      Some verb can add Infinitives, but not Gerunds

       [RIGHT] Tyler needed to eat something.
       [WRONG] Tyler needed eating something.

Use this list to practice these rules. You can use the Longman Dictionary to check your
grammar.

       List 2

       Some verbs that can add
       Gerunds or Infinitives and
       the meaning is the same
       begin        neglect
       continue     prefer
       hate         start
       like         try
       love




                                            71
More Practice: Using Main Verbs with Gerunds (-ing forms that are not
main verbs)

Directions: Tell which sentences are RIGHT and which are WRONG. Use the Longman
Dictionary to make to figure out the correct answers.

1. [_____________] He considered to bring many cases of Moose Beer with him on the
                   airplane flight to the Arctic.

2. [_____________] Rosie keeps to try to take off, but the plane was too heavy.

3. [_____________] Rosie wanted to throw some boxes off the plane.

4. [_____________] Later, Rosie asked Tyler to fly the plane.

5. [_____________] Tyler hated flying the plane.

6. [_____________] Tyler hated to fly the plane.

7. [_____________] Rosie wanted to throw some boxes off the plane.

8. [_____________] Rosie repaired the engine and he started to fly the plane again.

9. [_____________] Tyler finished to fly the plane.

10. [_____________] They narrowly missed to crash into the mountains.

11. [_____________] Tyler should quit walking on thin ice if he wants to stay alive.

12. [_____________] Tyler should quit to walk on thin ice if he wants to stay alive.

13. [_____________] Tyler enjoyed to meet the white wolf in the Arctic.

14. [_____________] Tyler enjoyed meeting the white wolf in the Arctic.

15. [_____________] Tyler liked visiting with new people when he was in the Arctic.

16. [_____________] Tyler liked to visit with new people when he was in the Arctic.

17. [_____________] Mike wanted selling a wolf pelt for $350.

18. [_____________] Will Mike ever risk killing a wolf?




                                           72
STUDY and PRACTICE #3 - NCW

Study: Grammar of Gerunds (-ing forms that are not main verbs)

      Be careful.
      Sometimes a verb can add a Gerund or an Infinitive, and the meaning is the
       same.
      Examples

       Rosie continued working on the plane's engine.
       Rose continued to work on the plane's engine.

       At first, Tyler did not like to live in the Arctic.
       At first, Tyler did not like living in the Arctic.

       Tyler started doing an experiment.
       Tyler started to do an experiment.


       List 2

       Some verbs that can add
       Gerunds
       or Infinitives and the
       meaning is the same
       begin          neglect
       continue       prefer
       hate           start
       like           try
       love



      Sometimes a verb can add a Gerund or an Infinitive, but the meaning is
       different.
      Examples:

       Rosie might remember to pick up Tyler. [This means -- Rosie might remember in
       the future.]
       Rosie might remember picking up Tyler. [This means -- Rosie might remember
       about the past.]

       Tyler stopped to observe the wolves. [This means -- Tyler stopped doing
       something so he could look at the wolves.]
       Tyler stopped observing the wolves. [This means -- Tyler did not continue
       looking at the wolves.]



                                              73
       Mike never forgot to translate for Ootek. [This means -- Mike never forgot that he
       should translate for Ootek.]
       Mike will not forget translating for Ootek. [This means -- Mike never forgot that
       he had translated for Ootek this in the past.]

       List 3

       Some verbs that can add
       Gerunds
       or Infinitives and the
       meaning is different
       forget         Stop
       remember



More Practice: Understanding Main Verbs with Gerunds

Directions: Tell if these pairs of sentences have similar or different meanings. Write
SAME or DIFFERENT in the spaces.

   1. [_______________]
      Rosie stopped fixing the engine.
      Rosie stopped to fix the engine.
   2. [_______________]
      Tyler sometimes continued to work without resting.
      Tyler sometimes continued working without resting.
   3. [_______________]
      Ootek and Mike stopped to eat with Tyler.
      Ootek and Mike stopped eating with Tyler.
   4. [_______________]
      Mike continued to eat fish.
      Make continued eating fish.
   5. [_______________]
      Do you think Ootek hated to eat mice?
      Do you think Ootek hated eating mice?
   6. [_______________]
      Ootek remembered feeling the spirit of the wolves enter his body.
      Ootek remembered to feel the spirit of the wolves enter his body.
   7. [_______________]
      Mike tried to explain that he would not kill the white wolves.
      Mike tried explaining that he would not kill the white wolves.




                                            74
                             That Noun Clauses
Study and Practice 1 - OS

Learn about that noun clauses:

        Some verbs can use that noun clauses ["that + S + V ..."] to complete their
         meaning.
         For example:
         The principal said that one student could go to the National Science Fair.
         They decided that Homer would go.
        Be careful -- you need a full sentence after that.
        Be careful -- sometimes you do not need to include that.
         For example:
         The principal said one student could go to the National Science Fair.
         They decided Homer would go.

