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					    ELIZABETH BOARD OF
         EDUCATION
            2010




         ITALIAN
WORLD LANGUAGE CURRICULUM
           9-12
Cover Page                                          1

Table of Contents                                   2

Elizabeth Board of Education                        4

Vision and Mission Statement and Pledge of Ethics   5

Preface                                             6

History of the Italian Language                     8

Rationale                                           10

NJ Core Curriculum Content Standards                11
           World Language                          21
           Technology                              22
           Careers                                 45
Methods                                             53

Assessments                                         69

Lesson Plan Format
   Italian I
            Macro-Organization Map                 86
            Micro-Organization Timeline            87
            Italian I Benchmarks                   90
   Italian II
            Macro-Organization Map                 94
            Micro-Organization Timeline            95
            Italian II Benchmarks                  98
   Italian III
                Macro-Organization Map             102
                Micro-Organization Timeline        103
                Italian III Benchmarks             106

Italian IV
                Macro-Organization Map             110
                Micro-Organization Timeline        111
                Italian IV Benchmarks              114

                                                         2
                 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sample Lessons                       118




                                       3
Appendix
              Teacher Resources    129
              Graphic Organizers   132




                                      4
  ELIZABETH BOARD OF EDUCATION
                      Carlos Trujillo
               Board of Education President

                   Marie Lynn Munn
            Board of Education Vice President

               Board of Education Members

                    Pastor Raul Burgos
                   Elcy Castillo-Ospina
                     Armando Da Silva
                       John Donoso
                   Francisco Gonzalez
                    Fernando Nazco
                     Paul Perriera

                      Pablo Muñoz
                Superintendent of Schools

                      Jennifer Barrett
           Assistant Superintendent for Schools

                        Jerome Dunn
Assistant Superintendent for Family and Community Outreach

                      Aida C. Garcia
           Assistant Superintendent for Schools

                     Olga Hugelmeyer
    Assistant Superintendent for Teaching and Learning

                  Harold E Kennedy, Jr
      School Business Administrator/Board Secretary

                    Donald Concalves
                 Assistant Board Secretary
                                                             5
                          Our Vision Statement
The Elizabeth Public Schools will be one of the best school systems in
the State of New Jersey.

                         Our Mission Statement
The Elizabeth Public Schools will provide excellent educational
experiences and services to inspire every student to think, to learn, to
achieve and to care.

                                Our Priorities
1. Creating excellence in academics, athletics and the arts and not
tolerating anything less.
2. Boosting student performance on state tests.
3. Increasing school safety and discipline.
4. Modernizing and constructing school buildings.
5. Changing our district‘s culture and increasing staff morale by treating
people well.

                              Pledge of Ethics
As a member of the Elizabeth Public Schools Professional learning
Community, I will treat people as I wish to be treated.
To do that, I pledge to:
    Understand that the school community is a ―special place‖.
    Listen respectfully when someone else is speaking by paying
      close attention and not interrupting.
    Speak in a calm voice and use proper language.
    Dress appropriately for teaching and learning
    Inspire the best in myself and others by celebrating successes and
      learning from mistakes.
    Care about others by demonstrating acts of kindness.
    Be a life-long learner by taking every opportunity to learn from
      Others

                                                                             6
                                              PREFACE
        The 2010-2011 school year in the Elizabeth Board of Education signals a new era of
teaching and learning. All staff, including world language teachers, will live the district’s
mission statement to inspire every student to think, learn, achieve and care. World language
classrooms will continuously move towards academic rigor and excellence for their students
within a framework of a positive school culture. This curriculum is a first step to ensure that
world language teachers are equipped to teach to the standards prescribed by the state for high
academic excellence for our students.
        The curriculum was designed utilizing the Rationale-Empirical Curriculum Model. The
model is made up of the following components: a rationale, educational goals and objectives,
selected and organized subject content, methods of instruction and assessment tools.
Additionally, marking period, macro-organization maps, micro-organization maps and timelines.
        Using the above-mentioned theory, the team divided the curriculum into chapters. Some
chapters are lengthier than others; however each chapter is vital to the continuity and impact of
the curriculum. In addition, the curriculum contains a technology section and an appendix
section.
        The first chapter is the Rationale. The rationale provides the justification for establishing
this particular course and explains what this course will do for the students as well as for the
community. The next chapter, the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards, or
educational goals, provides the teachers with the broad overarching goals that Elizabeth students
should attain according to the state. The third chapter, Methods provides a description of carious
instructional methods grade 9-12 Italian language teachers can use to present subject material.
The purpose of the fourth chapter, Assessments, is to describe the carious tools an instructor can
use to evaluate foreign language student performance.
        Following the fourth chapter, the curriculum is divided into a section for each Italian
level. Each section presents to the teachers the following: marking period benchmarks, macro
and micro maps and timelines, and a sample lesson plan. They are based on the 6th Edition
CIAO and 7th Edition DaCapo Also included is the specific theme of the lesson and the newly
adopted N.J. Core Curriculum Content Standards for World Languages, Technology Literacy
and Career Education. The lesson‘s objectives procedures or methods, and a list of assessment
tools follow.
        This curriculum provides then, five significant features: an effective overall framework, a
solid procedure for lesson presentation, quarterly benchmarks, embedded technology activities
and academic flexibility. First, the overall curriculum framework is effective because all of the
curriculum‘s components are connected in a logical and rational manner. Second, the procedure
for lesson presentation that follows includes sections that are most effective and commonly used
in education. They are:
                  An introduction
                  Standard-based objectives
                  The use of instructional methods in presenting subject content
                                                                                                    7
         Types of assessments or evaluations,
         Technology and
         Closure to a lesson or unit
Sample lesson plans are meant to be a model for future lesson plans, which are devised
by each individual teacher. In this way, the curriculum allows World Language teachers
academic flexibility by encouraging them to use their professional expertise to determine
the instructional methods and assessments they will use during the school year.

       Best wishes for a successful year!

       Guido Morsella
       World Language Department




                                                                                        8
                  History of the Italian Language

     The history of the Italian language is quite complex but the modern standard of the
language was largely shaped by relatively recent events. The earliest surviving texts which
can definitely be called Italian (as opposed to its predecessor Vulgar Latin) are legal
formulae from the region of Benevento dating from A.D. 960-963. Italian was first
formalized in the 14th century through the works of Dante Alighieri, who mixed southern
Italian dialects, especially Sicilian, with his native Tuscan in his epic poems known
collectively as the Commedia, to which Boccaccio later affixed the title Divina. Dante's
much-loved works were read throughout Italy and his written dialect became the canonical
standard that others could all understand. Dante is still credited with standardizing the
Italian language.

     Italian has always had a distinctive dialect for each city, since the cities were up until
recently city-states. Italians generally believe that the best spoken Italian is lingua toscana
in bocca romana - 'the Tuscan tongue, in a Roman mouth' (Tuscan dialects spoken with
Roman inflection). The Romans are known for speaking clearly and distinctly, while the
Tuscan dialect (supposedly derived from Etruscan and Oscan), is the closest existing
dialect to Dante's now-standard Italian.

     In contrast to the dialects of northern Italy, the older southern Italian dialects were
largely untouched by the Franco-Occitan influences introduced to Italy, mainly by bards
from France, during the middle ages. The economic might and relative advanced
development of Tuscany at the time (late middle ages), gave its dialect weight, though
Venetian remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life. Also, the increasing
cultural relevance of Florence during the periods of 'Umanesimo' and Rinascimento
(Renaissance) made its vulgare (dialect) a standard in the arts.



                                  Official status
Italian is an official language of Italy, San Marino, Switzerland and Vatican City. It is also
an official language in the Istria County (Croatia) and municipalities of Koper, Piran and
Izola (Slovenia).




                                                                                                  9
                    Cultural acceptance of dialects
      Dialects are generally not used for general communication but are limited to groups of
  people who can actually speak them and to informal contexts. Speaking dialect is often
  shunned upon in Italy as it is a sign of lacking education. The younger generation speaks
  almost exclusively standard Italian, usually with some local accent, but never in such a
  way that is a barrier to communication.

      Dialects have their share of enthusiasts, but this is a small niche of the population. The
  promotion of dialects by some political forces as the Lega Nord has damaged rather than
  helped the status of northern dialects.

       Dialects are often used to provide comic relief or to produce stereotypes; northern
  dialects can be connected to greedy, narrow-minded merchants; Roman accent is
  associated with arrogant, simple-minded bullies; Neapolitan reminds of dishonest, cunning
  slackers, and, even in Italy, Sicilian is associated with the mafia. However, many
  screenwriters also explore the more expressive and spontaneous features of a dialect, often
  to challenge the common cliches and present a richer, less explored reality.



Taken from: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: Italian Language.




                                                                                                   10
                                    RATIONALE

        World languages are crucial to our nation‘s economic competitiveness and national
security. Multilingualism enhances cognitive and social growth, competitiveness in the global
marketplace, and understanding of diverse people and cultures. Four out of five new jobs in the
United States are created from foreign trade and national security. In addition, multicultural and
multiethnic communities demand increase contact and face-to-face interaction with members of
other cultures from around the world.

        Over the past twenty-five years research has been conducted which documents the
benefits of knowing how to communicate in more than one language. Second language learning
can benefit cognitive, academic, and social skills. Studies suggest that students who are learning
another language show greater creativity at solving complex problems than their monolingual
peers.

        Children in World Languages programs have tended to demonstrate greater cognitive
development, creativity, and divergent thinking than monolingual children. Several studies show
that people who are competent in more than one language outscore those who are speakers of
only one language on tests of verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Studies also show that learning
another language enhances the academic skills of students by increasing their abilities in reading,
writing, and mathematics.

        People who communicate in at least two languages are an asset to the communities in
which they live and work. Increasing numbers of jobs now require people who are capable of
interacting with people who speak languages other than English and can adapt to a wide range of
cultural backgrounds. In addition, the ability to communicate in a world language contributes to
a student‘s overall achievement of personal and professional career goals.




                                                                                                11
                      New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standard

                                                   for

                                         World Languages



                                            INTRODUCTION



World Languages Education in the 21st Century



New Jersey citizens are part of a dynamic, interconnected, and technologically driven global society
centered on the creation and communication of knowledge and ideas across geographical, cultural, and
linguistic borders. Individuals who effectively communicate in more than one language, with an
appropriate understanding of cultural contexts, are globally literate and possess the attributes reflected
in the mission and vision for world languages education that follow:



Mission: The study of another language and culture enables individuals, whether functioning as citizens
or workers, to communicate face-to-face and by virtual means in appropriate ways with people from
diverse cultures.



Vision: An education in world languages fosters a population that:



        Communicates in more than one language with the levels of language proficiency that are
    required to function in a variety of occupations and careers in the contemporary workplace.
         Exhibits attitudes, values, and skills that indicate a positive disposition and understanding of
    cultural differences and that enhance cross-cultural communication.

        Values language learning as a global literacy as well as for its long-term worth in fostering
    personal, work-related, and/or financial success in our increasingly interconnected world.



Intent and Spirit of the World Languages Standard


                                                                                                       12
The study of world languages is spiraling and recursive and aligned to appropriate proficiency targets
that ultimately enable the attainment of proficiency at the Novice-High level or above, which is a
requirement for high school graduation. All students have regular, sequential instruction in one or more
world languages beginning in preschool or kindergarten and continuing at least through the freshman
year of high school. Further, N.J.A.C. 6A:8-5.1(b)4 directs districts to actively encourage all students who
otherwise meet the current-year requirements for high school graduation to accrue, during each year of
enrollment, five credits in world languages aimed at preparation for entrance into postsecondary
programs or 21st-century careers. Opportunities to develop higher levels of proficiency should be based
on personal and career interests and should be encouraged in Personalized Student Learning Plans.



The number of years spent studying a language and the frequency of instruction impact the level of
proficiency acquired in the language. This principle has historically been supported by research in the
United States and abroad. However, as part of a three-year grant project (2005-08), the New Jersey
Department of Education collected data from New Jersey schools that further support these research
findings. Data from the federally funded project that assessed the language proficiency of 60,000 8th-
grade students present compelling evidence for the need to develop programs that offer all students
the opportunity to meet the state-designated proficiency level of Novice-High. The data show that
programs offering a minimum of 540 hours of articulated instruction in classes that meet at least three
times a week throughout the academic year produce a majority of students who can speak at the
Novice-High proficiency level or higher. Consequently, the establishment and/or maintenance of quality,
well articulated language programs at the elementary and middle-school levels, as required by New
Jersey Administrative Code, is critical for building the capacity of high school students to achieve the
Novice-High level of language proficiency required for graduation.



Language Proficiency Levels



Unlike other New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards areas, the world languages standard is
benchmarked by proficiency levels, rather than grade levels. The development of these proficiency
levels was informed by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Performance
Guidelines for K-12 Learners (ACTFL, 1998), the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines—Speaking (ACTFL, 1999),
and the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines—Writing (ACTFL, 2001). The levels are fully defined in the World
Languages Performance Level Descriptors Table and are summarily reflected in the following proficiency
statements:




                                                                                                         13
 Novice-Mid Level: Students communicate using memorized words and phrases to talk about familiar
  topics related to school, home, and the community.
 Novice-High Level: Students communicate using words, lists, and simple sentences to ask and
  answer questions, to handle simple transactions related to everyday life, and to talk about subject
  matter studied in other classes.

 Intermediate-Low Level: Students communicate using simple sentences to ask and answer
  questions, to handle simple transactions related to everyday life, and to talk about subject matter
  studied in other classes.
 Intermediate-Mid Level: Students communicate using strings of sentences to ask and answer
  questions, to handle simple transactions related to everyday life, and to talk about subject matter
  studied in other classes.

 Intermediate-High Level: Students communicate using connected sentences and paragraphs to
  handle complicated situations on a wide-range of topics.
 Advanced-Low Level: Students communicate using paragraph-level discourse to handle complicated
  situations on a wide-range of topics.



Realistic Grade-Level Targets for Benchmarked Proficiency Levels



Language learners can be expected to move through levels of proficiency at different rates. In addition,
language learners may demonstrate differing proficiencies depending upon the communicative mode in
which they are functioning (interpersonal, interpretive, or presentational). However, according to
ACTFL, the proficiency levels generally align with grade-level achievement as follows:



 Novice-Mid Level: Students beginning the study of a second language in preschool or kindergarten
  in a program that meets a minimum of three times a week for 30 minutes should meet the
  cumulative progress indicators for the Novice-Mid level by the end of grade 2.

 Novice-High Level: Students beginning the study of a second language in preschool or kindergarten
  in a program that meets a minimum of three times a week for 30 minutes, and continuing the study
  of that language in subsequent grades in a program that meets for the same amount of time, should
  meet the cumulative progress indicators for the Novice-High level by the end of grade 5.
 Intermediate-Low Level: Students beginning the study of a second language in a program that
  meets a minimum of three times a week for 30 minutes during elementary school, and continuing
  the study of that language through middle school in a program that meets a minimum of five times a


                                                                                                     14
   week for 40 minutes, should meet the cumulative progress indicators for the Intermediate-Low level
   by the end of grade 8.
 Intermediate-Mid Level: Students beginning the study of a second language in a program that
  meets a minimum of three times a week for 30 minutes during elementary school and a minimum of
  five times a week for 40 minutes during middle school and high school, should meet the cumulative
  progress indicators for the Intermediate-Mid level by the end of grade 10.

 Intermediate-High Level: Students beginning the study of a second language in a program that
  meets a minimum of three times a week for 30 minutes during elementary school and a minimum of
  five times a week for 40 minutes during middle school and high school, should meet the cumulative
  progress indicators for the Intermediate-High level by the end of grade 12.

 Advanced-Low Level: Heritage students and students who have significant experiences with the
  language outside of the classroom should meet the cumulative progress indicators for the
  Advanced-Low level by the end of grade 12.



A Note About Preschool Learners: Like other young learners, preschool students learn world languages
with the goal of reaching the Novice-Mid level by second grade. However, the focus of language learning
for preschool students may differ from the focus of language learning for students in grades K-2. To
learn more about language learning at the preschool level, see the Preschool Teaching & Learning
Standards.



ACTFL Anticipated Performance Outcomes



The graphic that follows provides a visual representation of anticipated student performance outcomes
(ACTFL, 1998).



     Visual Representation of Anticipated Performance Outcomes as described in the

                      ACTFL Performance Guidelines for K-12 Learners




                                                                                                    15
Philosophy and Goals



The New Jersey world languages standard and indicators reflect the philosophy and goals found in the
national Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards in Foreign
Language Education Project, 2006). They were developed by consulting standards in the United States
and internationally, as well as by examining the latest research and best practices on second-language
acquisition. The revised world languages standard is generic in nature, designed as a core subject, and is
meant to be inclusive for all languages taught in New Jersey schools. With regard to the implementation
of the world languages standard for particular languages or language groups:



         American Sign Language (ASL): Students and teachers of American Sign Language (ASL)
    communicate thoughts and ideas through three-dimensional visual communication. They engage in
    all three modes of communication—interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational—by using
    combinations of hand-shapes, palm orientations, and movements of the hands, arms, and body. ASL
    differs from other spoken languages in that the vocal cords are not used for communication.
         Classical languages: The study of classical languages focuses primarily on the interpretive
    mode using historical contexts. Occasionally, some attention may be given to oral dimensions of
    classical languages, such as by asking students to make presentations in the language of study as a
    way of strengthening their language knowledge and use.
                                                                                                       16
         Heritage-languages: Heritage-language students may be (1) newly-arrived immigrants to the
    United States, (2) first-generation students whose home language is not English and who have been
    schooled primarily in the United States, or (3) second- or third- generation students who have
    learned some aspects of a heritage language at home. These students have varying abilities and
    proficiencies in their respective heritage languages; they often carry on fluent and idiomatic
    conversations (interpersonal mode), but require instruction that allows them to develop strengths in
    reading (interpretive mode) and in formal speaking and writing (presentational mode). These
    students are held to the same standards for world languages as their English-speaking peers, and
    they should be provided with opportunities for developing skills in their native languages that are
    both developmentally supportive and rigorous. Designing curriculum to maintain and further
    develop native-language skills ensures that the skills of these students do not erode over time as
    English becomes their dominant language.



Revised Standard



The world languages standard lays the foundation for creating local curricula and related assessments.
Changes that led to the revised 2009 standard are as follows:



   The communication and culture standards have been combined into one standard that continues to
    be organized by proficiency levels, but now also encompasses a broader spectrum of proficiency
    levels.

   World languages content is both linguistic and cultural, and includes personal and social topics and
    concepts as well as ideas from other content areas. Both linguistic and cultural content statements
    have been added for each strand to provide a context for the cumulative progress indicators (CPIs)
    at each proficiency level.
   Linguistic content varies and is dependent on the mode of language use. Proficiency does not occur
    at the same rate for all students in all skill areas. (See the results of the Foreign Language Assistance
    Program Grant Project, which are contained in the report, Policy, Assessment, and Professional
    Development: Results from a Statewide Study.) For example, a student may perform at the Novice-
    High level in reading and the Intermediate-Low level in speaking.

   Cultural content recurs across the modes of communication because communication always occurs
    within a cultural context. The 21st-century themes identified in the Partnership for 21st Century Skills
    Framework are incorporated in many of these content statements. Students spiral through this
    content with increasing depth and sophistication as they attain higher levels of language proficiency.
    Therefore, the extent to which a theme is addressed at a given point in time depends on age- and
    developmental appropriateness as well as on proficiency level.

                                                                                                          17
   Integration of technology within the CPIs necessitates its use as a tool in instruction and assessment.



One World Languages Standard



The reorganization of the previous world languages standards into one revised standard reflects the
framework, graphically depicted below, that was developed for the 2004 National Association of
Educational Progress (NAEP) in foreign languages.




The NAEP graphic illustrates that the overarching goal of language instruction is the development of
students’ communicative skills (the central “C” of five Cs in the graphic is for “communication”).
Students should be provided ample opportunities to engage in conversations, present information to a
known audience, and interpret authentic materials in the language of study. In addition, to develop
linguistic proficiency, a meaningful context for language use must be established. The four Cs in the
outer ring of the graphic (cultures, connections, comparisons, and communities) provide this meaningful
context for language learning. These contexts stress (1) the teaching of culture; (2) the study and
reinforcement of content from other disciplines; (3) the comparison of target and native languages and
cultures; and (4) opportunities to interact with native speakers of languages. As such, the four context
Cs serve as the basis for instructional activities and are fully embedded within the world languages
communication objectives.



View two videos (#12 and #30) that illustrate the integration of the five Cs.




                                                                                                        18
Three Strands



The revised world languages standard continues to include three strands, one for each of the three
modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational (in the NAEP graphic, these
are shown around the inner triangle).



Strand A reflects the Interpretive Mode of communication, in which students demonstrate
understanding of spoken and written communication within appropriate cultural contexts. Examples of
this kind of “one-way” reading or listening include cultural interpretations of printed texts, videos,
online texts, movies, radio and television broadcasts, and speeches. Beyond the Novice level,
“interpretation” differs from “comprehension” because it implies the ability to read or listen “between
the lines” and “beyond the lines.” For more on the interpretive mode of communication:



   Click Teaching Foreign Languages K-12 Workshop to view a video on the interpretive mode (scroll
    down to video #1).
   Click Wisconsin Project: Modes of Communication.



Strand B reflects the Interpersonal Mode of communication, in which students engage in direct oral
and/or written communication with others. Examples of this “two-way” communication include
conversing face-to-face, participating in online discussions or videoconferences, instant messaging and
text messaging, and exchanging personal letters or e-mail messages. For more on the interpersonal
mode of communication:



   Click Teaching Foreign Languages K-12 Workshop to view a video on the interpersonal mode (scroll
    down to video #2.
   Click Wisconsin Project: Modes of Communication.



Strand C reflects the Presentational Mode of communication, in which students present, orally and/or
in writing, information, concepts and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers with whom there is no
immediate interaction. Examples of this “one-to-many” mode of communication include a presentation
to a group, posting an online video or webpage, creating and posting a podcast or videocast, and writing
an article for a newspaper.

                                                                                                     19
   Click Teaching Foreign Languages K-12 Workshop to view a video on the presentational mode (scroll
    down to video #3)
   Click Wisconsin Project: Modes of Communication.



The Role of Grammar in the World Languages Class



While knowledge of the grammar of a language (e.g., rules for syntax, tense, and other elements of
usage) is not an explicit goal of the revised New Jersey World Languages standard, grammar plays a
supporting role in allowing students to achieve the stated linguistic proficiency goals. Grammar is one
tool that supports the attainment of the stated linguistic goals; others tools include knowledge of
vocabulary, sociolinguistic knowledge, understanding of cultural appropriateness, and grasp of
communication strategies.



Students who are provided with ample opportunities to create meaning and use critical thinking skills in
a language of study achieve linguistic proficiency. Research has established that all grammar learning
must take place within a meaningful context, with the focus on producing structures to support
communication.



Education in World Languages: Advocacy and Resources



   Information regarding federal grants for implementing standards-based world languages programs
    may be found on the Foreign Language Assistance Program (FLAP) or the Joint National Committee
    for Languages (JNCL) websites. JNCL also provides advocacy materials.

   The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) provides extensive research
    related to the ways that language learning benefits students by supporting academic achievement,
    cognitive development, and positive attitudes and beliefs about languages and cultures.

   An Annotated Glossary With Resources, instructions for How To Select Culturally Authentic
    Materials Based On Proficiency Level, and a World Languages Performance-Level Descriptors Table
    were designed in connection with the World Languages standard to support implementation of
    world languages instruction.



                                                                                                     20
   The most comprehensive report compiled on the status of world languages education in New
    Jersey’s public schools (2005), A Report on the State of World Languages Implementation in New
    Jersey, is available on the New Jersey Department of Education World Languages homepage.

   The state language organization—Foreign Language Educators of New Jersey (FLENJ)—offers links to
    a variety of language resources, professional development opportunities, and information about
    student and professional awards and scholarships.



References

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (1998). ACTFL performance
      guidelines for K-12 learners. Yonkers, NY: Author.

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (1999). ACTFL proficiency
      guidelines—speaking. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from
      http://www.actfl.org/files/public/Guidelinesspeak.pdf

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (1999). ACTFL proficiency
      guidelines—writing. Retrieved January 8, 2009, from
      http://www.actfl.org/files/public/writingguidelines.pdf

Asia Society. (2008). Putting the world into world-class education: State innovations and
       opportunities. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from
       http://www.asiasociety.org/files/stateinnovations.pdf

Falsgraf, C. (Ed.). (2007). Foreign language units for all proficiency levels. Washington, DC:
       International Society for Technology in Education.

Jensen, J., Sandrock, P., & Franklin, J. (2007). The essentials of world languages, grades K-12:
       Effective curriculum, instruction and assessment: Priorities in practice. Alexandria, VA:
       Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned. Oxford, England: Oxford Press.

Met, M. (2001). Why language learning matters. Educational Leadership, 59(2), 36-40.

National Assessment Governing Board. (2000). Framework for the 2004 foreign language
       National Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: Author. Online:
       http://www.nagb.org/publications/frameworks/FinalFrameworkPrePubEdition1.pdf

National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. (2006). Standards for foreign
       language learning in the 21st century. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press, Inc.



                                                                                                 21
New Jersey State Department of Education. (1999). New Jersey world languages curriculum
      framework. Trenton, NJ: Author.

New Jersey State Department of Education. (2004). Core curriculum content standards. Trenton,
      NJ: Author.

New Jersey State Department of Education. (2005). A report on the state of world languages
      implementation in New Jersey. Trenton, NJ: Author. Online:
      http://www.state.nj.us/education/aps/cccs/wl/stateofwl.pdf

New Jersey State Department of Education & Center for Applied Second Language Studies.
      (2008). Policy, assessment, and professional development: Results from a statewide
      study. Trenton, NJ: Author. Online:
      http://www.state.nj.us/education/aps/cccs/wl/g8assess/njflap2.htm

Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2005). Framework for 21st century learning. Online:
        http://www.21stcenturyskills.org


Wong, W., & Van Patten, B. (2003). The evidence is in, drills are out. Foreign Language
      Annals, 36(3), 403-423.




                         To jump directly to the standard, click a link below:

                                     NJ World Class Language Standards




         New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards
                                                                                             22
                                              for
                                      Technology
                                      INTRODUCTION



Technology in the 21st Century



Technology is uniquely positioned to transform learning, to foster critical thinking, creativity,
and innovation, and to prepare students to thrive in the global economy. As engaged digital
learners, students are able to acquire and apply content knowledge and skills through active
exploration, interaction, and collaboration with others across the globe, challenging them to
design the future as envisioned in the statements that follow:

Mission: Technology enables students to solve real world problems, enhance life, and extend
human capability as they meet the challenges of a dynamic global society.

Vision: The systematic integration of technology across the curriculum and in the teaching and
learning process fosters a population that leverages 21st century resources to:

   Apply information-literacy skills to access, manage, and communicate information using a
    range of emerging technological tools.
   Think critically and creatively to solve problems, synthesize and create new knowledge, and
    make informed decisions that affect individuals, the world community, and the environment.
   Gain enhanced understanding of global interdependencies as well as multiple cultural
    perspectives, differing points of view, and diverse values.
   Employ a systemic approach to understand the design process, the designed world, and the
    interrelationship and impact of technologies.
   Model digital citizenship.


Intent and Spirit of the Technology Standards



All students acquire content area knowledge and skills in: (1) Visual and Performing Arts, (2)
Comprehensive Health and Physical Education, (3) Language Arts Literacy, (4) Mathematics, (5)
Science, (6) Social Studies, (7) World Languages, (8) Educational Technology, Technology
Education, Engineering, and Design, and (9) 21st Century Life and Careers. As they do so, they
                                                                                                 23
are supported by the ongoing, transparent, and systematic integration of technology from
preschool to grade 12 in preparation for postsecondary education and the workplace.



In Preschool, technology offers versatile learning tools that can support children‘s development
in all domains. For example, electronic storybooks can ―read‖ stories to children in multiple
languages; adventure games foster problem-solving skills; story-making programs encourage
literacy and creativity; math-related games can help children count and classify; and science
activities promote inquiry and an understanding of the world through the eyes of a child. When
preschoolers are encouraged to work together with electronic devices and computers, social
skills are tapped as children negotiate turn-taking. However, technology should not replace the
concrete, real-life experiences that are critical to a young child‘s learning; it must always be used
in balance with other meaningful activities and routines. Technology should be embedded into
children‘s learning centers and should enhance their learning and development during choice
time as well as in small-group experiences.



In grades K-2, students are formally introduced to the basic features and functions of computers
and demonstrate understanding that technology enables them to communicate beyond the
classroom on a variety of topics. K-2 students are also exposed to elements of the design process,
design systems, and a variety of technology resources, and understand the importance of safety
when using technological tools.



In grades 3-4, students understand the purpose of, and are able to use, various computer
applications. They continue to develop information-literacy skills and increasingly use
technology to communicate with others in support of learning, while also recognizing the need
for cyber safety and acceptable use policies. Students in grades 3-4 also investigate the impact of
technology systems, understand the design process, and use it for problem solving.



In grades 5-8, students expand their capacity to use operations and applications, apply
information-literacy skills, and select the appropriate tools and resources to accomplish a variety
of tasks, as they develop digital citizenship. As students participate in online learning
communities, collaborating in the design of products that address local and global issues across
the curriculum, they build understanding of the perspectives of learners from other countries.
Students at this level can apply the design process in the development of products; understand
impact constraints, trade-offs, and resource selection; and solve a design challenge and/or build a
prototype using the design process. Students can explain why human-designed systems,
                                                                                                  24
products, and environments need to be monitored, maintained, and improved, and they recognize
the interdependence of subsystems as parts of a system.

In grades 9-12, students demonstrate advanced computer operation and application skills by
publishing products related to real-world situations (e.g., digital portfolios, digital learning
games and simulations), and they understand the impact of unethical use of digital tools. They
collaborate adeptly in virtual environments and incorporate global perspectives into problem
solving at home, at school, and in structured learning experiences, with the growing realization
that people in the 21st century are interconnected economically, socially, and environmentally
and have a shared future.

High School Specialization in technology enables students to design, create, and reverse-
engineer technology products or systems, document the application of the design process, and
understand its impact—including ethical considerations, costs, trade-offs, risks, benefits, and
choice of resources. Students develop products that address local and global issues and
challenges, which are disseminated for peer review.

Revised Standards



The 2009 standards provide the foundation for creating local curricula and authentic performance
assessments and emulate the philosophy and goals contained in documents produced by national
technology organizations, including the Partnership for the 21st Century Skills and the New
Jersey Educational Technology Plan. The organization of the strands in standards 8.1 and 8.2, as
well as the content and skills within each strand, has been reconceptualized to address emerging
technologies and technological applications that are needed for life and work in the global age.



   Standard 8.1, Educational Technology, is aligned to the International Society for Technology
    in Education (ISTE) standards and the Partnership for the 21st Century Skills framework.
   Standard 8.2, formerly Technology Education, is renamed Technology Education,
    Engineering, and Design and is aligned with the goals of the International Technology
    Education Association (ITEA) and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework.


National, International, and State Advocacy



The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, ISTE, and the American Association of School Libraries
(AASL) provide leadership and service to improve teaching and learning by advancing the
effective use of technology in education. The ITEA promotes technological literacy by
                                                                                                  25
supporting the teaching of technology. The Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) is an
organization for K-12 technology leaders who use technology strategically to improve learning.



At the state level, the New Jersey Technology Education Association (NJTEA) fosters the
development of technological literacy through Technology Education Programs. The New Jersey
Association for Educational Technology (NJAET)and the New Jersey Educational Computing
Cooperative (NJECC), Inc., promote and support the integration of technology in education as it
applies to student learning, professional development, and instructional planning.



Resources



American Association of School Librarians. (2007). Standards for the 21st century learner.
      Online: http://www.aasl.org



International Society for Technology in Education. (2002). National educational technology
        standards for administrators. Online:
        http://www.iste.org/Content/NavigationMenu/NETS/ForAdministrators/2009Standards/N
        ETS_for_Administrators_2009.htm



International Society for Technology in Education. (2007). National educational technology
        standards for students (2nd Ed.). Online:
        http://www.iste.org/Content/NavigationMenu/NETS/ForStudents/2007Standards/NETS_f
        or_Students_2007.htm




                                                                                             26
International Society for Technology in Education. (2008). National educational technology
        standards for teachers (2nd Ed.). Online:
        http://www.iste.org/Content/NavigationMenu/NETS/ForTeachers/2008Standards/NETS_
        for_Teachers_2008.htm



International Technology Education Association. (2003). Advancing excellence in technological
        literacy: Student assessment, professional development, and program standards. Online:
        http://www.iteaconnect.org/TAA/PDFs/AETL.pdf



International Technology Education Association. (2007). Standards for technological literacy.
        Online: http://www.iteaconnect.org/TAA/PDFs/xstnd.pdf



Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2005). Framework for 21st century learning. Online:
       http://www.21stcenturyskills.org




                                                                                                27
Content     Technology
Area

Standard    8.1 Educational Technology: All students will use digital tools to access, manage,
            evaluate, and synthesize information in order to solve problems individually and
            collaboratively and to create and communicate knowledge.

Strand      A. Technology Operations and Concepts


 By the
               Content
 end of                           CPI #             Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
              Statement
 grade


           The use of           8.1.P.A.1     Use the mouse to negotiate a simple menu on the
           technology and                     screen (e.g., to print a picture).
           digital tools
           requires knowledge   8.1.P.A.2     Use electronic devices (e.g., computer) to type name
           and appropriate                    and to create stories with pictures and letters/words.
           use of operations
           and related          8.1.P.A.3     Identify the “power keys” (e.g., ENTER, spacebar) on
           applications.                      a keyboard.
   P
                                8.1.P.A.4     Recognize that the number keys are in a row on the
                                              top of the keyboard.

                                8.1.P.A.5     Use basic technology terms in conversations (e.g.,
                                              digital camera, battery, screen, computer, Internet,
                                              mouse, keyboards, and printer).

                                8.1.P.A.6     Turn smart toys on and off.

           The use of           8.1.2.A.1     Identify the basic features of a computer and explain
           technology and                     how to use them effectively.
           digital tools
           requires knowledge   8.1.2.A.2     Use technology terms in daily practice.
           and appropriate
           use of operations    8.1.2.A.3     Discuss the common uses of computer applications
   2                                          and hardware and identify their advantages and
           and related
                                              disadvantages.
           applications.        8.1.2.A.4     Create a document with text using a word processing
                                              program.

                                8.1.2.A.5     Demonstrate the ability to navigate in virtual
                                              environments that are developmentally appropriate.

           The use of           8.1.4.A.1     Demonstrate effective input of text and data using an
           technology and                     input device.
   4
           digital tools
           requires knowledge   8.1.4.A.2     Create a document with text formatting and graphics


                                                                                                  28
     and appropriate                   using a word processing program.
     use of operations
     and related          8.1.4.A.3    Create and present a multimedia presentation that
     applications.                     includes graphics.

                          8.1.4.A.4    Create a simple spreadsheet, enter data, and interpret
                                       the information.

                          8.1.4.A.5    Determine the benefits of a wide range of digital tools
                                       by using them to solve problems.

     The use of           8.1.8.A.1    Create professional documents (e.g., newsletter,
     technology and                    personalized learning plan, business letter or flyer)
     digital tools                     using advanced features of a word processing
     requires knowledge                program.
     and appropriate
     use of operations    8.1.8.A.2    Plan and create a simple database, define fields,
     and related                       input data, and produce a report using sort and
     applications.                     query.
8
                          8.1.8.A.3    Create a multimedia presentation including sound and
                                       images.

                          8.1.8.A.4    Generate a spreadsheet to calculate, graph, and
                                       present information.

                          8.1.8.A.5    Select and use appropriate tools and digital resources
                                       to accomplish a variety of tasks and to solve
                                       problems.

     The use of           8.1.12.A.1   Construct a spreadsheet, enter data, and use
     technology and                    mathematical or logical functions to manipulate data,
     digital tools                     generate charts and graphs, and interpret the results.
     requires knowledge
     and appropriate      8.1.12.A.2   Produce and edit a multi-page document for a
     use of operations                 commercial or professional audience using desktop
     and related                       publishing and/or graphics software.
12   applications.
                          8.1.12.A.3   Participate in online courses, learning communities,
                                       social networks, or virtual worlds and recognize them
                                       as resources for lifelong learning.

                          8.1.12.A.4   Create a personalized digital portfolio that contains a
                                       résumé, exemplary projects, and activities, which
                                       together reflect personal and academic interests,
                                       achievements, and career aspirations.




                                                                                               29
Content      Technology
Area

Standard     8.1 Educational Technology: All students will use digital tools to access, manage,
             evaluate, and synthesize information in order to solve problems individually and
             collaboratively and to create and communicate knowledge.

Strand
             B. Creativity and Innovation


By the
end of     Content Statement        CPI #             Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
grade

          The use of digital      8.1.P.B.1    Use a digital camera to take a picture.
          tools and media-rich
          resources enhances
  P
          creativity and the
          construction of
          knowledge.

          The use of digital      8.1.2.B.1    Illustrate and communicate original ideas and stories
          tools and media-rich                 using digital tools and media-rich resources.
          resources enhances
  2
          creativity and the
          construction of
          knowledge.

          The use of digital      8.1.4.B.1    Produce a media-rich digital story about a significant
          tools and media-rich                 local event or issue based on first-person interviews.
          resources enhances
  4
          creativity and the
          construction of
          knowledge.

          The use of digital      8.1.8.B.1    Synthesize and publish information about a local or
          tools and media-rich                 global issue or event on a collaborative, web-based
          resources enhances                   service (also known as a shared hosted service).
  8
          creativity and the
          construction of
          knowledge.

          The use of digital      8.1.12.B.1   Design and pilot a digital learning game to
          tools and media-rich                 demonstrate knowledge and skills related to one or
          resources enhances                   more content areas or a real world situation.
 12
          creativity and the
          construction of
          knowledge.