        Here are some verbs with this kind of grammar:

List A

Verbs with that noun
clauses
agree       learn
assume      mean
believe     notice
bet         predict
complain    pretend
conclude    prove
decide      realize
doubt       regret
expect      reply
explain     say
find out    see
guess       state
hope        suggest
imagine     suppose
know        think




                                             75
Practice: Using Main Verbs with that Noun Clauses

Directions: Complete these sentences with the words below them. Decide whether to use
present or past main verbs.

1. We _____________________________ a serious illness.
   learn, that, Miss Riley, have

2. The police _____________________________ the fire, but they are/were wrong.
   conclude, his rocket, start

3. Mr. Turner _____________________________ Homer so Homer and his friends
can/could enter the Science Fair for Big Creek High School.
   realize, he, have to help

4. Do you _____________________________ with his father?
   suppose, Homer, can get along

5. We _____________________________ did not start the forest fire.
   find out, that, Auk XIII

6. Mr. John Hickam _____________________________ a good father.
   think, that, he, be

7. Some people _____________________________ a winner.
   suggest, Homer's rocket, be

8. Did you ____________________________ his autographed picture of Wernher von
Braun to Indianapolis?
   notice, that, Homer, bring

9. Mr. Bolden _____________________________ unable to help Homer because of the
strike.
   regret, he, be

10. Homer's mother _____________________________ her husband to stop the strike
so Mr. Bolden can/could use the machine shop.
   know, that, she, should convince




                                         76
Study and Practice 1 - P

Study: Grammar of that noun clauses:

        Some verbs can use that noun clauses ["that + S + V ..."] to complete their
         meaning.
         For example:
         Pollock said that Lee should shut up.
         Lee decided that she would visit Europe.
         Lee learned that Pollock was having sex with another woman.
        Be careful -- you need a full sentence after that.
        Be careful -- sometimes you do not need to include that.
         For example:
         Pollock said Lee should shut up.
         Lee decided she would visit Europe.
         Lee learned Pollock was having sex with another woman.
        Here are some verbs with this kind of grammar:

List A

Verbs with that noun
clauses
agree       learn
assume      mean
believe     notice
bet         predict
complain    pretend
conclude    prove
decide      realize
doubt       regret
expect      reply
explain     say
find out    see
guess       state
hope        suggest
imagine     suppose
know        think




                                             77
Practice: Using Main Verbs with that Noun Clauses

Directions: Complete these sentences with the words below them. Decide whether to use
present or past main verbs.

1. We _____________________________ an affair with Ruth Kligman.
   learn, that, Pollock, have

2. Lee _____________________________ on her.
   conclude, he, cheat

3. Pollock _____________________________ Lee at lot because she always supported
him.
   realize, he, owe

4. Do you _____________________________ him ?
   suppose, Lee, forgive

5. We _____________________________ to drink again after two years.
   find out, that, Pollock, begin

6. Pollock _____________________________ a phony.
   think, that, he, be

7. The critics _____________________________ a more creative painter than Pollock.
   suggest, Clyfford Still, be

8. Did you _____________________________ a new Cadillac convertible?
   notice, that, Jackson, have

9. Lee _____________________________ unable to help Pollock.
   regret, she, be

10. The therapist _____________________________ from depression.
    know, that, Pollock, suffer




                                         78
Study and Practice 2

Study: Learn more about grammar of that noun clauses:

Compare: (There is no object after say; there is a personal object after tell)

        Lee said that she was going to Europe.
         S + V + that S + V
        Lee told Pollock that she was going to Europe.
         S + V + O + that S + V

Here are some verbs requiring personal objects before that noun clauses.

List B

Verbs requiring
personal objects before
that noun clauses
assure
convince
inform
notify
remind
tell



Now compare: (Both sentences are correct)

        Lee warned that she was leaving.
         S + V + that S + V
        Lee warned Pollock that she was leaving..
         S + V + O + that S + V

Here are some verbs with optional personal objects before that noun clauses.

List C

Verbs with optional
personal objects before
that noun clauses
promise
show
teach
warn
write


                                             79
Practice: More About Using These Main Verbs with that Noun Clauses

Directions: Fill in the blanks to form correct sentences with that noun clauses. You may
not need to use all of the words.

Example:
My friends promised _______________________________________.
                    us, it, they, that, would arrive at 6 PM

Answer:
My friends promised us that they would arrive at 6 PM.
         OR My friends promised us they would arrive at 6 PM.
         OR My friends promised that they would arrive at 6 PM.
         OR My friends promised they would arrive at 6 PM.

1. I said _______________________________________.
           that, him, it, John, lived, in Miami

2. We will show _______________________________________.
                 we, us, the teacher, can pass, the exam, that

3. Jeff told _______________________________________.
             he, would visit her, Maria, that, during the break

4. They informed _______________________________________.
                Rochester, it, us, that, was cold, in

5. The weather report warned _______________________________________.
                              that, it, them, they, a snow storm, was coming

6. Columbus convinced _______________________________________.
                       it, people, the earth , that, was, round

7. The counselor assured _______________________________________.
                          that, we, the students, everything, all right, was

8. The teacher reminded _______________________________________.
                        the test, that, on Friday, the students, was, we

9. Mr. Smith said _______________________________________.
                   us, that, John, him, got, a new job

10. She teaches _______________________________________.
                we, us, it, that, to study, is, important




                                            80
Infinitives and THAT Noun Clauses After Linking Verbs

STUDY and PRACTICE

Study: Learn about infinitives and that noun clauses after BE (and other
linking verbs) + adjectives:

Study:

       S + V(L) + adj. + that S + V + ...

        Lee is happy that she is going to Europe.
        It was sad that Jackson lost his life.

       S + V(L) + adj. + to + V + ...

        Lee is unhappy to see Jackson drunk again.
        It was sad to see Jackson die.

NOTE: This same grammar can occur with other linking verbs like feel, seem, become.

Practice: Using infinitives and that noun clauses after V(L) + adjective:

Directions: Complete these sentences with infinitives or that noun clauses. You will
need to add to or that, and you will need to write the correct verb form.

Examples:
a. My friends were impressed _______________________________________.
                                a new car, buy, I
b. It was great ____________________________________________.
                    my friend, see, yesterday

Answers:
a. My friends were impressed that I bought a new car.
b. It was great to see my friend yesterday.



1. We were delighted _______________________________________.
                         the movie, see

2. Mark was happy _______________________________________.
                   pass, the exam, he

3. Jeff became upset _______________________________________.
                       Italy, he, not visit


                                             81
4. They seemed frustrated _______________________________________.
                           always, their team, lose

5. Jackson was angry _______________________________________.
                             get, bad reviews, he

6. It is important _______________________________________.
                         every day, before the final exam, study

7. Edith felt scared _______________________________________.
                          drink and drive, Jackson

8. Students are glad _______________________________________.
                         the quarter, almost over, be

9. It is good ____________________________________.
               vocabulary, study, everyday

10. It is wise _________________________________________.
                  oil, in a car, change, every three months.




                                         82
List of Verbs and Their Infinitive, Gerund, and THAT noun clause Complements

Verbs that can add        Verbs that can add   Verbs that can add THAT noun
infinitives               gerunds              clauses
Verb + to + Verb          Verb + xxxing        Verb + (that) + Subject + Verb + . . .
Attempt                   admit                agree
begin                     adore                assume
continue                  anticipate           believe
decide                    appreciate           bet
deserve                   avoid                complain
fail                      begin                conclude
forget*                   celebrate            decide
hate                      confess              doubt
hurry                     consider             expect
like                      continue             explain
love                      delay                find out
manage                    deny                 guess
need                      describe             hope
neglect                   dislike              imagine
offer                     dread                know
plan                      enjoy                learn
prefer                    finish               mean
refuse                    forget*              notice
remember*                 hate                 predict
start                     imagine              pretend
stop*                     involve              promise
struggle                  keep                 prove
try                       like                 realize
want                      love                 regret
wish                      mention              reply
                          mind                 say
                          miss                 see
                          neglect              show
                          omit                 state
                          postpone             suggest
                          practice             suppose
                          prefer               teach
                          quit                 think
                          recall               warn
                          recommend            write
                          regret
                          remember*
                          report
                          resent
                          risk
                          start
                          stop*
                          suggest
                          tolerate
                          try
                          understand


                                       83
Verb + Object + Infinitive        Verb + Object + (that) + Subject +
                                  Verb + . . .
advise                            assure
allow                             convince
appoint                           inform
bribe                             notify
dare                              remind
elect                             tell
employ                            promise
encourage                         show
force                             teach
get                               warn
hate                              write
help
hire
invite
intend
like
need
pay
permits
persuade
select
tell
want
Verb + Object + to + Verb
feel
hear
help
see
watch
Verb + Adj. + to + Verb
be
become
feel
seem




                             84
                   Adverb Phrases and Clauses
Understanding WHEN, WHILE and DURING

When, While, and During have similar meanings. We use these words when two things
happen at the same time. The grammar for each of the words is different.

When clauses have a simple present or past verb.
While clauses have a present continuing or a past continuing verb.
During phrases have no verb.

Read and study these sentences:

Bill went to school while he was living in Chicago. [while + subject + was + Ving …]
While Bill was living in Chicago, he went to school.

Donna went to college, when she lived in New York. [when + subject + verb(past) …]
When Donna lived in New York, she went to college.

During our vacation, we like to travel. [during + noun phrase]
We live the travel during our vacation.

                                        Practice

   1. __________ George was working, there was a fire alarm.
   2. There was a fire alarm, __________ we were eating lunch.
   3. __________ our lunch hour, there was a fire alarm.
   4. There was a fire alarm, __________ our lunch hour.
   5. __________ we saw the flames, we knew there was a real fire.
   6. We knew there was a real fire, __________ we saw the flames.
   7. __________ Steve is tired, he yawns a lot.
   8. __________ Lyn is running, she can forget her problems.
   9. We never give up __________ our team plays basketball.
   10. Sara did not give up __________ the first quarter.