                                                                                                     30
31
Content       Technology
Area

Standard      8.1 Educational Technology: All students will use digital tools to access, manage,
              evaluate, and synthesize information in order to solve problems individually and
              collaboratively and to create and communicate knowledge.

Strand        C. Communication and Collaboration

 By
 the
 end       Content Statement          CPI #            Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
  of
grade

          Digital tools and          8.1.P.C.1   Operate frequently used, high-quality, interactive
          environments support                   games or activities in either screen or toy-based
          the learning process                   formats.
  P       and foster
          collaboration in solving   8.1.P.C.2   Access materials on a disk, cassette tape, or DVD.
          local or global issues                 Insert a disk, cassette tape, CD-Rom, DVD, or other
          and problems.                          storage device and press “play” and “stop.”

          Digital tools and          8.1.2.C.1   Engage in a variety of developmentally appropriate
          environments support                   learning activities with students in other classes,
          the learning process                   schools, or countries using electronic tools.
  2       and foster
          collaboration in solving
          local or global issues
          and problems.

          Digital tools and          8.1.4.C.1   Engage in online discussions with learners in the
          environments support                   United States or from other countries to understand
          the learning process                   their perspectives on a global problem or issue.
  4       and foster
          collaboration in solving
          local or global issues
          and problems.

                                     8.1.8.C.1   Participate in an online learning community with
          Digital tools and                      learners from other countries to understand their
          environments support                   perspectives on a global problem or issue, and
          the learning process                   propose possible solutions.
  8       and foster
          collaboration in solving
          local or global issues
          and problems.




                                                                                                       32
     Digital tools and          8.1.12.C.1   Develop an innovative solution to a complex, local or
     environments support                    global problem or issue in collaboration with peers
     the learning process                    and experts, and present ideas for feedback in an
12   and foster                              online community.
     collaboration in solving
     local or global issues
     and problems.




                                                                                                33
Content     Technology
Area



Standard    8.1 Educational Technology: All students will use digital tools to access, manage,
            evaluate, and synthesize information in order to solve problems individually and
            collaboratively and to create and communicate knowledge.

Strand      D. Digital Citizenship

  By
 the
 end      Content Statement          CPI #           Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
  of
grade

          Technological          8.1.2.D.1    Model legal and ethical behaviors when using both
          advancements create                 print and non-print information by citing resources.
          societal concerns
  2
          regarding the
          practice of safe,
          legal, and ethical
          behaviors.
          Technological          8.1.4.D.1    Explain the need for each individual, as a member of
          advancements create                 the global community, to practice cyber safety, cyber
          societal concerns                   security, and cyber ethics when using existing and
          regarding the
                                              emerging technologies.
  4       practice of safe,
          legal, and ethical
                                 8.1.4.D.2    Analyze the need for and use of copyrights.
          behaviors.

                                 8.1.4.D.3    Explain the purpose of an acceptable use policy and
                                              the consequences of inappropriate use of technology.

          Technological          8.1.8.D.1    Model appropriate online behaviors related to cyber
          advancements create                 safety, cyber bullying, cyber security, and cyber ethics.
          societal concerns
          regarding the          8.1.8.D.2    Summarize the application of fair use and Creative
  8       practice of safe,                   Commons guidelines.
          legal, and ethical
          behaviors.
                                 8.1.8.D.3    Demonstrate how information on a controversial issue
                                              may be biased.

          Technological          8.1.12.D.1   Evaluate policies on unauthorized electronic access
          advancements create                 (e.g., hacking) and disclosure and on dissemination of
          societal concerns                   personal information.
          regarding the
 12       practice of safe,      8.1.12.D.2   Demonstrate appropriate use of copyrights as well as
          legal, and ethical                  fair use and Creative Commons guidelines.
          behaviors.
                                 8.1.12.D.3   Compare and contrast international government
                                              policies on filters for censorship.

                                                                                                     34
                                     8.1.12.D.4   Explain the impact of cyber crimes on society.




Content      Technology
Area

Standard     8.1 Educational Technology: All students will use digital tools to access, manage,
             evaluate, and synthesize information in order to solve problems individually and
             collaboratively and to create and communicate knowledge.

Strand       E. Research and Information Literacy

By the
end of    Content Statement           CPI #              Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
grade

          Effective use of           8.1.P.E.1    Use the Internet to explore and investigate questions
          digital tools assists in                with a teacher’s support.
  P       gathering and
          managing
          information.

          Effective use of           8.1.2.E.1    Use digital tools and online resources to explore a
          digital tools assists in                problem or issue affecting children, and discuss
  2       gathering and                           possible solutions.
          managing
          information.

          Effective use of           8.1.4.E.1    Investigate a problem or issue found in the United
          digital tools assists in                States and/or another country from multiple
          gathering and                           perspectives, evaluate findings, and present possible
          managing                                solutions, using digital tools and online resources for
  4       information.                            all steps.

                                     8.1.4.E.2    Evaluate the accuracy of, relevance to, and
                                                  appropriateness of using print and non-print electronic
                                                  information sources to complete a variety of tasks.

          Effective use of           8.1.8.E.1    Gather and analyze findings using data collection
          digital tools assists in                technology to produce a possible solution for a content-
  8       gathering and                           related or real-world problem.
          managing
          information.

          Effective use of           8.1.12.E.1   Develop a systematic plan of investigation with peers
          digital tools assists in                and experts from other countries to produce an
          gathering and                           innovative solution to a state, national, or worldwide
 12
          managing                                problem or issue.
          information.
                                     8.1.12.E.2   Predict the impact on society of unethical use of digital
                                                  tools, based on research and working with peers and

                                                                                                            35
                                                  experts in the field.




Content      Technology
Area

Standard     8.1 Educational Technology: All students will use digital tools to access, manage,
             evaluate, and synthesize information in order to solve problems individually and
             collaboratively and to create and communicate knowledge.

Strand       F. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision-Making

By the
end of    Content Statement           CPI #              Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
grade

          Information accessed       8.1.P.F.1    Navigate the basic functions of a browser, including
          through the use of                      how to open or close windows and use the “back” key.
          digital tools assists in
  P
          generating solutions
          and making
          decisions.

          Information accessed       8.1.2.F.1    Use mapping tools to plan and choose alternate routes
          through the use of                      to and from various locations.
          digital tools assists in
  2
          generating solutions
          and making
          decisions.

          Information accessed       8.1.4.F.1    Select and apply digital tools to collect, organize, and
          through the use of                      analyze data that support a scientific finding.
          digital tools assists in
  4
          generating solutions
          and making
          decisions.

          Information accessed       8.1.8.F.1    Use an electronic authoring tool in collaboration with
          through the use of                      learners from other countries to evaluate and
          digital tools assists in                summarize the perspectives of other cultures about a
  8
          generating solutions                    current event or contemporary figure.
          and making
          decisions.

          Information accessed       8.1.12.F.1   Select and use specialized databases for advanced
          through the use of                      research to solve real-world problems.
 12
          digital tools assists in
          generating solutions       8.1.12.F.2   Analyze the capabilities and limitations of current and
          and making                              emerging technology resources and assess their

                                                                                                         36
          decisions.                           potential to address educational, career, personal, and
                                               social needs.




Content      Technology
Area

Standard     8.2 Technology Education, Engineering, and Design: All students will develop an
             understanding of the nature and impact of technology, engineering, technological design,
             and the designed world, as they relate to the individual, global society, and the
             environment.

Strand       A. Nature of Technology: Creativity and Innovation

  By
 the
 end      Content Statement         CPI #             Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
  of
grade

          Technology products     8.2.2.A.1    Describe how technology products, systems, and
          and systems impact                   resources are useful at school, home, and work.
  2       every aspect of the
          world in which we
          live.

                                  8.2.4.A.1    Investigate factors that influence the development and
         Technology products
                                               function of technology products and systems.
         and systems impact
  4      every aspect of the
                                  8.2.4.A.2    Using a digital format, compare and contrast how a
         world in which we
                                               technology product has changed over time due to
         live.
                                               economic, political, and/or cultural influences.

         Technology products      8.2.8.A.1    Explain the impact of globalization on the development
         and systems impact                    of a technological system over time.
  8      every aspect of the
         world in which we
         live.

         Technology products      8.2.12.A.1   Design and create a technology product or system that
         and systems impact                    improves the quality of life and identify trade-offs,
 12      every aspect of the                   risks, and benefits.
         world in which we
         live.




                                                                                                    37
Content       Technology
Area

Standard      8.2 Technology Education, Engineering, and Design: All students will develop an
              understanding of the nature and impact of technology, engineering, technological
              design, and the designed world, as they relate to the individual, global society, and the
              environment.

Strand        B. Design: Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision-Making

  By
 the
             Content
 end                            CPI #                Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
            Statement
  of
grade

           The design         8.2.2.B.1     Brainstorm and devise a plan to repair a broken toy or
           process is a                     tool using the design process.
           systematic
  2                           8.2.2.B.2     Investigate the influence of a specific technology on the
           approach to
                                            individual, family, community, and environment.
           solving
           problems.

          The design          8.2.4.B.1     Develop a product using an online simulation that
          process is a                      explores the design process.
          systematic
          approach to         8.2.4.B.2     Design an alternative use for an existing product.
          solving
  4       problems.           8.2.4.B.3     Explain the positive and negative effect of products and
                                            systems on humans, other species, and the environment.

                              8.2.4.B4      Compare and contrast how technology transfer happens
                                            within a technology, among technologies, and among
                                            other fields of study.

          The design          8.2.8.B.1     Design and create a product that addresses a real-world
          process is a                      problem using the design process and working with
          systematic                        specific criteria and constraints.
          approach to
          solving
          problems.
  8                           8.2.8.B.2     Identify the design constraints and trade-offs involved in
                                            designing a prototype (e.g., how the prototype might fail
                                            and how it might be improved) by completing a design
                                            problem and reporting results in a multimedia
                                            presentation.

                              8.2.8.B.3     Solve a science-based design challenge and build a
                                            prototype using science and math principles throughout



                                                                                                        38
                                               the design process.




          The design           8.2.12.B.1      Design and create a product that maximizes conservation
          process is a                         and sustainability of a scarce resource, using the design
          systematic                           process and entrepreneurial skills throughout the design
          approach to                          process.
          solving
          problems.            8.2.12.B.2      Design and create a prototype for solving a global
                                               problem, documenting how the proposed design features
 12
                                               affect the feasibility of the prototype through the use of
                                               engineering, drawing, and other technical methods of
                                               illustration.

                               8.2.12.B.3      Analyze the full costs, benefits, trade-offs, and risks
                                               related to the use of technologies in a potential career
                                               path.




Content      Technology
Area

Standard     8.2 Technology Education, Engineering, and Design: All students will develop an
             understanding of the nature and impact of technology, engineering, technological design,
             and the designed world, as they relate to the individual, global society, and the
             environment.

Strand       C. Technological Citizenship, Ethics, and Society

  By
 the
 end      Content Statement         CPI #                Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
  of
grade

          Knowledge and            8.2.2.C.1      Demonstrate how reusing a product affects the local
          understanding of                        and global environment.
          human, cultural, and
          societal values are
  2
          fundamental when
          designing technology
          systems and products
          in the global society.

          Knowledge and            8.2.4.C.1      Explain the impact of disposing of materials in a
  4
          understanding of                        responsible way.




                                                                                                          39
          human, cultural, and     8.2.4.C.2    Explain the purpose of trademarks and the impact of
          societal values are                   trademark infringement on businesses.
          fundamental when
          designing technology     8.2.4.C.3    Examine ethical considerations in the development and
          systems and products                  production of a product from its inception through
          in the global society.                production, marketing, use, maintenance, and
                                                eventual disposal by consumers.

          Knowledge and            8.2.8.C.1    Explain the need for patents and the process of
          understanding of                      registering one.
          human, cultural, and
          societal values are      8.2.8.C.2    Compare and contrast current and past incidences of
  8
          fundamental when                      ethical and unethical use of labor in the United States
          designing technology                  or another country and present results in a media-rich
          systems and products                  presentation.
          in the global society.

          Knowledge and            8.2.12.C.1   Analyze the ethical impact of a product, system, or
          understanding of                      environment, worldwide, and report findings in a web-
          human, cultural, and                  based publication that elicits further comment and
          societal values are                   analysis.
          fundamental when
          designing technology     8.2.12.C.2   Evaluate ethical considerations regarding the
 12       systems and products                  sustainability of resources that are used for the design,
          in the global society.                creation, and maintenance of a chosen product.

                                   8.2.12.C.3   Evaluate the positive and negative impacts in a design
                                                by providing a digital overview of a chosen product and
                                                suggest potential modifications to address the negative
                                                impacts.




Content       Technology
Area

Standard      8.2 Technology Education, Engineering, and Design: All students will develop an
              understanding of the nature and impact of technology, engineering, technological design,
              and the designed world, as they relate to the individual, global society, and the
              environment.

Strand        D. Research and Information Fluency

  By
 the
          Content Statement         CPI #              Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
end of
grade

  2       Information-literacy     8.2.2.D.1    Collect and post the results of a digital classroom
          skills, research, data                survey about a problem or issue and use data to

                                                                                                      40
          analysis, and                           suggest solutions.
          prediction provide
          the basis for the
          effective design of
          technology systems.

          Information-literacy       8.2.4.D.1    Analyze responses collected from owners/users of a
          skills, research, data                  particular product and suggest modifications in the
          analysis, and                           design of the product based on their responses.
  4       prediction provide the
          basis for the effective
          design of technology
          systems.

          Information-literacy       8.2.8.D.1    Evaluate the role of ethics and bias on trend analysis
          skills, research, data                  and prediction in the development of a product that
          analysis, and                           impacts communities in the United States and/or other
  8       prediction provide the                  countries.
          basis for the effective
          design of technology
          systems.

          Information-literacy       8.2.12.D.1   Reverse-engineer a product to assist in designing a
          skills, research, data                  more eco-friendly version, using an analysis of trends
          analysis, and                           and data about renewable and sustainable materials to
 12       prediction provide the                  guide your work.
          basis for the effective
          design of technology
          systems.




Content      Technology
Area

Standard     8.2 Technology Education, Engineering, and Design: All students will develop an
             understanding of the nature and impact of technology, engineering, technological design,
             and the designed world, as they relate to the individual, global society, and the
             environment.

Strand       E. Communication and Collaboration

  By
 the
 end      Content Statement           CPI #              Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
  of
grade

  2       Digital tools facilitate   8.2.2.E.1    Communicate with students in the United States or
          local and global                        other countries using digital tools to gather information


                                                                                                        41
     communication and                       about a specific topic and share results.
     collaboration in
     designing products
     and systems.

     Digital tools facilitate   8.2.4.E.1    Work in collaboration with peers to produce and
     local and global                        publish a report that explains how technology is or was
     communication and                       successfully or unsuccessfully used to address a local
4                                            or global problem.
     collaboration in
     designing products and
     systems.

     Digital tools facilitate   8.2.8.E.1    Work in collaboration with peers and experts in the
     local and global                        field to develop a product using the design process,
     communication and                       data analysis, and trends, and maintain a digital log
8
     collaboration in                        with annotated sketches to record the development
     designing products and                  cycle.
     systems.

     Digital tools facilitate   8.2.12.E.1   Use the design process to devise a technological
     local and global                        product or system that addresses a global issue, and
     communication and                       provide documentation through drawings, data, and
12
     collaboration in                        materials, taking the relevant cultural perspectives into
     designing products and                  account throughout the design and development
     systems.                                process.




                                                                                                     42
Content      Technology
Area

Standard     8.2 Technology Education, Engineering, and Design: All students will develop an
             understanding of the nature and impact of technology, engineering, technological design,
             and the designed world, as they relate to the individual, global society, and the
             environment.

Strand       F. Resources for a Technological World

  By
 the
          Content Statement         CPI #              Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
end of
grade

          Technological            8.2.2.F.1    Identify the resources needed to create technological
          products and systems                  products and systems.
          are created through
  2       the application and
          appropriate use of
          technological
          resources.

          Technological products   8.2.4.F.1    Describe how resources are used in a technological
          and systems are                       product or system.
          created through the
  4       application and
          appropriate use of
          technological            8.2.4.F.2    Explain how resources are processed in order to
          resources.                            produce technological products and systems.


          Technological products   8.2.8.F.1    Explain the impact of resource selection and processing
          and systems are                       in the development of a common technological product
          created through the                   or system.
  8       application and          8.2.8.F.2    Explain how the resources and processes used in the
                                                production of a current technological product can be
          appropriate use of
                                                modified to have a more positive impact on the
          technological                         environment (e.g., by using recycled metals, alternate
          resources.                            energy sources) and the economy.

          Technological products   8.2.12.F.1   Determine and use the appropriate application of
          and systems are                       resources in the design, development, and creation of
          created through the                   a technological product or system.
 12       application and          8.2.12.F.2   Explain how material science impacts the quality of
                                                products.
          appropriate use of
                                   8.2.12.F.3   Select and utilize resources that have been modified by
          technological
                                                digital tools (e.g., CNC equipment, CAD software) in
          resources.                            the creation of a technological product or system.




                                                                                                     43
Content      Technology
Area

Standard     8.2 Technology Education, Engineering, and Design: All students will develop an
             understanding of the nature and impact of technology, engineering, technological design,
             and the designed world, as they relate to the individual, global society, and the
             environment.

Strand       G. The Designed World

  By
 the
          Content Statement         CPI #              Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
end of
grade

          The designed world is    8.2.2.G.1    Describe how the parts of a common toy or tool
          the product of a                      interact and work as part of a system.
          design process that
                                   8.2.2.G.2    Explain the importance of safety in the use and
  2       provides the means
                                                selection of appropriate tools and resources for a
          to convert resources
                                                specific purpose.
          into products and
          systems.

          The designed world is    8.2.4.G.1    Examine a malfunctioning tool and use a step-by-step
          the product of a                      process to troubleshoot and present options to repair
          design process that                   the product.
          provides the means to
  4       convert resources into   8.2.4.G.2    Explain the functions of a system and subsystems.
          products and systems.
                                   8.2.4.G.3    Evaluate the function, value, and aesthetics of a
                                                technological product, system, or environment from
                                                the perspective of the user and the producer.

          The designed world is    8.2.8.G.1    Explain why human-designed systems, products, and
          the product of a                      environments need to be constantly monitored,
          design process that                   maintained, and improved.
  8       provides the means to    8.2.8.G.2    Explain the interdependence of a subsystem that
                                                operates as part of a system.
          convert resources into
          products and
          systems.

          The designed world is    8.2.12.G.1   Analyze the interactions among various
          the product of a                      technologies and collaborate to create a product or
          design process that                   system demonstrating their interactivity.
 12       provides the means to
          convert resources into
          products and
          systems.



                                                                                                      44
Glossary:
Basic technology terms for preschool: Examples digital camera, battery, screen, computer,
Internet, mouse, keyboard, and printer.
Controversial issue: For example, global warming, scarcity of water, alternative energy sources,
election campaigns.
Current and emerging technology resources: For example, cell phones, GPS, online
communities using wikis, blogs, vlogs, and/or Nings.
Data-collection technology: For example, probes, handheld devices, and geographic mapping
systems.
Digital learning game: For example, Alice, Lively.
Developmentally appropriate: Students‘ developmental levels prescribe the learning
environment and activities that are used.
Digital tools for grade 2: For example, computers, digital cameras, software..
Digital tools for grades 4, 8, and 12: For example, computers, digital cameras, probing devices,
software, cell phones, GPS, online communities, VOIP, and virtual conferences.
Electronic authoring tools: Software that facilitates online book development (e.g., multimedia
electronic book).
Mapping tools: For example, Google earth, Yahoo maps, and Google maps.
Media-rich: Multiple forms of digital applications in one product (e.g., graphic design, word
processing, and spreadsheet).
Multimedia presentation: For example, movie, podcast, vlog.
Online discussion: UNICEF, Oracle, i-Earn, blogs, wikis.
Online learning community: For example, i-Earn, Ning, blogs, wikis, Second Life.
Operations and related applications: For example, saving a word processing file to a network
drive, printing a spreadsheet.
Reverse engineer: To isolate the components of a completed system.
Shared hosted services: For example, podcasts, videos, or vlogs.
Technologies: Medical, agricultural, and related biotechnologies, energy and power
technologies, information and communications technologies, transportation technologies,
manufacturing technologies, and construction technologies.
Virtual environments: For example, games, simulations, websites, blogs.
Web-based publication: For example, web pages, wikis, blogs, ezines

                                                                                                45
       New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards
                            for
               21st-Century Life and Careers
INTRODUCTION

Life and Career Education in the 21st Century

In the 21st century, life and work are conducted in a dynamic context that includes:

       A global society facing complex political, economic, technological, and environmental
        challenges
       A service economy driven by information, knowledge, and innovation
       Diverse communities and workplaces that rely on cross-cultural collaborative
        relationships and virtual social networks
       An intensely competitive and constantly changing worldwide marketplace

Providing New Jersey students with the life and career skills needed to function optimally within
this dynamic context is a critical focus and organizing principle of K-12 public education. New
Jersey has both an obligation to prepare its young people to thrive in this environment, and a
vested economic interest in grooming an engaged citizenry made up of productive members of a
global workforce that rewards innovation, creativity, and adaptation to change.

Mission: 21st-century life and career skills enable students to make informed decisions that
prepare them to engage as active citizens in a dynamic global society and to successfully meet
the challenges and opportunities of the 21st-century global workplace.

Vision: The systematic integration of 21st-century life and career skills across the K-12
curriculum and in career and technical education programs fosters a population that:

       Applies critical thinking and problem-solving skills to make reasoned decisions at home,
        in the workplace, and in the global community.
       Uses effective communication, communication technology, and collaboration skills to
        interact with cultural sensitivity in diverse communities and to work in cross-cultural
        teams in the multinational workplace.
       Is financially literate and financially responsible at home and in the broader community.
       Demonstrates creative and entrepreneurial thinking by recognizing and acting on
        promising opportunities while accepting responsibility for possible risks.


                                                                                                 46
      Is knowledgeable about careers and can plan, execute, and alter career goals in response
       to changing societal and economic conditions.
      Produces community, business, and political leaders who demonstrate core ethical values,
       including the values of democracy and free enterprise, during interactions with the global
       community.

Intent and Spirit of the 21st-Century Life and Career Standards

Through instruction in life and career skills, all students acquire the knowledge and skills needed
to prepare for life as citizens and workers in the 21st century.

      In Preschool, children's social and emotional development provides the foundation for
       later learning about careers and life skills
       (http://www.nj.gov/education/ece/code/expectations/).
      In grades K-5, students are introduced to 21st-century life skills that are critical for
       personal, academic, and social development. They are also introduced to career
       awareness information and to basic personal financial literacy skills.
      In grades 6-8, students continue to develop 21st-century life skills and personal financial
       literacy, while also exploring careers that support their academic and personal interests
       and aptitudes. As they prepare for the transition to high school, students are provided
       with opportunities to apply knowledge and skills learned in the classroom to real or
       simulated career challenges.
      In grades 9-12, students develop increasingly sophisticated 21st-century life skills and
       personal financial literacy. They engage in the process of career preparation by
       participating in structured learning experiences, specialized programs, and advanced
       courses that reflect personal aptitudes and career interests found within one or more of
       the 16 career clusters developed by the States' Career Clusters Initiative.

The Revised Standards

There are four revised 21st-Century Life and Careers standards. Standards 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3
describe life and career skills that are integrated throughout the K-12 curriculum, while standard
9.4 describes specialized skills that are taught in grades 9-12 as part of career and technical
education programs. An overview of the four standards follows.

Standard 9.1 21st-Century Life and Career Skills: All students will demonstrate the creative,
critical thinking, collaboration, and problem-solving skills needed to function successfully as
both global citizens and workers in diverse ethnic and organizational cultures.

Standard 9.1 describes skills that prepare students to fully engage in civic and work life. The
standard includes six strands, which reflect the Framework for 21st Century Learning:
                                                                                                  47
      Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
      Creativity and Innovation
      Collaboration, Teamwork, and Leadership
      Cross-Cultural Understanding and Interpersonal Communication
      Communication and Media Fluency
      Accountability, Productivity, and Ethics

Standard 9.2 Personal Financial Literacy:All students will develop skills and strategies that
promote personal and financial responsibility related to financial planning, savings, investment,
and charitable giving in the global economy.

Standard 9.2 describes skills that prepare students for personal and civic financial literacy. The
inclusion of Personal Financial Literacy as a standard, rather than as a strand, reflects the
growing need for 21st-century citizens to be financially literate, particularly in light of the
increasing number of financial choices they face due to the global economy. Financial literacy
includes the application of knowledge, skills, and ethical values when making consumer and
financial decisions that impact the self, the family, and the local and global communities.

Standard 9.2 is aligned to the Jump $tart Coalition for Personal Financial Literacy's National
Standards in K-12 Personal Finance Education and includes seven strands:

      Income and Careers
      Money Management
      Credit and Debt Management
      Planning, Saving, and Investing
      Becoming a Critical Consumer
      Civic Financial Responsibility
      Risk Management and Insurance

Standard 9.3 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation: All students will apply
knowledge about and engage in the process of career awareness, exploration, and preparation
in order to navigate the globally competitive work environment of the information age.

Standard 9.3 describes skills that prepare students for career pursuits and lifelong learning. The
three strands in standard 9.3 reflect the requirements outlined in New Jersey Administrative
Code (N.J.A.C. 6A:8-3.2):

      Career Awareness (grades K-4)
      Career Exploration (grades 5-8)
      Career Preparation (grades 9-12)


                                                                                                     48
Standard 9.4 Career and Technical Education: All students who complete a career and
technical education program will acquire academic and technical skills for careers in emerging
and established professions that lead to technical skill proficiency, credentials, certificates,
licenses, and/or degrees.

Standard 9.4 describes knowledge and skills that prepare students for postsecondary education,
training, and employment in a chosen career pathway. Unlike standards 9.1, 9.2, and 9.3, which
apply to all students from grades K-12, standard 9.4 applies only to high school students enrolled
in career and technical education programs.

The adoption of the career and technical education standard reflects the call to action in recent
reports by the National Association of State Boards of Education, the National Governors
Association, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, and Achieve regarding the potential of career and
technical education, as well as the requirements of the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical
Education Improvement Act of 2006. These documents urge states to adopt policies and
practices that effectively integrate academic content standards in career and technical education
programs in order to both elevate the role of career and technical education and to align it with
postsecondary education and training.

The 16 strands in standard 9.4 align with the 16 career clusters of the States' Career Clusters
Initiative. Each strand is further refined to reflect multiple career pathways. By using the clusters
as an organizing tool for grouping occupations and careers, Standard 9.4 identifies a common set
of knowledge and skills for success within each broad career cluster, as well as for each career
pathway within that cluster. This framework has been reviewed nationally by teams of business,
industry, labor, education, and higher education representatives to ensure that it encompasses
industry-validated knowledge and skills needed for career success.

For each of the 16 career cluster strands, content statements and cumulative progress indicators
are provided for the overall career cluster, and additional content statements and cumulative
progress indicators are provided for each of the career pathways encompassed by the cluster.
Further, each of the 16 overarching career cluster strands is comprised of two types of
cumulative progress indicators:

      Cumulative progress indicators for foundational knowledge and skills, which may be
       taught as part of a variety of academic and/or career and technical education courses.
      Cumulative progress indicators that are specific to the career cluster and/or career
       pathway under discussion.

Two additional resources are provided in connection with standard 9.4 to support navigation of
standard 9.4 and understanding of career and technical education (CTE) programs:

                                                                                                   49
           The Career Clusters Table describes each of the 16 career clusters and lists the career
            pathways associated with each cluster.
           More About CTE Programs provides a definition of career and technical education
            programs and points to information about the development of standard 9.4.

    Resources

Kendall, J. S., & Marzano, R J. (2000). Content knowledge: A compendium of standards and
   benchmarks for K-12 education (3rd ed.). Aurora, CO: Mid-Continental Research for Education
   and Learning, & Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

New Jersey State Department of Education. (1996). New Jersey core curriculum content
   standards.Trenton, NJ: Author.

New Jersey State Department of Education. (1999). Career education and consumer, family, and life
   skills framework. Trenton, NJ: Author.

New Jersey State Department of Education. (2004). New Jersey core curriculum content standards.
   Standard 9: Career education and consumer, family, and life skills. Trenton, NJ: Author.

New Jersey State Department of Education. (2008). Standards clarification project. Trenton, NJ:
   Author. Online: http://www.nj.gov/education/aps/njscp

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria,VA:
   Association for Curriculum and Development.

    Resources Specific to Standard 9.1 21st-Century Life and Career Skills

Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2009). Framework for 21st century learning. Online:
     http://www.21stcenturyskills.org

    Resources Specific to Standard 9.2 Personal Financial Literacy

Carolan, C. A. (2007). The ABCs of credit card finance: Essential facts for students. Trenton, NJ:
    New Jersey Coalition for Financial Education. Online: http://www.njcfe.org/IFE-ABC_text.html

Jump$tart Coalition for Personal Financial Literacy. (2007). National standards in K-12 personal
   finance education: With benchmarks, knowledge statements, and glossary (3rd ed.). Online:
   http://www.jumpstart.org/guide.html

Utah State Office of Education. (2004). General financial literacy. Online:
    http://www.uen.org/core/core.do?courseNum=520802
                                                                                                      50
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2006). Wisconsin's model academic standards for
    personal financial literacy. Online: http://dpi.wi.gov/standards/pdf/pfl.pdf

    Resources Specific to Standard 9.3 Career Awareness, Exploration, and Preparation

National Career Development Guidelines. Online: http://cte.ed.gov/acrn/ncdg.htm

New Jersey Department of Education. (2005). N.J.A.C. 6A:8, Standards and assessment for student
   achievement. Trenton, NJ: Author. Online:
   http://www.nj.gov/education/code/current/title6a/chap8.pdf

    Resources Specific to Standard 9.4 Career and Technical Education

National Association of State Boards of Education Study Group on Promoting Excellence in Career
    and Technical Education. (2008). Learning to work, working to learn: Transforming career and
    technical education. Alexandria, VA: Author. Online: http://www.nasbe.org

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices. (2007). Issue brief: Retooling career
    technical education. Washington DC: Author. Online: http://www.nga.org/center

New Jersey Department of Education. (2005). N.J.A.C. 6A:8, Standards and assessment for
   studentachievement. Trenton, NJ: Author. Online:
   http://www.nj.gov/education/code/current/title6a/chap8.pdf

New Jersey Department of Education. (2006). N.J.A.C. 6A:19, Career and technical education
   programs and standards. Trenton, NJ: Author. Online:
   http://www.nj.gov/education/code/current/title6a/chap19.pdf

New Jersey Department of Education. (2008). New Jersey five-year state plan for career and
   technical education. Trenton, N.J. Author.

States' Career Clusters Initiative. (2008). Career clusters framework. Silver Spring, MD: Author.
     Online: http://www.careerclusters.org

States' Career Clusters Initiative. (2008). Career clusters knowledge & skill charts. Silver Spring,
     MD: Author. Online: http://www.careerclusters.org/resources/web/ks.php

United States Department of Education. (2006). Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act
    of 2006, Public Law 109-270. Washington, DC: Author.




                                                                                                       51
To jump directly to a specific standard, click a link below:
                       Standard 9.1


                       Standard 9.2


                       Standard 9.3


                       Standard 9.4




                                                               52
                                      METHODS
                                      Introduction
        The psychological fact that every learner is unique has been expounded so many times
that the significance of the statement is lost in the repetition. Periodically, it is wise to ponder
the fact and to consider its implication for the day to day work in the classroom. If a class is
composed of thirty students, then thirty different ways of responding to the environment and
knowledge are present. While many ways of these ways will overlap, ultimately each of them is
different. Intelligence, emotion, experience, talent and goals, all present in each student,
have been individually patterned to create truly individual ways of learning.
        The Standards for Foreign Language learning are commonly referred to as the Five C‘s:
Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities. These five
themes are interwoven in all activities lesson and methods.




                                                                                                  53
Communications:
        Communication is the heart of foreign language study. It is speaking, listening, writing,
and reading. It is about comprehension: understanding what someone else is trying to
communicate, and making oneself understandable to others. Communication is grounded in
culture. Communication is more than the written and spoken word; it is also about cultural
nuance. It includes the interpretation of non-verbal and unwritten messages (e.g. gestures, body
language).

Cultures:
        It is through the study of other languages that students gain a knowledge and
understanding of the cultures that use that language. When students begin to function
effectively in the cultural contexts in which the language occurs, they become better
communicators. Tangible products to study cultures could include a painting, a cathedral; a
piece of literature, a pair of chopsticks. Intangible products could include an oral tale, a dance, a
sacred ritual, a system of education.

Connections:
        Connections represent the content and the vehicles of communication. Connections are
the result of acquiring information and reinforcing and furthering knowledge through other
disciplines. By effectively using various tools (voice, technology) and forms (speaking,
listening, reading, writing) of communication, students can connect to additional bodies of
knowledge that are unavailable to monolingual speakers.

Comparisons:
        The process of discovering different patterns among language systems and cultures,
allows the students to gain insight into the nature of language, the communicative functions of
language in society, and the complexity of the interaction between language and culture. By
making comparisons among languages and cultures, students develop a deeper understanding of
their own language and culture.

Communities:
        Communities are groups of people within a multilingual, multicultural world who are
connected to one another by commonalities, such as language, locale, work, goals, interests or
culture. Through the study of other languages and cultures, students realize more clearly that
they inhabit and have an active role in this world of different communities. In today's
classrooms with diverse learners and curricular options, teachers must possess a repertoire of
teaching practices based on an evolving research and knowledge base.




                                                                                                  54
               Some of the World Language Instructional Strategies should be:
            • Design unit and daily lesson plans in alignment with the standards for
               Language learning.
            • Create lesson segments that reflect theory and practice.
            • Use real objects, gestures, pictures, and other visuals to convey meaning.
            • Use technology as a tool for professional development and to promote
              student learning.
            • Focus on language that is concerned with functional and authentic
              Situations.
            • Adopt a conversational approach replicating ―real‖ situations likely to
              Occur.
            • Teach vocabulary in context including all kinds of idiomatic phrases.
            • Use paired activities and small-group learning.
            • Strive to develop culture awareness using authentic cultural fact as
              Springboard for communication in the language.
            • Design performance-based assessments.

Class time will be devoted to explanation and discussion of the target language and culture;
reading aloud and translating passages; computer demonstrations of online resources on
language and culture; and storytelling portrayed through cultural presentations.




                                                                                               55
                  APPENDIX C:
            Methodology for Innovative
                                12
                Instruction in K-
            World Language Programs

                                                    Figure 24

                                    NATURAL APPROACH
    A strategy that promotes communicative proficiency by providing real-world, authentic experiences and
                               language experiences within meaningful contexts



HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                        WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

The teacher discusses pictures and objects using          • engages students‘ interest and active
a sequence of meaningful questions.                         participation
The teacher starts with questions that require            • gives an authentic experience of using the
simple ―yes‖ or ―no‖ answers, continues with                target language
questions that require either/or responses,               • develops listening and oral comprehension as a
follows with ―what,‖ ―where,‖ and ―who‖                     continuum within authentic situations
questions, and eventually culminates the activity         • facilitates the natural emergence and
with questions that require responses of full               development of oral communication in the
sentences or phrases.                                       target language




                                                                                                             56
                                           Figure 25
                          PASSWORD/LANGUAGE LADDERS
                 A strategy in which students learn to speak sentences or phrases (―passwords‖)
                                   that are associated with desired activities



HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                           WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

The teacher introduces a series of phrases in the            • engages students‘ active participation
target language that the students must speak in              • gives an authentic experience of using the
order to do a desired activity, such as ―Can I go to           target language
the bathroom?‖ ―May I sharpen my pencil?‖ ―Can               • develops oral comprehension as a
you help me?‖ The students learn new passwords of              continuum within authentic situations
increasing complexity
in subsequent classes.




                                                  Figure 26

                                            GOUIN SERIES
A strategy in which students learn to use short sentences or phrases to describe a logical sequence of actions that
                        take place in a specific context that is familiar to the student



HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                           WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

The teacher orally describes a particular set of             • engages students‘ interest and active
logical steps or a daily routine using action verbs            participation
in the same tense. Pantomime accompa- nies the               • gives an authentic experience of using the
oral description of the action as they repeat the              target language
teacher‘s description of the action. Eventually, the         • develops listening and oral comprehension as a
teacher can request original sequences from the                continuum within authentic situations
students, based on their own daily experiences.              • facilitates the natural emergence and
                                                               development of oral communication in the
                                                               target language




                                                                                                                      57
                                                       Figure 27
                                                 DIALOGUE JOURNALS
      A strategy in which students use journals as a way to hold private conversations in the target language with
       the teacher. Dialogue journals are vehicles for sharing ideas and receiving feedback in the target language.
                            This dialogue can be conducted by e-mail where it is available.


    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                          WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    Students write on topics on a regular basis, and            • develops communication and writing skills
    the teacher responds with oral or written advice,           • creates a positive relationship between the
    comments, and observations in a con- versation.               teacher and the student
    In the early stages of learning a language, students        • increases student interest and participation
    can begin by adding a few words and combining               • allows the student to direct his or her own
    them with pictures.                                           learning
                                                                • provides opportunities to use the target
                                                                  language




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework,

                                                       Figure 28
                                 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR)
       A strategy in which students respond with physical activity to increasingly complex sets of commands. The
      students‘ response of physical activity signals their comprehension of the command. This is ideally suited for
                         beginning foreign language students, but can be adapted and made more
                                             complex for higher level students

    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                          WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    The teacher asks the student to perform a physical          • engages students‘ interest and active participa- tion
    activity, and the student demon- strates                    • gives an authentic experience of using the
    comprehension by responding with the appropriate              target language
    physical activity. The teacher encourages active            • develops listening comprehension
    listening by using an unpre- dictable sequence of           • facilitates the natural emergence and develop- ment
    commands.                                                     of oral communication in the target lan- guage




                                                                                                                          58
                                                                 Figure 29
                                                 TPR STORYTELLING
Based on the Natural Approach, TPR Storytelling combines the effectiveness of TPR with the power of story- telling.
TPR Storytelling teaches students to use the vocabulary they have learned in the context of enter- taining, content-
rich stories. Language production goes beyond the imperative into the narrative and descrip- tive modes.