                                           85
Understanding BEFORE and AFTER
Look at these sentences. Think … what happened first (A or B)?

A. First, Jack woke up.      A. First, Marie fell asleep.   A. First, Phil studied a lot.
B. Then, Jack ate            B. Then, Marie had a bad       B. Then, Phil passed the
   breakfast.                   dream                          test.




       after      A                  ,                      B



                  A                before                   B

RULE: Write after plus the 1st event.
            Examples:       After + 1st event, 2nd event. (with comma)
                            2nd event after + 1st event. (no comma)
      Write before plus the 2nd event.
            Examples:       Before + 2nd event, 1st event. (with comma)
                            1st event before + 2nd event. (no comma)

We can write:

      After Jack woke up, he ate breakfast.
      Jack woke up before he ate breakfast.
      After Mary fell asleep, she had a bad dream.
      Marie fell asleep before she had a bad dream.
      After Phil studied a lot, he passed the test.
      Phil studied a lot before he passed the test.

NOTE: Changing the order of the two clauses doesn’t change the sentence meaning.

      Jack ate breakfast after he woke up.
      Before Jack ate breakfast, he woke up.
      Mary had a bad dream after she fell asleep.
      Before Marie had a bad dream, she fell asleep.
      Phil passed the test after he studied a lot.
      Before Phil passed the test, he studied a lot




                                            86
Practice with BEFORE and AFTER

Parts I and II Directions: Study sentences A and B and the time line; then use before or
after in the blanks.

I.
      A. First, Alice graduated from high school.
      B. Then, she went to college.




                     A                                      B

      11. Alice graduated from high school _____________ she went to college.
      12. _____________ Alice graduated from high school, she went to college.
      13. _____________ Alice went to college, she graduated from high school.
      14. Alice went to college ______________ she graduated from high school.


II.
      A. First, Catherine worked for two weeks at her new job.
      B. Then, she got her first pay check.




                     A                                      B


      15. Catherine got her first pay check _____________ she worked for two weeks at
          her new job.
      16. _____________ Catherine worked for two weeks at her new job, she got her first
          pay check.
      17. _____________ Catherine got her first pay check, she worked for two weeks at
          her new job.
      18. Catherine worked for two weeks at her new job ______________ she got her first
          pay check.




                                             87
Part III Directions: Study these sentences; then tell which event came first.

III.

       1. Julie and Ed got married after they were engaged for 2 years.

       First event _______________________________________

       Second event _____________________________________

       2. After we ate in the new restaurant, several people became ill.

       First event _______________________________________

       Second event _____________________________________

       3. Before Mark can graduate, he has to pass the writing test.

       First event _______________________________________

       Second event _____________________________________

       4. Rick visited with his aunt before the Thanksgiving break.

       First event _______________________________________

       Second event _____________________________________

       5. She had a child before she got her first job.

       First event _______________________________________

       Second event _____________________________________

       6. After she got her first job, she became pregnant.

       First event _______________________________________

       Second event _____________________________________




                                                88
          Adverb Clauses - Dependent Clauses

Introduction --- What are Adverb clauses?
     adverb clauses are dependent clauses (not main [independent] clauses)
     adverb clauses can often occur before or after main clauses
     adverb clauses give information about

         o    time
         o    reason
         o    condition
         o    opposition

     adverb clauses begin with subordinate conjunctions such as: after, before, when,
      while, because, although, if
     the grammar for an Adverb Clause is

         o sentence (main clause) + adverb clause (dependent clause)
           Sentences with this grammar look like this:
           Subject + verb + … + subordinate conjunction + subject + verb + …
           Example: Students complete high school before they enter college.
           (There is no comma in this sentence.)

         OR

         o adverb clause (dependent clause) + sentence (main clause)
           Sentences with this grammar look like this:
           Subordinate conjunction + subject + verb + … , + subject + verb + …
           Example: When we meet new people, we usually want to know their
           name.
           (There is a comma after the adverb clause.)

     Some common subordinate conjunctions are:

         o    time -- AFTER, BEFORE, WHEN, WHILE, SINCE, UNTIL
         o    reason -- BECAUSE
         o    condition – IF, UNLESS
         o    opposition – ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH




                                         89
Adverb Clauses of Time

Adverb clauses of time answer the question, WHEN
Adverb clauses of time start with subordinate conjunctions such as:
    after
    before
    when
    while
    since
    until

Be careful; do not confuse subordinate conjunctions with prepositions. The grammar is
different.
               Preposition + noun phrase
               Subordinate conjunction + subject + verb + …


Practice 1: Prepositions and Subordinate Conjunctions

Directions: Compare each pair of sentences and tell if the bold words in these sentences
are prepositions (PP) or subordinate conjunctions (SC).

   1.   _________ John visited his friend after dinner.

   2. _________ John visited his friend after he finished his homework.


   3. _________ Before class, Melissa printed her assignment.