The following is a brief outline of the sequence of steps for TPR Storytelling:

   Step One: Use TPR Practice and Scenarios to Teach Vocabulary
   The teacher uses TPR to teach a small group of words. After introducing a word and its associated action, she ―plays
   with‖ the vocabulary in TPR practice to provide more comprehensible input. Using gestures, manipulatives,
   pictures, and familiar vocabulary, she then further reinforces new vocabulary by giving students a series of
   commands to execute and short scenarios to act out.

For example, in a beginning-level story from textbook Cuéntame más! (Marsh & Anderson CW Publishing,
1993), the following vocabulary items are taught via TPR: the coyote, sees, the bird, wants to eat, grabs, offers. Sample
commands might include the following:
Eat.
Eat a big plate of spinach. (Yuck!)
Eat four ice cream cones. (Yum!) Eat
a small bird and a big coyote. Grab
the coyote.
Figure 28: Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996




                                                                                                                            59
                                                     Figure 29      (continued)

                                                 TPR STORYTELLING

Offer it to the students on your right.
Offer that student a big bird.
Grab a coyote and put it on that student‘s head. Etc.

After practice with short commands, a sample scenario, which students act out while the teacher narrates, might look
like this:

There is a tiny bird. (―Student bird‖ takes a bow and says ―tweet tweet.‖) There is a big coyote. (―Student coyote‖
takes a bow and ―howls.‖) The big coyote had four sandwiches. The tiny bird wants to eat the sand- wiches, so the
coyote offers the bird two sandwiches. Yum!



   Step Two: Students Produce and Practice Vocabulary Words
   Once students have internalized vocabulary words through TPR practice and scenarios, the class divides into
   student pairs to practice the words. One student in the pair reads the word and the other gives the corresponding
   gestures, then vice versa. Next, one student does the gesture and the other says the cor- responding word.



   Step Three: Teacher Presents a Mini-Story that Students Then Retell and Revise
   Using student actors, puppets, or pictures from the text, the teacher then narrates a mini-story con- taining the
   targeted vocabulary words.



The mini-story a n d illustrations corresponding to the above vocabulary words are as follows:

There is a big coyote. There is also a tiny bird. The coyote s e e s the bird. The coyote wants to eat the bird. The coyote
grabs the bird. Oh no! But the bird offers the coyote a peanut butter sandwich. What a relief!

The teacher uses a variety of techniques to increase exposure to the story and to help the students start telling it:

1. She pauses in the story to allow students to fill in words or act out gestures.

2. She makes mistakes and lets the students correct her.

3. She asks short-answer and open-ended questions.
   (Is the coyote long or little? Who does the coyote grab? What is the coyote‘s name? Where does he
   live?)



Adapted from Foreign Language Notes Vol. 39, No. 2 (Spring, 1997)




                                                                                                                         60
   APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES


                                                        Figure 29   (continued)

                                                 TPR STORYTELLING


Once the story is internalized, students then retell it to a partner. Students may tell the story from memory or may use
illustrations or guide words written up on the board as cues. The class then reconvenes and stu- dent volunteers retell
the story for other students to act out. The teacher may also help the class revise the story, changing a few details
about the plot or characters to create a new revision to the original story line.



   Step Four: Teacher Presents a Main Story that Students Retell and Revise
   Small groups of mini-stories a r e designed to prepare students to narrate, read, and write a larger main story that
   uses the vocabulary from the mini-stories. When the entire group of mini-stories has been mas- tered by the class,
   the teacher then repeats Step Three to introduce the main story. Once the main story has been presented and acted
   out, it is reinforced with readings and exercises for the textbook. As with mini-stories, students build upon the
   main story, using their existing language skills to embellish the plot, personalize the characters, and create
   revisions.



   Step Five: Students Use New and Old Vocabulary to Create Original Stories
   Capitalizing on their creativity, students are given opportunities t o write, illustrate, act out, and share original
   stories. Activities may include drama, essays, videotaping, creating students booklets, contests, group/pair work,
   illustration exercises, back-to-back communication activities, etc.



These are the simple steps at the heart of a complete and comprehensive methodology that allows students to rapidly
acquire, internalize, and produce sophisticated language in a fully communicative approach.




Adapted from Foreign Language Notes Vol. 39, No. 2 (Spring, 1997)




                                                                                                                           61
                                                         Figure 30
                                                      INTERVIEWS
                                       A strategy for gathering information and reporting




    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                             WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    Students prepare a set of questions and a for- mat             •   fosters connections between ideas
    for the interview. After conducting the                        •   develops the ability to interpret answers
    interview, students present their findings to the              •   develops organizational and planning skills
    class.                                                         •   develops problem-solving skills
                                                                   •   provides opportunities to use the target
                                                                       language




                                                         Figure 31
                                                          CLOZE
                        A open-ended strategy in which a selected word or phrase is eliminated from a
                                            written or oral sentence or paragraph



    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                             WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    The teacher eliminates a word or phrase from the               • provides opportunities for creativity
    sentence. Students complete the sen- tence with a              • develops the use of precise vocabulary
    word that ―makes sense.‖ The teacher may select                • focuses on the use of precise and correct
    random words or a specific part of speech. This                  communication
    can be expanded to the more difficult task of                  • increases comprehension skills
    finding a word that makes sense when only the                  • provides opportunities to use the target
    initial letter of                                                language
    the word is provided.




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996




                                                                                                                     62
                                                        Figure 32
                                                      CONTINUUMS
                              A strategy used to indicate the relationship among words or phases




    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                             WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    Using a selected topic, students place words or                • acknowledges that others have different
    phrases on the continuum to indicate a relationship               perspectives depending on their knowledge and
    of degree, for example, wee, tiny, little, small,                 experience regarding the topic
    large, huge, enormous, gigantic. This can be                   • develops the ability to use precise
    accomplished in oral or written form.                             vocabulary
                                                                   • develops critical thinking skills
                                                                   • increases the opportunities to use the target
                                                                      language in authentic situations




                                                        Figure 33
                                   INTERACTIVE LANGUAGE TASKS
                            A strategy in which at least two students work together to accomplish a
                                              meaningful t a r g et language activity



    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                             WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    The teacher organizes the class into small groups              • fosters interdependence and pursuit of
    or pairs that then perform a specific task using                 mutual goals
    language. Examples of tasks include finding                    • develops communication skills
    differences and similarities, identifying objects              • strengthens listening skills
    or persons, arranging things, giving and                       • provides opportunities to use the target
    following directions, inter- viewing, surveying,                 language
    choosing, explaining, and solving problems.




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996



                                                                                                                      63
                                                         Figure 34
                                        CULTURAL PRESENTATIONS
                       A strategy for creating an exhibit that is focused on aspects of the target culture




    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                              WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    Students work in groups to create exhibits                      • develops critical thinking skills
    that represent a particular aspect of the target                • develops the ability to select important
    culture.                                                          high points
                                                                    • encourages creativity and individuality
                                                                    • deepens specific knowledge of the target
                                                                      culture




                                                         Figure 35
                                              THE LEARNING CYCLE
        A sequence of lessons designed to have students engage in exploratory investigations, construct meaning
        out of their findings, propose tentative explanations and solutions, and relate target language and culture
                                               concepts to their own lives


    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                              WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    The teacher engages the learners with an                        • encourages students to construct their own
    event or question to draw their interest, evoke                   understanding of target language and culture
    what they know, and connect that with new ideas.                  concepts
    The students explore the concept, behavior, or skill            • promotes empathy and understanding for
    with hands-on experience. They explain the                        people of other cultures
    concept, behavior, or skill                                     • provides hands-on experience to explore
    and define the terms, then use the terms to explain               concepts, behaviors, and skills
    their exploration. Through discussion, the students             • develops the ability to share ideas, thoughts, and
    expand the concept or behavior by applying it to                  feelings
    other situations.                                               • provides opportunities to use the target
                                                                      language




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996



                                                                                                                           64
                                                         Figure 36
                                                 READ AND RETELL
                            An all-purpose strategy that involves students retelling a passage in the
                                              target language as they remember it



    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                             WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    The teacher asks the students to read a pas- sage.             • provides practice in a range of literacy skills in the
    Students can be working together a s a class, in small           target language including listening, speaking,
    groups, or in pairs, or working alone with the                   reading, writing, interacting, comparing, matching,
    teacher. Then, the teacher asks the students to retell           selecting, remembering, comprehending, and
    the passage as they remember it, either orally or in             organizing the information
    writing using the target language.                             • provides an index of growth and development in a
                                                                     wide range of literacy learning
                                                                   • provides opportunities to use the target
                                                                     language



                                                         Figure 37
                                          ,
                       LITERATURE, HISTORY AND STORYTELLING
                      A strategy in which the culture and history of another country is brought to life
                                        through literature, folktales, and folk songs



    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                              WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    The teacher locates books, brochures, and tapes                 • personalizes language learning
    relevant to the language being studied and shares               • allows students to connect language and
    them with the class. Another strategy is to ask                   literature to its social and historical context
    students to write about their own observations
    and insights after the lesson is over.




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996




                                                                                                                              65
                                                         Figure 38
                                          COOPERATIVE LEARNING
A strategy in which students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal, while communicating in the
target language. Cooperative learning involves more than simply putting students into work or study groups.
Teachers promote individual responsibility and positive group interdependence by making sure that each group member is
responsible for a given task. Cooperative learning can be enhanced when group mem- bers have diverse abilities and
backgrounds.

    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                            WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    After organizing students into groups, the teacher            • fosters interdependence and pursuit of
    thoroughly explains a task to be accomplished                    mutual goals and rewards
    within a time frame. The teacher facilitates the              • develops leadership skills
    selection of individual roles within the group and            • increases the opportunities to use the target
    monitors the groups, intervening only when                       language in authentic, communicative situa-
    necessary, to support students working together                  tions
    successful- ly and accomplishing the task.                    • increases participation of shyer students
                                                                  • produces higher levels of student achievement, thus
                                                                     increasing self-esteem
                                                                  • fosters respect for diverse abilities and
                                                                     perspectives



                                                         Figure 39
                                                      BRAINSTORMING
                          A strategy for eliciting ideas from a group and communicating them in the
                                             target language in oral or written form



    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                            WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    Students contribute ideas related to a topic. All             • reveals background information a n d knowl-
    contributions a r e accepted without initial                    edge of a topic
    comment. After the list of ideas is finalized,                • discloses misconceptions
    students categorize, prioritize, and defend                   • helps students relate existing knowledge to
    selections.                                                     content
                                                                  • strengthens target language communication
                                                                    skills
                                                                  • stimulates creative thinking




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996



                                                                                                                          66
                                                        Figure 40
                                                 PROBLEM SOLVING
                           A learning strategy in which students apply knowledge to solve problems




    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                             WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    The students discover a problem; problems can be               • allows students to discover relationships that
    constructed by the teacher or can be real- world                 may be completely new to them
    problems suggested by the students. The students               • adapts easily for all grade levels and special- needs
    define the problem, ask a question about the                     students
    problem, then define the characteris- tics of possible         • develops the ability to construct new ideas and
    solutions, which they research. They choose a                    concepts from previously learned infor- mation,
    promising solution that best fits the criteria stated            skills, and strategies
    in the definition of solu- tions, then test the                • promotes communicative competence in the
    solution. Finally, they determine if the problem                 target language
    has been solved.

                                                        Figure 41

                                             REFLECTIVE THINKING
                  A strategy in which students reflect on what was learned after a lesson is finished, either
                                                  orally or in written form



    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                             WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    Two possible approaches to reflective thinking are             • helps students assimilate what they have
    (1) students can write in a journal in their own                 learned
    words: the concept learned, comments on the                    • helps students connect concepts to make ideas
    learning process, questions, and interest in further             more meaningful
    exploration; (2) students can answer                           • fosters additional opportunities to use the
    an oral questionnaire addressing such ques- tions                target language in a meaningful se t ti n g
    as Why did you study this? Can you relate it to
    real life?




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 199




                                                                                                                             67
                                                        Figure 42
                                                  FIELD EXPERIENCE
          A planned learning experience for students to observe, study, and participate in expressions of the target
                    culture(s) in a setting off the school grounds, using the community as a laboratory



    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                               WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    Before the field trip, teachers and students plan                • develops organizational and planning skills
    and structure communicative activities to engage in              • develops observational skills
    during the visit and engage in fol- low-up                       • gives students an authentic experience of
    activities after the trip.                                         communicating in a foreign language




                                                        Figure 43

                                                      FREE WRITING
                    A strategy for encouraging students to express ideas by writing in the target language




    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                           WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    After reflecting on a topic, students respond in             • develops the ability to link previous knowl-
    writing for a brief time to a target language                  edge and experience to a topic
    prompt, a quote, or a question.                              • develops creative and critical thinking skills
                                                                 • provides opportunities to express and share ideas
                                                                   in written form
                                                                 • encourages students to value writing in the tar- get
                                                                   language




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996




                                                                                                                          68
                                    ASSESSMENT
         Assessment is an integral, ongoing part of the learning process itself. New assessment
model (which have been called alternative assessment, performance assessment and authentic
assessment) have in common the goal of guiding instruction to enable all students to achieve
high levels of proficiency. The proficiency-based world language classroom lends itself to use
multiple forms of assessment to evaluate student‘s progress as well as the impact of instructional
strategies. Assessments of student performance are both formative and summative. Assessment
facilitates student reflection of the learning process and the improvement of learning.

        Over the past 25 years, massive changes have occurred in the way students are taught
foreign languages yet little change has been observed in assessing student progress. The efforts
to have students learn how to use language in the classroom inevitably seem to have little
influence on how students are assessed. Students may spend the majority of their class time in
using the language only to encounter traditional paper and pencil tests to measure what they
know. Such a gap between instruction and assessment practices can lead to student and teacher
dissatisfaction in the foreign language learning experience in addition to not providing an
accurate assessment of what students actually know how to do with the language they have been
learning.

        Students whose classroom experiences are characterized as performance-based
environments (that is, students spend their time in activities that give them the ability to use the
target language in simulated real-life situations) must be placed in performance-based
assessment environments if we are to gain a fair and accurate picture of what they know and are
able to do with the foreign language. How unfair it must seem to a student to have learned
something one way and have it assessed another! Many probably agree that this is not an
uncommon practice in American foreign language classrooms. The great challenge to foreign
language educators is to identify, implement and perfect assessment strategies that truly mirror
not only what was taught to students but the way it was taught, as well.

        When one considers the predominant intention, if not practice, of most foreign language
educators to oversee performance-based classrooms, measurement of student progress by means
of traditional devices (i.e. paper and pencil tests) leaves a great deal to be desired. One way to
more accurately measure what students know how to do in the target language is to consider the
role that performance-based assessment can play. The following is true of performance-based
assessments:

                  Performance tasks are a turn-on for students. Good tasks motivate kids to
                   work hard to perform at their highest possible level.
                  Engaging tasks capture interest, student energy, and pride of ownership.




                                                                                                   69
   Because performance tasks are aligned to the curriculum, they are accurate
    and meaningful indicators of ―who knows what‖ and ―who can do what.‖
   When students, their parents, and school personnel all know what the
    academic targets are, then everyone can get down to the business of hitting
    those targets.
   Performance task assessment increases teacher confidence in assessing student
    learning.
   In addition to receiving feedback on student learning, we also get feedback on
    how well we‘re teaching. Performance tasks inform assessment and
    instruction simultaneously.
   Performance tasks require learners to integrate content and process. Good
    tasks link them together.
   We must remember that in the real world, they will be expected to do things –
    to put information to use – not just remember things.


        Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks
                                     Larry Lewin and Betty Jean Shoemaker
            Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 199




                                                                               70
                                            APPENDIX B:


                                                     Figure 2
                                         ASSESSMENT PROFILE




                                                   Projects
                                         Drawing
                                                                          Standardized Tests
                        Demonstrations
             Video/Audio Tapes                                                      End-Of-Unit Tests
                    Speeches

            Experiments                                                                     Teacher-Made Tests

     Written Reports                      Performance         Paper-and-Pencil
                                                                     Tests
             Debates


                                         Observation and          Personal
                                           Perceptions         Communication
                                                                                               Individual Conferences
 Classroom Interaction

                                                                                        Small-Group Discussions


    Student Participation/Involvement                                      Interviews




Adapted from Heartland AEA, 1992

                                                                                                                        71
                                                               Figure 3
                        IDEAS FOR EXHIBITIONS AND PROJECTS
The following list provides teachers with ideas for products, performances, and processes that can be incor- porated as
authentic t a s k s into projects and exhibitions. Teachers using this list will provide students with meaningful,
relevant classroom experiences that can be applied in real-world contexts and actively involve students in the
learning process.
The list was compiled from a variety of sources (Jacobs, 1995; Maker & Nielsen, 1996); most are ideas from teachers
who have used them in the classroom.
World language teachers are encouraged to use this list to create their own list of projects to fit course out- comes and
the varied interests and talents of students.
The categories ar e only one way to arrange the list. Many products and performances can cross over into other
categories. In the world language classroom, culture is interwoven throughout the products, process- es, and
performances, as are the communicative skills.
Media/Technology
advertisements                    editorials                      news reports               slides
cable channels                    filmstrips                      newsletters                slide shows
CD-ROM creations                  infomercials                    newspapers                 TV shows
clip art                          magazines                       opinion polls              TV Guide
commercials                       marketing campaigns             radio shows                travelogue
computer graphics                 movies                          screen-plays               videos
computer programs                 multimedia presentations        scripts                    Web home pages
Visual and Performing Arts
artwork:            dances                                        music compositions         puppets/shows
   • painting       displays                                      musical instruments        raps, jingle, chants,
   • sculpture      drawings                                      musical performance        cheers
   • ceramics       flags                                         musical plays              record/CD/book covers
banners             flip books                                    musical symbols            role plays
billboards          flower arrangements                           origami                    silkscreen prints
block prints        fugues                                        pantomimes                 simulations
bulletin boards     greeting cards                                paper                      skits
cartoons            illustrations                                 papier-mâché creations     sociodramas
choral readings     jewelry                                       photo essays photography   song writing
chorales            labels                                        plays                      stitchery
clay models         logos                                         pop-up books               tattoos totem
clothing design     masks                                         posters                    poles
collages            mobiles                                       pottery                    wallpaper patterns
comic strips        mosaics                                       props for plays            weaving
costume creation    murals
Speaking/Listening
audio/videotapes                  debates                         oral reports               seminars
choral readings                   discussions                     panel discussions          speeches
court-trial simulations           flannel boards                  presentations              story boards
cooperative tasks                 narratives                      scenarios




Adapted from Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks, 1996




                                                                                                                            72
   APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




                                                       Figure 3   (continued)

                        IDEAS FOR EXHIBITIONS AND PROJECTS
Reading/Writing/Literature
3-D research papers expository writing                         myths                      research reports
ABC books           fables                                     narrative writing          satires
bibliographies      historical documents                       outlines                   stories
biographies         histories                                  persuasive writing         term papers
bookmarks           illuminated manuscripts                    poetry                     time capsules
books                             journal articles             poetry anthologies         time-lines
children‘s stories                lists of books read          portfolios                 written questions
dictionaries of terms             lists of movies seen         position papers            writing systems
encyclopedias                     lyrics                       reaction papers
essays                            memoirs                      reports
Hands-on/Kinesthetic
collections           floor plans                              obstacle courses           synchronized movement
constructions         flower arrangements                      physical exercise          terrariums
crafts                games                                    precision drill team       tools
demonstrations        inventions                               project cube               treasure hunts
dioramas              labs                                     scale models
environmental studies learning centers                         scavenger hunts
field trips           models                                   sewing
flash cards           museum displays                          sports/outdoor
Daily Life                                                     activities
application forms                 e-mail                       letters of all kinds       receipts
bills                             eulogies                     manuals                    recipe books
boxes/cartoons                    family trees                 maps                       recipes
brochures                         foods/cooking                menus                      resumes
checks                            government forms             messages--voice/writte n   schedules
cleaning                          instructions                 obituaries                 school
contracts                         invitations                  pamphlets                  scrapbooks
customs                           journals                     parties                    shopping lists
daily routines                    junk mail                    petitions                  spreadsheets
diaries                           labels                       photo albums               surveys
directions                        last wills                   prescriptions              work
                                  laws                         questionnaires
Thinking Skills
analogies                         crossword puzzles            graphic organizers         secret codes
categorizing/classifying          decision making              graphs                     self-discovery
cause/effect                      design experiments           graphs, 3-D                synthesis
charts                            diagrams                     homework                   synthesis of research
compare/contrast                  elaboration                  lesson and test design     tessellation
comparison charts                 evaluation                   patterns                   Venn diagrams
concepts                          evaluation of evidence       plans                      visualization
cross-number puzzles              experiments                  problem-solving            webbing/mind maps
                                  extrapolation                puzzles
                                  fact files                   rating scales
                                  goal setting                 reflection

Adapted from Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks, 1996



                                                                                                                  73
                                                                             APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




                                                               Figure 4
                                STUDENT PORTFOLIO ARTIFACTS

                     Oral Presentations                            Multimedia Presentations
                     ■ debates                                     ■  videotapes
                     ■ addresses                                   ■ films
                     ■ discussions                                 ■ audiotapes
                     ■ mock trials                                 ■ slides
                     ■ monologues                                  ■ photo essays
                     ■ interviews                                  ■ print media
                     ■ speeches                                    ■ computer programs
                                                                    ■ storytelling
                                                                    ■ oral histories
                                                                     ■ poetry reading
                                                                     ■ broadcasts




                     Visual and Graphic Arts                       Representations
                     ■ paintings                                   ■ maps
                     ■ storybooks                                  ■ graphs
                     ■ drawings                                    ■ dioramas
                     ■ murals                                      ■ models
                     ■ posters                                     ■ mock-ups
                     ■ sculptures                                  ■ displays
                     ■ cartoons                                    ■ bulletin boards
                     ■ mobiles                                     ■ charts
                                                                    ■ replicas




                     Performances                                  Written Presentations
                     ■ role-playing, drama                         ■ expressive (diaries, journals, writing logs)
                     ■ dance/movement                              ■ transactional (letters, reports, surveys, essays)
                     ■ choral readings                             ■ poetic (poems, myths, legends, stories, plays)
                     ■ music (choral and instrumental)




Adapted from Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks, 1996



                                                                                                                         74
   APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




                                                               Figure 5

                                 SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                              Generic Rubrics for World Languages

  Generic Rubric for Collaborative Work

                                       4                             3                       2                    1

  Workload equality        workload shared             workload some-         workload unequal-       workload unequal-
                           equally                     what unequal           done mostly by one or   one student has
                                                                              two students            done all the work
  On task                  all the time                most of the time       sometimes               little involvement;
                                                                                                      rarely on task
  Interaction              much discussion;            some discussion;       little discussion;      shows little interest;
                           shows respect for           respectful of others   easily distracted;      disrespectful of others
                           others                                             somewhat disrespect-
                                                                              ful of others


  Generic Rubric for Oral Presentations—Simple Answers

                                                               Yes                                    No
  Accurate pronunciation
  Accurate grammar


  Generic Rubric for Oral Presentations—Cultural Role Play

                                       4                             3                       2                    1

  Pronunciation            accurate throughout,        understandable,        some errors, but        poor pronunciation
                           near native                 with very few          still understandable    very anglicized
                                                       errors
  Fluency                  smooth delivery             fairly smooth          unnatural pauses        halting; hesitant;
                                                                                                      long gaps
  Comprehensibility        easily understood           understood             difficult to            incomprehensible
                                                                              understand
  Vocabulary               extensive use of            some use of targeted   minimal use of          fails to use
                           targeted vocabulary         vocabulary             targeted vocabulary     targeted vocabulary
  Credibility (shows       credible role play;         credible role play;    limited credibility;    not credible; no
  knowledge of             reflects the culture        somewhat reflects      little connection       connection to target
  culture)                                             the culture            to target culture       culture visible
  Performance              lively, enthusiastic;       general enthusiasm;    little enthusiasm;      reads from cards;
                           good eye contact            some eye contact       limited eye contact     monotonous; no
                                                                                                      eye contact

Adapted from Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks, 1996




                                                                                                                                75
                                                                                  APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




                                                        Figure 5       (continued)

                                 SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                              Generic Rubrics for World Languages


  Generic Rubric for Written Material—General

                                       4                           3                            2                                1

  Grammar                  perfect                      uses well what is            some errors with             doesn‘t seem to
                                                        being studied                what is being studied        understand what is
                                                                                                                  being studied
  Vocabulary               creative use of              vocabulary at                some use of current          minimal use of
                           vocabulary                   present level of study       vocabulary; key words        targeted vocabulary at
                                                                                     missing                      present level of study;
                                                                                                                  words used
                                                                                                                  incorrectly
  Spelling                 perfect                      very few errors in           some errors in               many errors in
                                                        spelling and accent          spelling and accent          spelling and accent
                                                        marks                        marks                        marks




  Generic Rubric for Written Materials—Creative Writing (3rd- or 4th-year students)

                                             Outstanding                         Satisfactory                             Poor
                                                  3                                    2                                   1

  Spelling/Pronunciation           spelling and punctuation            some errors throughout                careless; numerous errors
                                   almost always correct
  Grammar                          at current level of study or        some errors—subjects and              writing is a 1st- or 2nd-
                                   above with very few errors          verbs don‘t always match,             year level; many
                                                                       wrong tenses are sometimes            grammatical errors—
                                                                       used; does not always                 frequent mismatched
                                                                       represent current level of            subjects and verbs;
                                                                       study                                 writing is mostly in
                                                                                                             present tense
  Effort                           more than required                  meets requirement                     some items missing; work
                                                                                                             appears hastily assembled
  Creativity                       creative, original                  some creativity; simple               shows no creativity or
                                   descriptions; realistic             descriptions; mostly neat             planning; incomplete
                                   characters; well                                                          descriptions; unrealistic
                                   illustrated; neat                                                         characters; haphazard
                                                                                                             illustrations or no
                                                                                                             illustrations



Adapted from Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks, 1996




                                                                                                                                            76
   APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




                                                               Figure 6
                                 SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                                Assessing the Quality of Portfolios


 Assessing the Quality of Portfolios
 This rubric suggests standards and criteria that teachers can use to assess portfolios. The standards and criteria should be shared
 with students before they begin building their portfolios.

                               Superior                        Excellent                    Good                    In Progress

 Appearance           extremely eye appealing,       attractive, neat            somewhat attractive          sloppy, effort not
                      professional looking                                       or neat                      shown

 Creativity           creativity abounds, much       much creativity,            some evidence of             little or no evidence of
                      original thinking and/         original thinking,          creativity, original         creativity, original
                      or elaboration                 and/or elaboration          thinking or                  thinking or
                                                                                 elaboration                  elaboration

 Content              all quality artifacts          quality artifacts           some artifacts chosen        few or none of the
                      chosen demonstrate a           chosen demonstrate          demonstrate clear            artifacts chosen
                      high level of                  clear reasoning             reasoning                    demonstrate clear
                      reasoning                                                                               reasoning

 Organization         striking organization          organized, definite         fairly organized, good       nothing in order, appears
                      that makes the reading         transition between          transition in topics         thrown together, no
                      flow smoothly                  works and parts of                                       transition
                                                     the portfolio

 Completeness         contains required              contains required piece,    contains required            missing some required
                      pieces, shows much             some additional pieces      pieces                       pieces
                      extra effort with
                      additional pieces

 Reflection           high level of                  obvious time on             adequate reflection          very brief, done
                      analytical thinking            reflection, honest;         shown                        hurriedly, not sincere
                      backed by sound                excellent details                                        or honest
                      evidence




Adapted from Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks, 1996



                                                                                                                                         77
                                                                                  APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




                                                               Figure 7
                                 SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                                                        Rating Scales

  Figure 7A. Example of a Holistic Rating Scale
   4 — Exceeds Expectations               No errors in expression (i.e., of likes/dislikes and/or asking/answering questions); near-
                                              native pronunciation; use of structures beyond expected proficiency; near-native use
                                              of appropriate cultural practices; followed instructions, went beyond
                                              expectations.

   3 — Excellent                                 Almost all expressions of likes/dislikes and/or asking/answering questions correct;
                                                 easily understood with infrequent errors in pronunciation, structures, and vocabulary
                                                 usage; almost all cultural practices demonstrated and appropriate; followed
                                                 instructions completely.

   2 — Good                                     Some errors of likes/dislikes and/or asking/answering questions; comprehensible with
                                                 noticeable errors in pronunciation, structures, and/or vocabulary usage; some cultural
                                                 practices demonstrated and appropriate; mostly followed instructions.

   1 — Not Yet                                    Few or no expressions of likes/dislikes and/or asking/answering questions stated
                                                 correctly; nearly or completely incomprehensible; cultural practices were
                                                 inappropriate or not demonstrated at all; little evidence of following instructions.


 Figure 7B. Example of an Analytic Rating Scale
                                      4                             3                           2                         1
                             Exceeds Expectations                Excellent                     Good                     Not Yet

 Expresses                 no errors                     almost all                  some errors,               few or none
 likes/dislikes                                          correctly expressed         majority correctly         correctly stated
                                                                                     stated

 Is comprehensible         near-native                   easily understood,          comprehensible with        nearly or completely
 (pronunciation,           pronunciation; use of         infrequent errors           noticeable errors in       incomprehensible
 structures,               structure beyond                                          pronunciation,
 vocabulary usage)         expected proficiency                                      structures, and/or
                                                                                     vocabulary usage

 Demonstrates              near-native use of            almost all                  some demonstrated          inappropriate or none
 appropriate cultural      practices                     demonstrated and            and appropriate            demonstrated
 practices                                               appropriate

 Follows instructions      went beyond                   follows instructions        mostly follows             little evidence of
                           expectations                  completely                  instructions               following instructions

Analytic rating scales give more information about specific criteria and should be used when students and teachers want feedback on
the strengths and weakness of a performance, product, or process. Levels of performance (standards) are described for each of the
criteria. ―An analytic scale requires that raters give separate ratings to different aspects of the work. Criteria incorporating several
outcomes are analytic.‖ (Herman, Aschbacker, & Winters, 1992, p. 70)

Adapted from Nebraska K-12 Foreign Language Frameworks, 1996




                                                                                                                                          78
        APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES



                                                                 Figure 8
                                     SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                     Rubrics for Assessment of American Sign Language
     The following rubrics suggest samples of standards and criteria for assessing the expressive and receptive language skills of students
     who are learning American Sign Language. These rubrics are not inclusive of the comprehensive expressive and receptive language skills
     that students will need to gain a fluency in American Sign Language, but rather they suggest a general framework for assessment.

     Figure 8A: Rubric for Assessment of American Sign Language Expressive Skills
                                        4                             3                              2                           1
                                     Excellent                    Very Good                    Satisfactory                  In Progress

Formation:                  • Consistent use of            • Self-corrects; few        • Some errors, but is         • Frequent incorrect
  Handshape                   correct signs                  mistakes made               understandable                 formation of signs
  Palm Orientation          • Clear, easily under-         • Easily understood          • Errors are usually         • Very difficult to
  Movement                    stood                                                       not corrected                 understand signs
  Location

Space Referents:            • Extensive use of set-       • Frequently sets up         • Limited use of set-         • Difficulty with set-
   Motion/Location of         ting up points in space       points in space to           ting up points in             ting up points in
   Verbs (includes eye        to refer to objects and       refer to objects             space to refer to             space to refer to
   gaze, body shifting,       people                        and people; makes            objects and people;           objects and people
   and choice of signs)     • Good eye contact              some errors                  sometimes makes             • Difficulty with
                            • Lively, enthusiastic,       • Maintains some eye           errors                        maintaining eye
                              uses expressiveness           contact                    • Limited eye contact           contact
                                                          • Some use of expressive     • Limited use of              • Lacks expressive
                                                            behav iors                   expressive behav iors         behaviors when
                                                                                                                       signing


Story Grammar—Use of        • Uses good facial            • Appropriate use of         • Some appropriate            • Lacks facial
Non-Manual Markers:           expressions correctly         facial expressions           use of facial                  expressions when
   Yes/No Questions           and consistently              when signing                 expressions                    signing
   ―Wh—‖ Questions          • Uses intensifiers           • Inconsistent use of         • Limited use of              • Difficulty using
   Location                   (dramatic use of              intensifiers                  intensifiers                   intensifiers
   Negation                   facial expressions          • Inconsistent use of        • Limited use of non-          • Difficulty using
   Contrastive Structure      and signs) to match           non-manual markers           manual markers                 non-manual markers
   (referents, time,          information
   intensity, etc.)           conveyed
                            • Uses all non-manual
                              markers appropriately

Fluency/Accuracy:         • Communicates with             • Smooth flow of             • Hesitates and self-         • Jerky hand move-
   Smoothness and Fluency   fluency and confi-              signs with confi-            corrects when                  ments and choppy
   of Signs Conceptually    dence                           dence most of the            signing                        use of signs
   Accurate                                                 time                       • Signs conceptually
   Ideas/Messages         • Signs conceptually            • Signs conceptually           accurate ideas/mes-         • Unable to sign
                            accurate ideas/mes-             accurate ideas/mes-          sages on a limited             conceptually accu-
                            sages consistently              sages the majority of        basis                          rate ideas/messages
                                                            the time




                                                                                                                                              79
                                                                                APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES



                                                     Figure 8      (continued)


                                   SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                    Rubrics for Assessment of American Sign Language

      Figure 8B: Rubric for Assessment of American Sign Language Receptive Skills

                                     4                          3                             2                           1
                                  Excellent                 Very Good                   Satisfactory                  In Progress

Basic Vocabulary          • Understands all         • Understands most           • Limited understanding      • Very limited under-
                            signed vocabulary         signed vocabulary            of signed vocabulary         standing of signed
                            words                     words                        words                        vocabulary words
                          • Does not need repeti-   • Rarely requires repeti-    • Requires some repeti-      • Requires frequent
                            tion of signed vocab-     tion of signed vocab-        tion of signed vocab-        repetition of signed
                            ulary words               ulary words                  ulary words                  vocabulary words

Fingerspelling            • Understands all         • Understands most fin-      • Limited understand-        • Very limited under-
                            fingerspelled words       gerspelled words             ing of fingerspelled         standing of finger-
                          • Does not need any       • Rarely requires repeti-      words                        spelled words
                            repetition                tion of fingerspelled      • Requires some repeti-      • Requires frequent
                                                      words                        tion of fingerspelled        repetition of finger-
                                                                                   words                        spelled words

Simple ASL Sentences      • Understands all sim-    • Understands most simple • Limited understand-           • Very limited under-
and                         ple ASL sentences         ASL sentences                ing of simple ASL            standing of simple
Simple ASL Questions       • Understands all sim-   • Understands most             sentences                    ASL sentences
                             ple ASL questions        simple ASL questions        • Limited understand-        • Very limited under-
                          • Does not need any       • Needs some repetition of     ing of simple ASL            standing of simple
                            repetition of             sentences/ques- tions        questions                    ASL questions
                            sentences/questions                                  • Often needs                • Requires frequent
                                                                                   sentences/questions          repetition of
                                                                                   repeated                     sentences/questions

Complex ASL Sentences     • Understands all com-    • Understands most           • Limited understand-        • Very limited under-
and                         plex ASL sentences        complex ASL sen-              ing of complex ASL          standing of complex
Complex ASL Questions      • Understands all com-     tences                        sentences                   ASL sentences
                             plex ASL questions     • Understands most            • Limited understand-        • Very limited under
                          • Does not need any         complex complex ASL            ing of complex ASL         standing of complex
                            repetition of             questions                     questions                   ASL questions
                            sentences/questions     • Needs some repetition of     • Often needs sentences/   • Requires frequent
                                                      sentences/ques- tions           questions repeated        repetition of
                                                                                                                sentences/questions

Non-Manual Markers:       • Understands all non-    • Understands most non-      • Understands some non-      • Limited understanding of
  Yes/No Questions          manual markers            manual markers               manual markers; asks         non-manual markers;
  ―Wh—‖ Questions         • Responds appropriate-   • Responds appropriate-        for clarification of         frequently needs non-
  Location                  ly to non-manual          ly to most non-              some non-manual              manual markers clari- fied
  Negation                  behaviors                 manual behaviors             behaviors                    or explained
  Contrastive Structure                                                          • Responds appropri-         • Responds inappropri-
    (referents, time,                                                              ately to some non-           ately to non-manual
    intensity, etc.)                                                               manual markers               markers




                                                                                                                                             80
                                                          Figure 9
                                   SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                                         Oral Activity Self-Evaluation

   Rate yourself in each of the following categories:

                    ★★★★★             fantastic
                    ★★★★              very good
                    ★★★               good
                    ★★                fair
                    ★                 needs improvement

                                                                     ★
                                                                     ★   ★
                                                                     ★   ★   ★
                                                                     ★   ★   ★   ★
                                                                     ★   ★   ★   ★   ★
    Content
        • The content was complete.
        • The ideas were well organized.

     Comprehensibility
        • I was comprehensible to my partner.
        • I was comprehensible to the teacher.

     Vocabulary and expressions
         • I used recently learned expressions.
         • I used recently learned new vocabulary.

     Grammar
        • I used challenging constructions.

     Fluency
         • I spoke in reasonable quantity.
         • I spoke with few hesitations.

     Register
        • I used formal or familiar forms of
              expression, as appropriate.