   4. _________ Before Melissa went to class, she studied for the quiz.


   5. _________ While Jean was eating breakfast, she chatted with her friends.

   6. _________ During breakfast, Jean thought about her next class.


   7. _________ George has been sick since Saturday.

   8. _________ George has been a student in college since he was 17 years old.

   9. _________ George has been at RIT for 3 years.




                                           90
Practice 2: Adverb Clauses of Time - RW
(Use after Rosewood, Part 1)
Directions: Find and underline the adverb clauses of time in these sentences, and add a
comma in the sentence if needed.|
Example: We began watching the movie when the spring quarter was in its sixth week.
1. Some people of Sumner and Rosewood had lived there since they were born.

2. Mr. Mann was riding a horse when he arrived in the area.

3. After he arrived in Rosewood the people wanted to know more about him.

4. He came to town while Scrappie was teaching a group of children.

5. She continued teaching until she saw him.

6. While he was walking around town he noticed that a piece of land was for sale.

7. There was a dinner party at Aunt Sarah’s home after Mr. Mann came to town.

8. A terrible thing happened while Aunt Sarah and Philomena were hanging out the
   laundry at Fanny’s house.

9. Both Philomena and Aunt Sarah saw a man walk out of Fanny’s house before
   Philomena walked in.

10. Sarah walked into Fanny’s house after Philomena went in.

11. When Philomena and Sarah leave Fanny’s house Part 1 of the movie ends.




                                           91
Adverb Clauses of Reason

Adverb clauses of reason answer the question, WHY
Adverb clauses of reason usually start with the subordinate conjunction -- because

Read and study these questions and answers. (Adverb clauses of reason are usually after
the main clause of a sentence, and there must be a subject and a verb after “because”.)

       Why did Melissa go to college? (What was her reason for going to college?)
       Melissa went to college because she wanted to study chemistry.

       Why was Dr. Sarda in trouble?
       (What was the reason for Dr. Sarda’s troubles?)
       Dr. Sarda was in trouble because she prescribed the wrong medicine.

       Why did Melissa study chemistry?
       (What was her reason for studying chemistry?)
       Melissa studied chemistry because she wanted to work in a drug research lab.

       Why should people exercise?
       (For what reasons should people exercise?)
       People should exercise because it will help them stay healthy and in shape.

Be careful. Do not confuse subordinate conjunctions and prepositions. The grammar is
different.

            Subordinate Conjunction of           Prepositions of Reason
            Reason
            Because                              because of
                                                 in order to; to
                                                 due to
                                                 owing to
                                                 as a result of

Prepositional phrases - Examples

       Melissa went to college in order to study chemistry.
                              (no subject and verb after “in order to”)
       Melissa went to college to study chemistry.
                               (no subject and verb after “to”)
       Dr. Sarda was in trouble because of prescribing the wrong medicine.
                                (no subject and verb after “because of”)
       Dr. Sarda was in trouble due to prescribing the wrong medicine.
                                (no subject and verb after “due to”)




                                           92
Practice 1: Prepositions and Subordinate Conjunctions

Directions: Compare each pair of sentences and tell if the bold parts in these sentences
are prepositional phrases (PP) or dependent (subordinate) clauses (SC).

   10. _________ John visited his friend because they needed to discuss their homework.

   11. _________ John visited his friend because of their homework assignment.

   12. _________ Because computers were stolen from the lab, the police questioned
                 students.
   13. _________ Police questioned students because of the theft.

   14. _________ Because of her good work, Melissa got the job.

   15. _________ Melissa got the job because she had excellent grades and
                 participated in many activities.


Note: Other prepositions like because of are due, to, owing to, as a result of, and due to.
These prepositions are more formal than because of.


Tell which sentences are correct (YES) and which are not correct (NO).

   16. _________ John visited his friend because their homework assignment.

   17. _________ As a result of her college record, Melissa got the job.

   18. _________ Due to John told the truth, he was not arrested.

   19. _________ Because John told the truth, he was not arrested.




                                             93
Practice 2: Subordinate Conjunctions in Clauses of Reason - RW
(Use after Rosewood, Part 2)
Directions: Combine these sentences.
   a. Put the clauses in order
   b. Add because
   c. Use a pronoun when repeating the same subject or object in the second clause
Example: The students want to improve their skills. The students are taking a writing
course.
Answer: The students are taking a writing course because they want to improve their
skills.

1. Something awful happened to Fanny. Fanny was screaming.

   _________________________________________________________________________.

2. Philomena heard Fanny crying. Philomena went into the house.

   _________________________________________________________________________.

3. Sarah and Philomena did not help Fanny. Sarah and Philomena were scared.

   _________________________________________________________________________.

4. The white people thought a black man beat Fanny. The white people were angry.

   _________________________________________________________________________.

5. White people in Sumner did not respect black people. White people in Sumner
   thought they were better than black people.