Developed by Karen Jogan, Albright College, Reading, PA




                                                                                         81
                                                      Figure 10
                                   SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                                             Oral Report Assessment



   Speaker:

   Reviewer:

   Date:                                               Class:

   Assignment Title:

   I understood what the report was about.                      Yes           Somewhat           No

   I liked the way the speaker



   To improve, the speaker might


               Rate the oral report form from 5 (fantastic) to 1 (needs improvement)

   Outlines presented                                                 5   4        3     2   1

   Key words listed                                                   5   4        3     2   1

   Clear organization                                                 5   4        3     2   1

   Use of visuals/illustrations                                       5   4        3     2   1

   Minimal reference to written notes                                 5   4        3     2   1

   Appropriate length                                                 5   4        3     2   1

   Questions answered                                                 5   4        3     2   1

   Speaker appears interested in topic                                5   4        3     2   1

   Originality, creativity                                            5   4        3     2   1

   Speaker supports an opinion                                        5   4        3     2   1




Developed by Karen Jogan, Albright College, Reading



                                                                                                      82
                                                        Figure 11
                                  SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                                                    Story Evaluation


   Name:                                                    Date:

     Rate the story:

           ★★★★                  fantastic
           ★★★                   good
           ★★                    average
           ★                     needs improvement
                                                                    ★
                                                                    ★   ★
                                                                    ★   ★   ★
                                                                    ★   ★   ★   ★

   The story was well organized.

   The story had a beginning, a middle, and an end. The

   story was interesting and entertaining.

   The story included a variety of expressions.

   Ideas in the story were clearly expressed.

   The story was understood by others.


   I liked the story because




Developed by Eliason, Eaton, & Jogan, TESOL, 1997




                                                                                    83
                                                                    APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




                                                      Figure 12
                                   SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                                          Expressing a Point of View


   Name:                                                          Date                Topic:

   Rate yourself along the continuum:


                                                                             very         not very
                                                                         successfuL      successfuL

   I think I was successful in expressing my opinion. My

   opinion had several supporting arguments.

   My supporting arguments were well organized. I

   was persuasive and convincing.

   My sentence structure was grammatically accurate.


   The best part of my presentation was




   I could improve my presentation if I




Developed by Eliason, Eaton, and Jogan, TESOL, 1997



                                                                                                      84
   APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




                                                             Figure 13
                                   SAMPLE ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
                         Story Retelling Checklist: Self-Assessment


   Name:                                                              Date:

   Book Title:                                                        Author:


   Please put an ―X‖ in the box that describes your ability to do the following.


                                                                              With help from
                                                                               a classmate     I cannot do
                                                          On my own           or the teacher     this yet

 I can name the main characters.


 I can describe the setting.


 I can report the events in chronological
 order.


 I can identify the main issues or prob-
 lems.


 I can describe the resolution.


 I can express my feelings about the story
 and compare it to another story or event
 in my life.


 I can identify my favorite part of the
 story or my favorite character and
 tell why.




Developed by Karen Jogan, Albright College, Reading, PA



                                                                                                             85
                                       APPENDIX A: ACTFL GUIDELINES




        Macro-Organization Map of Italian I

               La Pronuncia Italiana
T   H                                               H
                                                              T

E   S             Primo Incontro                    S         E

C   P                                               P         C
                     La Città

H   A                                               A         H
               Persone e Personalità
N   S                                               S         N

O   K             All‘università                    K         O

L   I                                               I         L
                    A Tavola

O   L                                               L         O

               Attività e passatempi
G                                                             G
    L                                               L


Y                  La Famiglia                                Y
    S                                               S

                  Buon Viaggio

                                                    L
                                                                  86




                                                    L
                                        Timeline for Italian I


                              Timeline for Italian I
                              Micro-Organization
First Marking Period: September – November

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:

      La Pronuncia Italiana
                 Be acquainted with Italian alphabet and vowels
                 Syllabication and Intonation
                 Use double consonants
                 Identify Italian Cognates

      Primo Incontro
                 Use Greetings – Formal and Informal
                 Become acquainted with expressions of courtesy
                 Identify classroom objects and describe them accordingly
                 Become familiar with expressions in the classroom
                 Articulate the elements of time (day, week, months, cardinal numbers)
                 Become acquainted with the Italian Language and its Dialects

      La Città
                     Understand the use of the verb ―essere‖ (to be) in target
                      language
                     Identify gender of nouns
                     Use of singular, plural, definite and indefinite articles
                     Become familiar with interrogative expressions
                     Identify different aspects of the regions of Italy and their landmarks
                     Become familiar with the City of Milano


Second Marking Period: November – January

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:


        Persone e Personalità
                   Identify personality traits and physical characteristics of oneself and
                     others.
                   Become familiar with the adjectives Buono and Bello
                   Recognize colors in the target language
                   Become familiar with the adjectives denoting nationality
                   Use the verb ―avere‖ (to have) in the target language
                                                                                               87
                      Use idiomatic expressions with ―avere‖

      All‘università
                      Become familiar with the Italian school system
                      Recognize differences in school systems
                      Discuss types of housing, location and facilities
                      Describe rooms and furnishings including rent or sale of a house or
                       apartment in the target language
                      Match first conjugation –ARE verbs and subject pronouns
                      Use prepositions in the target language
                      Demonstrate knowledge of holidays in Italian, specifically feasts of Santa
                       Lucia, San Nicola and La Befana


Third Marking Period: February – April

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:

      A Tavola
                      Become familiar with food-related vocabulary
                      Identify food specific to the target language
                      Become familiar with the regional origin of certain products
                      Identify the endings of regular –ERE and –IRE verbs
                      Become familiar with cardinal numbers up to one billion
                      Add, subtract, multiple and divide cardinal numbers
                      Compare and contrast the cultural experience of the Italian Bar
                      Become familiar with the celebration of ―Carnevale‖
                      Express quantities
                      Become acquainted with various eating establishments in Italy
                      Deliberate the differences of meals of the target culture and the United
                               States culture
                      Use of commands to order a meal in the target language


      Attività e passatempi
                   Identify various activities and pastimes in target culture
                   Become familiar with directions and modes of transportation
                   Use irregular verbs ―andare, fare, stare and dare‖ (to go, to do or to make,
                      to stay or to feel, and to give)
                   Ask for and give telephone numbers - discuss different amount of digits
                      in European phone numbers
                   Use irregular verbs ―bere, dovere, potere and volere‖ (to drink, to have
                      to, must or to owe, can, may or to be able to, and to want)
                   Use the verbs ―sapere and conoscere‖ (to know – fact or acquaintance)
                   Become familiar with the famous seaside town of ―Cinque Terre‖
                   Become acquainted with the lifestyle of the Italian University Student
                                                                                                  88
Fourth Marking Period: April – June

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:

      La famiglia
                    Become familiar with the Italian Family
                    Become familiar with the differences between Italian and American
                     family life and structure
                    Use possessive adjectives and pronouns
                    Use –IRE verbs with the suffix ―isc‖
                    Describe the personality of family members
                    Identify the endings of irregular –IRE verbs
                    Use direct object pronouns

      Buon Viaggio

                    Become familiar with all aspects of travel
                    Identify differences in road signs of target culture and the American
                     culture
                    Use present perfect tense with ―avere‖
                    Use present perfect tense with ―essere‖
                    Discuss the changes in the travel industry in the new millennium
                    Use prepositions ―a, in, da and per‖
                    Become acquainted with Region of Tuscany – A Celebration of Nature
                    Express time using ―Che ora e‘? or Che ore sono?‖




                                                                                             89
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________________ Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


   1st Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile

                                       Italian I Benchmarks

                                          1st Marking Period

                     Benchmarks                       CCCS         NP     P   AP      Comments

      Interpretive Mode
      Student will be able to identify at least 25
      Italian cognates from a authentic Italian
  1.                                                  7.1.NM.A.1
      newspaper article
      Evaluation Criteria: Teacher generated
      list of cognates
      Interpersonal Mode
      Students will be able to role-play an
      appropriate introductory conversation based
  2. on a situation given by the teacher(both         7.1.NM.B.5
      formal and informal).
      Evaluation Criteria: Oral Evaluation
      Rubric
      Presentational Mode
      Students will create a map of the classroom,
                                                      7.1.NM.C.4
  3. correctly label ling objects by name, color
                                                           ,C.5
      and quantity.
      Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
     * NP-Not Proficient                         P = Proficient         AP= Advanced Proficient


This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                   90
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________________ Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


   2nd Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile


                                       Italian I Benchmarks

                                         2nd Marking Period

                    Benchmarks                    CCCS           NP    P   AP        Comments

      Interpretive Mode
      Students will be able to describe various
      pictures of Italian actors and actresses
  4.
      explaining their personal traits.            7.1.NM.A.5
      Evaluation Criteria:
      Rubric
       Interpersonal Mode
      Students will work in groups of two. One
      as a realtor and the other as a customer
      looking for student housing. They will       7.1.NM.B.2,
  5.
      engage in a dialogue using appropriate       B.4
      vocabulary and the –ARE verbs as well
      Evaluation Criteria:
      Oral Presentation Rubric
      Presentational Mode
      Students will create a multimedia
      presentation explaining the knowledge
  6. gained of the Italian Holidays learned in     7.1.NM.C.1
      the marking period.
      Evaluation Criteria:
      Presentation Rubric
     * NP-Not Proficient                       P = Proficient          AP= Advanced Proficient


This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                   91
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________________ Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


  3rd Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile

                                        Italian I Benchmarks

                                         3rd Marking Period

                    Benchmarks                       CCCS           NP   P    AP      Comments

       Interpretive Mode
       Students will be able to describe a
       picture of Cinque Terre. They will be
       able to use the irregular verbs taught in
  7.                                                7.1.NM.A.4
       the lesson in their description and
       activities/pastimes available
       Evaluation Criteria:
       Rubric
       Interpersonal Mode
       Students will be able to speak with the
       teacher in the target language about food
  8.                                               7.1.NM.B.2,B.4
       and ordering in an Italian Café‘.
       Evaluation Criteria:
       Oral Presentation Rubric
       Presentational Mode
       Students will pretend to own an Italian
       restaurant in Rome. They will create
  9.   their menu including appetizers, drinks,    7.1.NM.C.1,C.5
       and desserts, including pricing.
       Evaluation Criteria:
       Rubric
        * NP-Not Proficient                      P = Proficient       AP= Advanced Proficient



This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                   92
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________________ Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________

0
          4th Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile


                                           Italian I Benchmarks

                                             4th Marking Period

                         Benchmarks                           CCCS      NP      P     AP     Comments

           Interpretive Mode
           Students will be able to interpret an
           authentic train schedule going from
    10.    Rome to Florence. They must also              7.1.NM.A1,A4
           explain what places of interest one might
           see in Tuscany.
           Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
           Interpersonal Mode
           Students will be shown road signs by the
           teacher. They must be able to identify
    11.    them and express their understanding of       7.1.NM.B1,B2
           the meaning of the sign.
           Evaluation Criteria:
           Oral presentation rubric
           Presentational Mode
           Students will create a family album,
    12.    identifying their family using possessive     7.1.NM.C1,C5
           adjectives.
           Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
           * NP-Not Proficient                         P = Proficient        AP= Advanced Proficient



This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                        93
        Macro-Organization Map of Italian II


T                  Soldi e tempo
    H                                      H
                                               T

E   S
                 Mezzi di diffusione
                                           S   E

C   P                                      P   C
                      La Moda

H   A                                      A   H
                     In Cucina
N   S                                      S   N

                    Le Vacanze
O   K                                      K   O

L   I                                      I   L
                      La Casa


O   L                                      L   O
                 Il Mondo del lavoro

G                                              G
    L                                      L
                  Paesi e paesaggi
Y                                              Y
    S                                      S




                                                   94
                             Timeline for Italian II
                              Micro-Organization
First Marking Period: September – November

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:

      Soldi e tempo
                     Identify the value of the European currency
                     Use of numbers and currency in real life situations
                     Learn about different businesses in the target language
                     Demonstrate use of reciprocal verbs
                     Use reflexive verbs appropriately
                     Become well informed on the differences with Italy before and after the
                      conversion to the euro
                     Express actions in the past

      Mezzi di diffusione
                  Become familiar with various modes of communication
                  Express actions in past using the imperfect tense
                  Compare and contrast actions in past using present perfect and imperfect
                     tense
                  Understand the use of ―Da quando and Da quanto tempo‖ (how long?)
                  Express actions in the past using the pluperfect tense
                  Become familiar with Italian Movies

Second Marking Period: November – January

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:

      La moda
                     Expand knowledge of ―La Moda Italiana‖ (Italian fashion)
                     Become familiar with clothing vocabulary
                     Express commands using the imperative mood
                     Use demonstrative adjectives
                     Demonstrate knowledge of the months and dates
                     Discuss the seasons and the weather
                     Appreciate Italian Fashion




      In cucina

                                                                                            95
                    Demonstrate knowledge of holidays in Italian, such as Easter.
                    Become familiar with Italian Cuisine and discuss its global influence
                    Use direct object pronouns in the target language
                    Use indirect object pronouns in the target language
                    Express commands using the imperative with object and reflexive
                     pronouns
                    Present an authentic Italian recipe
                    Discuss the preparation of an Italian dinner

Third Marking Period: February – April

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:

      Le vacanze
                    Expand knowledge of vacationing in Italy
                    Make predictions using the future tense
                    Use disjunctive pronouns
                    Become familiar with the use of ―Piacere‖ (to please)
                    Demonstrate knowledge of the impersonal ―si‖ (one)

      La casa
                    Expand knowledge of home vocabulary
                    Describe the home or the apartment
                    Discuss similarities and differences between homes and apartments in
                     Italy and the USA
                    Use pronoun ―ne‖ (some)
                    Use the adverb ―ci‖ (there)
                    Express order with ordinal numbers
                    Become familiar with apartment rentals
                    Appreciate crafts or products ―Made in Italy‖


Fourth Marking Period: April – June

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:

      Il mondo del lavoro
                 Become familiar with different professions and trades of the target
                     culture
                 Identify different careers and professions that require proficiency in the
                     target language
                 Demonstrate knowledge of the economy in Italy
                 Become familiar with the job interview process in the target culture
                 Express intentions using the conditional present tense
                 Use dovere, potere and volere with the conditional present tense (have to,
                     must, want to)
                                                                                             96
             Understand classified ads in the target language

Paesi e paesaggi
            Demonstrate knowledge of geographical terms
            Appreciate field trips in the target language
            Formulate comparisons in the target language
            Use the superlative in making descriptions
            Use irregular comparatives and superlatives
            Become familiar with the national parks of Italy
            Demonstrate knowledge of simple poetry in the target language




                                                                             97
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________________ Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


  1st Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile
                                      Italian II Benchmarks

                                         1st Marking Period

                    Benchmarks                        CCCS           NP     P    AP      Comments

     Interpretive Mode
     Students will be able to explain the
     usage of the Euro from an authentic
     Italian article about the currency.           7.1.NH.A.5
 1.
     Students will answer comprehension
     questions demonstrating understanding.
     Evaluation Criteria: Comprehension
     Questions
     Interpersonal Mode
     Students will be able to role-play an
     appropriate introductory conversation       7.1.NH.B.2, B.4
 2.
     based on a situation given by they
     teacher (both formal and informal).
     Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
     Presentational Mode
     After viewing a sample Italian TV
     commercial, students will create their
 3.  own commercial using multi-media            7.1.NH.C.2, C.5
     promoting an authentic Italian product.
     Evaluation Criteria: Presentation
     Rubric
    * NP-Not Proficient                      P = Proficient            AP= Advanced Proficient


This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                   98
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________________ Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________

2nd Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile
                                      Italian II Benchmarks

                                         2nd Marking Period

                    Benchmarks                        CCCS         NP     P     AP      Comments

    Interpretive Mode
    Students will be given an article on fashion
    from an Italian newspaper or magazine. The
    students must formulate five comprehension
4. questions as a class, then they must analyze        7.1.NH.A.1
    the article and complete the comprehension
    questions.
    Evaluation Criteria: 5 Comprehension
    questions
    Interpersonal Mode
    Students will look at the menu from an
    Italian restaurant and make a list of five
    foods and drinks that they never eat or drink.
                                                       7.1.NH.B.2,
5. Then interview three classmates and mark
                                                           B.4
    the items that both avoid. With whom do
    they have the most in common? Present the
    results to the rest of the class
    Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
    Presentational Mode
    Students are provided with a picture of a
    window dressed with clothes and accessories
    and their individual prices. Students pretend      7.1.NH.B.1,
6.                                                        B.2,B.3
    to go in the store and buy some of the items
    shown using the appropriate expressions.
    Evaluation Criteria: Oral Presentation
    Rubric
* NP-Not Proficient                        P = Proficient          AP= Advanced Proficient

This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.



                                                                                                   99
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________________ Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________

 3rd Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile
                                     Italian II Benchmarks

                                       3rd Marking Period

                  Benchmarks                      CCCS           NP   P      AP      Comments

     Interpretive Mode
     Listening-comprehension: teacher
     reads 10 sentences. Students determine
7.   whether the verbs in each sentence are     7.1.NH.A.1
     in the present or future tense.
     Evaluation Criteria: Teacher created
     comprehension sheet
     Interpersonal Mode
     Students will work in groups of two.
     One as a realtor and the other as a
     customer looking to rent or purchase      7.1.NH.B.2,
     an apartment or home. They will
8.   engage in a dialogue using appropriate B.3,B.5
     vocabulary that express differences
     and similarities between those in Italy
     and USA.
     Evaluation Criteria: Oral
     presentation rubric
     Presentational Mode
     Students will research and plan a
     vacation to a region or a city in Italy.
     Then write an e-mail to a friend
     describing their plans. Make sure to
                                               7.1.NH.C.1,C.5
9.
     include the destination, how they will
     get there, whom they are going with,
     how long they‘re staying, and what
     activities they are planning to do there.
     Students will read their emails to the
     class. Evaluation Criteria: Oral
     Presentation Rubric
        * NP-Not Proficient                     P = Proficient         AP= Advanced Proficient

This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.



                                                                                                  100
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________________ Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


 4th Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile

                                         Italian II Benchmarks

                                            4th Marking Period

                       Benchmarks                        CCCS        NP    P    AP       Comments

        Interpretive Mode
        Students will receive a classified ad from
        an Italian newspaper or magazine. Student
 10.    must be able to interpret what the ad is       7.1.NH.A.1
        soliciting.
        Evaluation Criteria: Comprehension
        questions
        Interpersonal Mode
        From a list provided by the teacher,
        students rank ten professions in order of
        their importance in society. They then         7.1.NH.B.4,
 11.    compare their list with that of a classmate.
        Are they similar or different? Students           B.5
        discuss the criteria they used in the
        ranking.
        Evaluation Criteria: Observation Rubric

        Presentational Mode
        Students will choose one of the national       7.1.NH.C.1,
 12.    parks of Italy and create a multi-media
        presentation and present it to the class.         C.5
        Evaluation Criteria: Presentation rubric

       * NP-Not Proficient                       P = Proficient           AP= Advanced Proficient

This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                    101
        Macro-Organization Map of Italian III

T   H             L‘Estate? È italiana          T
                                            H

    S
                                                E
                                            S
E
               Ti ricordi? Adesso e prima
    P
                                            P
C                                               C
    A
                                            A
                      Che prezzi!
H
    S
                                            S   H
                   In quale zona vivi?
N   K
                                            K   N

O   I
                     Tutti a tavola!        I
                                                O
    L
L                                           L
                                                L
                   Che lingua parli?
    L
O                                           L

                                                O
    S
                                            S
G                  Che lavoro farai?