   _________________________________________________________________________.

6. The people were hurting Aaron. The sheriff tried to stop the white mob.

   _________________________________________________________________________.

7. The angry mob hung Sam. The people thought Sam was responsible for Fanny’s rape.

   _________________________________________________________________________.




                                          94
Practice 3: Subordinate Conjunctions in Clauses of Reason
(Use after Rosewood, Part 2)
Directions: Complete these sentences using because adverb clauses.
Example: We are in this course because we want to improve our writing skills.

1. Fanny had a badly bruised back and was in pain because _______________________

   _____________________________________________________________________


2. Sarah advised Philomena to get out of the Fanny’s house because ________________

   _____________________________________________________________________


3. Sarah said she saw nothing because _______________________________________

   _____________________________________________________________________


4. Fanny runs out of her house because _______________________________________

   _____________________________________________________________________


5. The men used dogs because ______________________________________________

   _____________________________________________________________________


6. The dogs smelled the man’s scent on Aaron because __________________________

   _____________________________________________________________________




                                          95
Adverb Clauses of Condition

Adverb clauses of condition answer the question, UNDER WHAT CONDITONS?
Adverb clauses of condition usually start with these subordinate conjunctions:
    if
    unless

Read and study these questions and answers. Adverb clauses of condition can occur
before or after the main clause of a sentence.

Example questions and answers with IF --

1. Under what conditions can Melissa go to college?
      Melissa can go to college if she gets a scholarship.
      Melissa can go to college if she saves money.
             OR
      If Melissa gets a scholarship, she can go to college.
      If Melissa saves money, she can go to college.

2. Under what conditions can students take the next course in English?
      Students can take the next course in English if they pass this course.

3. Under what conditions will a car stop moving?
      A car will stop moving if the driver puts on the brake.
      A car will stop moving if it runs out of gas.
      A car will stop moving if there is a serious crash.

Example sentences with UNLESS -- Sentences with “unless” clauses are not very
common, and they are often similar to “if …. not" clauses.

1. Mellissa will be disappointed if she does not get a college scholarship.
   Melissa will be disappointed unless she gets a college scholarship.

2. Students cannot take the next course in English if they do not pass this course
   Students cannot take the next course in English unless they pass this course.

3. If John does not get up by 8 AM, he will be late to work.
   Unless John gets up by 8 AM, he will be late to work.

Example questions with IF -- Questions can ask you to think and imagine what might
happen. (What are the consequences of a situation?)

1.   What will Melissa do if she doesn’t get a scholarship?
2.   Can students stay at RIT if they do not pass writing courses?
3.   If your brakes fail, will you stay alive?
4.   If the supervisor fires John, how can John get another job?


                                             96
Practice 1: If and Unless Adverb Clauses - RW
(Use these after Rosewood, part 3)
Directions: Complete these sentences. Add if or unless in the blank.
Example: We will not pass unless we study.

8. Mr. Mann knew he would be safer _________ he left town.

9. People might kill Mr. Mann _______ he stays in Rosewood.

10. _______ the angry white people see Mr. Mann, they will probably kill him.

11. Sheriff Ellis will lose his job _______ he figures out how to restore peace in the

   towns of Rosewood and Sumner.

12. ______ the sawmill boss had not given the white workers a day off, they may have

   calmed down.

13. Sarah realizes the white people of Sumner will not believe her _________ she tells

   them the truth.

14. _______ people join together in a mob, people often do things that they wouldn’t do

   alone.

15. More people would be alive _________ Mr. Wright had not sold shells and bullets to

   people.

16. ___________ Duke had not killed Sarah, Sylvester would not have shot and killed

   Henry and Poly.

17. Gertie and Scrappie would not be safe ___________ they hid.




                                            97
Practice 2: If and Unless Adverb Clauses - RW
(Use these after Rosewood, part 3)
Directions: Combine these sentences.
a. Put the clauses in order.
b. Add if or unless. (either at the beginning of your sentence, or between the two
   clauses, and add a comma if necessary)
c. Use a pronoun for repeated subjects or objects in the second clause.

Example: The students can improve their writing skills. The students study.
Answer: The students can improve their skills if they study. OR
Answer: If the students study, they can improve their writing skills.

1. Mr. Mann doesn’t leave town. People will kill Mr. Mann.

   _____________________________________________________________________

2. People might kill Mr. Mann. Mr. Mann leaves town.

   _____________________________________________________________________

3. The white people will kill the black person. The white mob thinks the black person
   raped Fanny.

   _____________________________________________________________________

4. The sheriff controls the people. The people will stop killing each other.

   _____________________________________________________________________

5. Sarah stayed in the house. What would have happened?

   _____________________________________________________________________

6. Scrappie and the children do not hide. The white mob might kill Scrappie and the
   children.

   _____________________________________________________________________

7. Scrappie and the children are in danger. Scrappie and the children hide.

   _____________________________________________________________________




                                            98
Adverb Clauses of Opposition

Adverb clauses of opposition tell why something is unexpected.
Adverb clauses of opposition usually start with these subordinate conjunctions:
    although
    even though

Read and study these example sentences. Adverb clauses of opposition can occur before
or after the main clause of a sentence.

Example sentences with ALTHOUGH --

1. Although John’s car was damaged in a serious accident, he was not injured.
   Think – There was an awful accident. John’s car was damaged. Was John injured?
   What did we expect would happen?

2. Although Mary graduated with a BS in chemistry, she is working as a server in a
   restaurant.
   Think – Mary graduated from college with a BS degree in chemistry. Did she find a
   job in a chemistry lab? Where is she working? Was this expected?

3. Anna Smith has started college although she is only 16 years old.
   Think – Anna is in college. She is not in high school. Are people usually in college at
   16?

4. George Baker was unable to pass his calculus course although he studied a lot every
   day.
   Think – George worked hard every day trying to learn calculus. Was he successful?

We can write these same sentences with EVEN THOUGH -- The meaning doesn’t change.

1. Even though John’s car was damaged in a serious accident, he was not injured.
   Think – There was an awful accident. John’s car was damaged. Was John injured?
   What did we expect would happen?

2. Even though Mary graduated with a BS in chemistry, she is working as a server in
   a restaurant.
   Think – Mary graduated from college with a BS degree in chemistry. Did she find a
   job in a chemistry lab? Where is she working? Was this expected?

3. Anna Smith has started college even though she is only 16 years old.
   Think – Anna is in college. She is not in high school. Are people usually in college at
   16?

4. George Baker was unable to pass his calculus course even though he studied a lot
   every day.
   Think – George worked hard every day trying to learn calculus. Was he successful?


                                           99
Practice 1: Although (Even though) Adverb Clauses - RW
(Use these after Rosewood, part 4)
Directions:
a. Tell what part (A or B) is unexpected.
b. Combine the two short sentences with although. Add although at the beginning of
    your sentence or between the two clauses, and add a comma if necessary. Use a
    pronoun for repeated subjects or objects in the second clause.
EXAMPLE:
A. Jerry and Joan did not pass this course.
B. Jerry and Joan studied every day.

ANSWER: What is unexpected = A
        Jerry and Joan did not pass the course although they studied every day.

1. A. Mr. Mann was willing to risk his life.
   B. Mr. Mann knew the white mob was hunting for him.
   What is unexpected = ____

   ________________________________________________________________________

   ________________________________________________________________________

2. A. Scrappie told the children to stay in the woods.
   B. The children went to town because the church bells were ringing.
   What is unexpected = ____

   ________________________________________________________________________

   ________________________________________________________________________

3. A. Jewel refused to stay in Mr. Wright’s house.
   B. Mr. Wright agreed to hide Jewel and Jewel’s parents in his house.
   What is unexpected = ____

   ________________________________________________________________________

   ________________________________________________________________________

4. A. Sheriff Ellis should be trying to stop the white mob.
   B. Sheriff Ellis was helping the white mob kill black people.
   What is unexpected = ____

   ________________________________________________________________________

   ________________________________________________________________________


                                          100
5. A. Mr. Wright gave some bullets to Mr. Mann.
   B. Mr. Mann threatened Mr. Wright with a gun.
   What is unexpected = ____

   ________________________________________________________________________

   ________________________________________________________________________


6. A. The children and young women were freezing and had no food.
   B. The children and the young women stayed in the woods.
   What is unexpected = ____

   ________________________________________________________________________

   ________________________________________________________________________


7. A. The Seaboard train conductors agreed to let the women and children travel on the train.
   B. The Seaboard train conductors received no money.
   What is unexpected = ____

   ________________________________________________________________________

   ________________________________________________________________________




                                          101
Notes
Use this space to write down things you want to remember about this section.




                                          102
Passive Verbs and Adjectives
Passive Verb / Adjectives - FD

Study this:

Frederick Douglas was owned like a horse or a pig or a cow.

      The -ed in was owned is NOT past!
      Owned does not tell us what FD did.
      Owned tells us what happened to FD.
      Study these sentences. They both have the same meaning:

   1. The slave master owned Frederick Douglass.
   2. Frederick Douglass was owned by the slave master.

Now think for yourself:

Frederick Douglass was a famous man. He was respected.

      Is the -ed in respected past?
      Does respected tell us what FD did?
      Does respected tell us what happened to FD?
      Do these sentences have to same meaning?

   1. Many people respected Frederick Douglass.
   2. Frederick Douglass was respected by many people.

Sometimes, Frederick Douglass was feared.

      ____(WHO)___ feared Frederick Douglass.
      ____(WHO)___ was feared by ___(WHOM)___ .




                                         103
Grammar in context (Passive Verb Sentences) - FD

Passive sentences have a BE verb and a PAST PARTICIPLE verb (See page 931,
Longman's Dictionary of American English).

BE verbs: BE, IS, ARE, WAS, WERE. (In passive sentences, we can write get, gets or
got instead of a BE verb.)

#19. If Frederick got caught, ....
     In this item, caught tells what someone might do to Frederick. It does not tell what
Frederick did.
     Who might catch Frederick?
     We could write: If someone caught Frederick, ...

#20. ... Frederick would be stopped.
     In this item, stopped tells what someone might do to Frederick. It does not tell what
Frederick did.
     Who might stop Frederick?
     We could write: Someone might stop Frederick.

#21. Frederick's precious pile of words would be taken away from him.
     In this item, taken tells what someone would do to the words. It does not tell what
the words did.
     Who would take away Frederick's words?
     We could write: Someone would take away Frederick's precious pile of words.

#22. Sometimes, Frederick was sent on an errand.
     In this item, sent tells what someone did to Frederick. It does not tell what Frederick
did.
     Who sent Frederick?
     We could write: The master sent Frederick on an errand.

Practice:

Fill in the blanks. (Use Frederick Douglass or someone)

   1. If _________________ caught _________________ , that person would stop
      Frederick.
   2. If _________________ got caught by _________________ , Frederick would be
      stopped.
   3. _________________ would take away _________________'s precious pile of
      words.
   4. Frederick's precious pile of words would be taken away by _________________.
   5. _________________ sent _________________ on an errand.
   6. _________________ was sent by _________________ on an errand.




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More Grammar in Context: Passive verbs - FD

Remember:

Passive sentences have a BE verb and a PAST PARTICIPLE verb (See the irregular verb
list, near end of your Longman's Dictionary. If a verb is not on this list, add -ed to make
the past participle). Remember --- A PAST PARTICIPLE IS NOT REALLY PAST!

BE verbs: BE, IS, ARE, WAS, WERE. (In passive sentences, we can write get, gets or
got instead of BE.)\

----Answer these items from FD Unit 6.---

27. Frederick WAS SENT to St. Michael's.

     a. Who sent Frederick?

     b. _________________ sent ___________________ to St. Michael's.

     c. Frederick was sent to St. Michael's by ___________________.

28. For the first time in seven years, he WAS WHIPPED.

     a. Who whipped Frederick?

     b . _________________ whipped ___________________ .

     c. Frederick was whipped by _______________________ .

29. Frederick WAS EXPECTED to say "Yes, Master."

     a. Who expected Frederick to say "Yes, Master"?

     b. Frederick was expected to say "Yes, Master" by ___________________ .

     c. _________________ expected ___________________ to say "Yes, Master."

34. Frederick WOULD NOT BE WHIPPED again!

     a. Who would not whip Frederick again?

     b. Frederick would not be whipped again by ______________________.

     c. __________________ would not whip ____________________ again.




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If you need more practice, see previous practices with passive verbs.

Practice 1

Practice 2

Practice Recognizing and Changing From Active to Passive Verbs

Here are four active sentences --

A.   Simple present [active]: Oz eats pizza.
B.   Simple past [active]: Many people liked him in high school.
C.   Present continuous [active]: Someone is writing that essay right now.
D.   Past continuous [active]: Someone was practicing English last night.

I. Directions: Change these to passive sentences -- [Remember to add "be" and the "en"
participle.]

A.
B.
C.
D.

II. Directions: Tell if you can or cannot change these sentences to passive. –
[Remember only transitive verbs have passive forms.]

1. Zhanna loves shrimp.
   ___ Can change to passive
   ___ Cannot change to passive

2. He was popular in high school.
   ___ Can change to passive
   ___ Cannot change to passive

3. The students are writing one paragraph.
   ___ Can change to passive
   ___ Cannot change to passive

4. Aaron punched Kaimi.
   ___ Can change to passive
   ___ Cannot change to passive

5. Jason was sleeping this morning.
   ___ Can change to passive
   ___ Cannot change to passive




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     Grammar of adjective clauses - Introduction

Independent clauses – Remember that independent clauses are complete sentences. An
independent clause has one subject phrase and one verb phrase. Examples of
independent clauses:
    We do not like some foods.
    In India, farmers cannot plow their fields.

Dependent clauses – Remember that dependent clauses are not complete sentences; to be
complete, a dependent clause needs an independent clause. Examples of dependent
clauses:
     that are from other cultures
     who kill their cows for meat

Dependent adjective clauses describe nouns. Dependent adjective clauses usually start
with who, that, and which.

Here is a complete sentence with an independent and a dependent adjective clause:
    We do not like some foods that are from other cultures.
            o What noun does that describe?
            o foods
Here is another complete sentence with an independent and a dependent adjective clause:
    In India, farmers who kill their cows for meat cannot plow their fields.
            o What noun does the adjective clause describe?
            o farmers

Read these sentences carefully.

   We do not like some foods that are from other cultures.
    What foods don’t we like?

       _________________________________

   In India, farmers who kill their cows for meat cannot plow their fields.
    Who cannot plow their fields?

       ______________________________

PRACTICE:
Example: We may laugh at clothing that seems ridiculous to us.
1. Which clause is the independent clause?
2. Which clause is the dependent adjective clause?
3. What kind of clothing may we laugh at?

You will learn more about these kinds of clauses in other English courses.


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Notes
Use this space to write down things you want to remember about this section.




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