                                                G
Y
               Abitare in famiglia o no?
                                                Y




                                                102
                             Timeline for Italian III
                              Micro-Organization
First Marking Period: September – November

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:


      L‘estate? È Italiana

                    Become familiar with Italian vacationing lifestyles
                    Converse in target language expressing actions in present tense
                    Speak of persons without mentioning them
                    Identify objects and people
                    Extend an invitation
                    Accept an invitation
                    Decline an invitation
                    Become familiar with an Italian Journalist

      Ti ricordi? Adesso e prima

                    Discuss and describe past activities using the imperfect tense
                    Compare childhood habits to current ones using the target language
                    Discuss and describe weather related activities
                    Master cardinal numbers in the target language
                    Solicit information in the target language
                    Express doubt in the target language
                    Become familiar with cinematographer

Second Marking Period: November – January

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:


      Che prezzi!
                    Discuss and describe past activities using the present perfect tense
                    Identify people and objects using definite article
                    Ask questions in target language
                    Express time and be able tell time in the target language
                    Offer assistance in the target language
                                                                                            103
                    Ask for help in various situations in the target language
                    Demonstrate ability to make purchases and ask for prices in the target
                     language
                    Become familiar with contemporary Italian music

      In quale zona vivi?

                    Narrate the past in the target language
                    Speak of things without mentioning them
                    Indicate possession
                    Express congratulations
                    Convey gratitude
                    Express remorse

Third Marking Period: February – April

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:




      Tutti a tavola!
                   Discuss the courses of a typical Italian meal
                   Get an appreciation of the Mediterranean diet and the Slow Food
                      movement created in Italy to resist the influx of fast food.
                   Become skilled about proper etiquette at an Italian Restaurant
                   Use direct and indirect object pronouns
                   Use reflexive pronouns
                   Use expressions at the table
                   Compare and contrast different types of restaurants in Italy and USA
                   Offer, accept or refuse food or drink in the target language

      Che lingua parli?
                  Become familiar with the Italian fable of Pinocchio
                  Use of past absolute
                  Use of the two present perfect tenses ―trapassato prossimo and trapassato
                    remoto‖
                  Preferred gestures with or without words, to ―say‖ what they mean,
                    Italian style



                                                                                              104
                    Contrast and compare Italian and English interjections used to express
                     surprise, pain and so on (Ehila‘, Ahi, Oddio, Mamma mia, Dai, Macche‘,
                     Uffa, Boh, Magari, Peccato).
                    Grant and receive permission to speak
                    Agree and disagree in the target language




Fourth Marking Period: April – June

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:

      Che lavoro farai?

                    Become familiar with famous Italian pop singer Tiziano Ferro
                    Discuss the different employment possibilities in Italy
                    Make predictions using the future tense
                    Discuss future events using the target language
                    Make arrangements for the future
                    Express polite requests, wishes and preferences using the conditional
                     present
                    Create a business letter in the target language
                    Discuss career and study prospects
                    Complete job application using the target language

      Abitare in famiglia o no?

                    Discuss the structure of the Italian family
                    Become familiar with the famous Italian pop singer Ornella Vanoni
                    Express views, emotions, possibility and uncertainty using the
                     subjunctive both in present and in the past
                    Make polite requests, wishes, preferences and doubts
                    Discuss the events in the life of an Italian author Natalia Ginzburg
                    Articulate viewpoints




                                                                                             105
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________            Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________



  1st Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile

                                      Italian III Benchmarks

                                         1st Marking Period

                    Benchmarks                       CCCS         NP     P     AP      Comments

     Interpretive Mode
     Students will interpret an advertisement
     based on the concept of agriturismo.         7.1.IL.A.1,
  1.
     Evaluation Criteria: Teacher generated A.6
     comprehension questions based on the
     advertisement
     Interpersonal Mode
     Students will create a skit interviewing
     an older person about their childhood       7.1.IL.B.3,
  2.                                             B.5
     habits and incorporate a comparison of
     current childhood habits.
     Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
     Presentational Mode
     Assuming the role of a meteorologist, the
     students will create a weather report
  3. using multi-media product and present it
                                                 7.1.IL.C.1,C.2
     to the class.
     Evaluation Criteria: Presentation
     Rubric
     * NP-Not Proficient                      P = Proficient           AP= Advanced Proficient



This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                  106
Teacher‘s Name: _______________________                 Date: __________________________

Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


 2nd Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile

                                      Italian III Benchmarks
                                         2nd Marking Period
                       Benchmarks                 CCCS             NP    P    AP       Comments
       Interpretive Mode
       Students will interpret text of
       contemporary Italian song that express the
  4.                                                 7.1.IL.A.1,
       theme of nationalism. Teacher may choose
                                                     A.6
       from songs like ―L‘italiano or Azzurro‖.
       Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
       Interpersonal Mode
       Students will work with partner and create
       a dialogue that will take place at ―UPIM‖
                                                     7.1.IL.B.2,
  5. Italian department store. Students will be
                                                     B.5
       able to sustain a conversation about asking
       for prices and making purchases.
       Evaluation Criteria: Oral Rubric
       Presentational Mode
       Students will assume the role of a famous
       Historian: they will read an excerpt from a
  6.                                                 7.1.IL.C.2
       research paper they wrote about a certain
       historical event.
       Evaluation Criteria: Presentation rubric
     * NP-Not Proficient                       P = Proficient           AP= Advanced Proficient



This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                  107
Teacher‘s Name: _________ ______________    Date: __________________________
Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


   3rd Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile
                                       Italian III Benchmarks
                                           3rd Marking Period
                        Benchmarks                    CCCS           NP    P    AP      Comments
       Interpretive Mode
       Students will listen to and comprehend the 7.1.IL.A.1,
       song ―Lettera a Pinocchio‖ by Elisa Mutto A.6
  7.
       from pg. 137 of text.
       Evaluation Criteria: Completed
       comprehension activity from Lab Manual.
       Interpersonal Mode
       Students prepare and present skits of
       different situations in which reactions of
       people involved call for the use of an          7.1.IL.B.3.
       interjection or gestures (i.e. you‘re eager to
  8.
       go out and your parents keep adding to the
       list of chores they want you to do before
       you leave).
       Evaluation Criteria: Oral presentation
       rubric
       Presentational Mode
       Students write and present to the class a
       short text about food. The text should
       include what foods they like and dislike,       7.1.Il.C.4,
  9. what is customary to eat in their                 C.5
       households and, the differences between
       the Italian and the American ways of
       eating.
       Evaluation Criteria: Presentation Rubric
     * NP-Not Proficient                         P = Proficient           AP= Advanced Proficient



This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                    108
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________ Date: __________________________
Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


4th Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile

                                      Italian III Benchmarks
                                           4th Marking Period
                      Benchmarks                       CCCS        NP    P    AP       Comments
      Interpretive Mode
      Students will be able to analyze an expert
      from ―Le piccole virtu‖ from pg. 204 of       7.1.IL.A.1,
 10. DaCapo text from Italian author Natalia        A.6
      Ginzburg.
      Evaluation Criteria: Comprehension
      questions on pg. 205 of textbook
      Interpersonal Mode
      Students will create an interview with a
                                                    .7.1.IL.B.3.
      partner interviewing a famous Italian
 11. author. Selecting one of their works and
      posing questions to the author about the
      literary work.
      Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
      Presentational Mode
      Working in groups of two, the students
      will create an in class ―Italian Career
      Day‖. Students will choose Italian            7.1.Il.C.4,
 12. professions and careers and put together a C.5
      booth with promotional items. Members
      from other Italian classes should serve as
      job hunters.
      Evaluation Criteria: Presentation Rubric
    * NP-Not Proficient                        P = Proficient           AP= Advanced Proficient



This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                  109
        Macro-Organization Map of Italian IV


T   H                                             H   T
              Ma come, non hai la macchina?
    S                                             S
E                                                     E
    P                                             P
C               Cosa facciamo questa sera?
                                                      C
    A                                             A

H
            Se gli esami andassero sempre bene!       H

N   S                                             S
                                                      N
                     Donne e lavoro

O   K                                             K
                                                      O
    I                                             I
L                  La salute e lo sport
                                                      L
    L                                             L
O
    L           Tesori d‘arte dappertutto!        L
                                                      O
G
    S                                             S   G
Y               Overview of Italian Culture

                                                      Y




                                                          110
                            Timeline for Italian IV
                             Micro-Organization

First Marking Period: September – November

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:


      Ma come, non hai la macchina?

                    Discuss environmental problems
                    Make suggestions and recommendations for protecting the environment
                    Learn about environmental concerns in Italy
                    Become familiar with Italian pop star Eros Ramazzotti
                    Use the imperfect subjunctive to express views and emotions, possibility
                     and uncertainty
                    ―Questo‖ and ―quello‖(this and that) and other demonstratives
                    Discuss the advantages of progress
                    Give travel directions, points of reference and useful terms

      Cosa facciamo questa sera?

                    Discuss and describe leisure activities using the target language
                    Make suggestions for free time activities in the target language
                    Survey classmates about their leisure activities using the target language
                    Become familiar with the ―Vespa‖ and its influence in Italy and the
                     world
                    Use the imperative to give orders or advice
                    Become familiar with contemporary Italian music and Italian TV
                    Express admiration
                    Demonstrate doubt
                    Express surprise
                    Use stressed pronouns in the target language

Second Marking Period: November – January

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:
                                                                                            111
      Se gli esami andassero sempre bene!

                    Discuss how high school and universities function in Italy
                    Become familiar with Italian singer Andrea Boccelli
                    Expand use of superlatives
                    Expand use of comparatives
                    Become familiar with the concept of oral exams in Italy
                    Become familiar with the if-clause
                    Express frustration in the target language

      Donne e Lavoro

                    Discuss the role of the woman and the workplace in Italy
                    Become familiar with the Italian pop singer Edoardo Bennato
                    Use the gerund in the present and the past in the target language
                    Use the present and past participle in the target language
                    Discuss the role of marriage in the Italian culture
                    Demonstrate indifference
                    Express acceptance

Third Marking Period: February – April

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:


      La salute e lo sport

                    Discuss Italians and their favorite sports
                    Become familiar with pop singers Gianna Nannini and Edoardo Bennato
                    Talk about his/her favorite free-time activities
                    Discuss the role of soccer among other sports in Italy
                    Reinforce the use of present tense of –are verbs and Fare and Andare
                    Discuss the importance of being healthy
                    Express interest and respond to questions of interest
                    Speak of people, places and events in succession
                    Discuss the issue of obesity

      Tesori d‘arte dappertutto

                                                                                         112
                Discover the City of Rome
                Become familiar with Italian musical legend Luciano Pavarotti
                Use passive form in target language
                Use the impersonal ―si‖ in the target language
                Express contradiction
                Discuss and recognize Italy‘s architectural richness.
Fourth Marking Period: April – June

Upon completion of this marking period students will be able to:


      Overview of Italian Culture

                    Assess the Anglo-American influence on Italian Culture
                    Explore the image of Italy in the world
                    Explore the different local traditions that characterize the Italian cultural
                     landscape
                    Become familiar with Dante Alighieri and ―La Divina Commedia‖
                    Appreciate the significance of dialects in the Italian tradition.
                    Become familiar with the literary work of ―I Promessi Sposi‖
                    Discuss current events using authentic Italian periodicals
                    Articulate viewpoints




                                                                                               113
Teacher‘s Name: _____________________ Date: __________________________
Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


 1st Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile

                                      Italian IV Benchmarks

                                         1st Marking Period

                    Benchmarks                       CCCS         NP     P     AP      Comments

    Interpretive Mode
    Students identify the definite article
 1. ―hidden‖ in the forms of Questo and          7.1.IM.A.1
    Quello on a teacher generated handout.
    Evaluation Criteria: Teacher evaluation
    Interpersonal Mode
    Students are exchange students in Italy
    and will be giving a party at their
    apartment. They invite their classmates
    and professor. However, they have never 7.1.IH.B.2,
 2.                                              B.4
    been to their apartment. Students will
    give specific directions on how to arrive
    there from their university.
    Evaluation Criteria: Oral presentation
    rubric
    Presentational Mode
    Students will create a multi-media
    presentation making suggestions and
 3. recommendations for helping to protect       7.1.IH.C.3,C.5
    the environment at their school. (i.e.
    recycling etc.)
    Evaluation Criteria: Presentation rubric
    * NP-Not Proficient                       P = Proficient           AP= Advanced Proficient


This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                  114
Teacher‘s Name: ____________________ Date: __________________________
Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


2nd Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile
                                    Italian IV Benchmarks

                                      2nd Marking Period

                    Benchmarks                      CCCS        NP     P    AP       Comments

     Interpretive Mode

     Students, using a Venn diagram, identify
4.   similarities and differences between the     7.1.IH.A.5
     Italian and American school system.
     Evaluation Criteria: Rubric

     Interpersonal Mode

     Students will work in pairs and conduct an
5.   interview of the Italian singer Edoardo      7.1.IH.B.2,
     Bennato.                                     B.3,B.4

     Evaluation Criteria: Oral Rubric

     Presentational Mode

     Students will create a multi-media
     presentation on a successful Italian
                                             7.1.IH.C.3,
6.   woman in the workplace. (What type of
                                             C.6
     work do they do? How did they become so
     successful? etc.)

     Evaluation Criteria: Presentation Rubric

*

NP-Not Proficient                       P = Proficient           AP= Advanced Proficient

This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column




                                                                                                  115
Teacher‘s Name: _______________________     Date: __________________________
Student‘s Name: __________________________________________


  3rd Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile
                                      Italian IV Benchmarks

                                         3rd Marking Period

                      Benchmarks                      CCCS         NP    P     AP      Comments

       Interpretive Mode
       Students are shown L‘Italia dell‘Unesco. It
       is a map of Italy, which has highlighted
       sites that UNESCO (United Nations
       Educational, Scientific and, Cultural
       Organization) recognized as exceptional.
  7.                                                 7.1.IH.A.1
       Working in small groups, Students compile
       a list of some of these wonders, identify
       them on the map and explain which ones
       they visited, which ones they would like to
       visit and why.
       Evaluation Criteria: Teacher evaluation

       Interpersonal Mode
       Students will work with partner and choose 7.1.IH.B.2,
  8. a famous Italian soccer player and conduct         B.3,B.5
       an interview in class.
       Evaluation Criteria: Oral Presentation
       Rubric
       Presentational Mode
       Students will create a multi-media             7.1.AL.C.1
       presentation on the city of Rome.
  9.
       Highlighting its history and architectural
       richness.
       Evaluation Criteria: Presentational rubric
     * NP-Not Proficient                        P = Proficient          AP= Advanced Proficient

This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards
are addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should
check off whether the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in
the appropriate column.




                                                                                                  116
Teacher‘s Name: ___________________ Date: __________________________
Student‘s Name: __________________________________________



  4th Marking Period Student Benchmark Profile

                                           Italian IV Benchmarks

                                              4th Marking Period

                        Benchmarks                        CCCS            NP      P      AP       Comments

        Interpretive Mode
        Students listen to and read the lyrics of the
        Neapolitan song ‗O Sole Mio. Then,
        working in small groups, they discuss the       7.1.AL.A.2
  10. topic and melody of the song and scan the
        text for words that do not sound Italian
        identifying some differences between
        Neapolitan and Italian.
        Evaluation Criteria: Rubric
        Interpersonal Mode
        Students are shown a picture and the
        introduction to a magazine article about
        the experience of some immigrates to
        Italy. Working in pairs they make
        predictions about the article‘s content.
        They then compare their opinions with
  11.                                                   7.1.AL.B.5
        those of their classmates. Finally, working
        in small groups, they make up a story
        about the past, present and future of such a
        heterogeneous group of people presented
        in the article.
        Evaluation Criteria: Oral Rubric
        Presentational Mode
        Students will narrate a selection from
  12. either ―La Divina Comedia‖ or ―I Promessi 7.1.IM.C.2
        Sposi‖ to the class.
        Evaluation Criteria: Presentation Rubric
      * NP-Not Proficient                         P = Proficient                AP= Advanced Proficient
This document lists the benchmarks that should be met by the end of each quarter and which standards are
addressed. After correcting the assessment according to the evaluation criteria, teachers should check off whether
the student has achieved Advanced Proficiency, Proficiency, or Non Proficiency in the appropriate column.


                                                                                                               117
                                        SAMPLE LESSONS

THEME: BUON VIAGGIO

OBJECTIVES/INDICATORS:
1. 7.1-3 Interpretive Mode - Identify people, places, objects and activities
         in daily life based on oral or written descriptions.
2. 7.1-5 Interpretive Mode - Connect the learning of the target language
         to information studied in other content areas.
3. 7.1-6 Interpretive Mode - Demonstrate comprehension of the main idea,
         and identify the principal character in readings from age-
         appropriate culturally authentic selections.
4. 7.1-1 Interpretive Mode- Demonstrate comprehension of oral and
         written instructions connected to daily activities through
         appropriate responses.
5. 7.1-5 Interpretive Mode - Apply knowledge and skills gained in other
         core content areas to the learning of the target language.

ACTIVITIES/PROCEDURES:
  1. Students will use Powerpoint to create a travel brochure for Italy in English. Laptops
     will be brought into the classroom for students to utilize for the entire week.

   2. Students will be given a list of websites for their research.
      www.itwg.com , www.italiantourism.com , www.backpackitaly.com ,
      www.realitaly.com
      They may choose which cities they wish to include in their brochure.

   3. Brochure must include the following information:
                        At least 3 Italian cities
                        Illustrations
                        Description of main attractions
                        Points of interest for each city.
                        Modes of transportation available between each city

   4. Students will present their travel brochure to the entire class.

ASSESSMENTS:

      Rubric – Assess students‘ final presentations of brochures for completeness of research
       and clarity of explanation of each city. (See attached)

      Observation of students‘ research on the computer.

NOTES:




                                                                                              118
THEME: TUTTI A TAVOLA

OBJECTIVES/INDICATORS:

1. 7.1-3 Interpretive Mode - Identify people, places, objects and activities in
         daily life based on oral or written descriptions.
2. 7.1-5 Interpretive Mode - Connect the learning of the target language to
         information studied in other content areas.
3. 7.1-6 Interpretive Mode - Demonstrate comprehension of the main idea, and
         identify the principal character in readings from age-appropriate
         culturally authentic selections.
4. 7.1-1 Interpretive Mode- Demonstrate comprehension of oral and
         written instructions connected to daily activities through appropriate
         responses.
5. 7.1-5 Interpretive Mode - Apply knowledge and skills gained in other core
         content areas to the learning of the target language.

ACTIVITIES/PROCEDURES:

   1. Students will be exposed to a Food Guide Pyramid and will sort foods from the target
      culture and the American culture.
   2. Students will discuss the nutritional values and health benefits of foods found in both
      diets using a graphic organizer. (See attached)
   3. Working in groups, students will develop menus that reflect dietary choices or
      restrictions, including vegetarian, diabetic, low-sodium, lactose-intolerant, low calorie,
      and high carbohydrate diets.
   4. Students design and present menus to the class.
   5. Students will research information online for traditional dishes associated with target
      language and investigate history and origin of dishes, regions that they come from and
      any customs associated with them.
      www.italian-food.us , www.italianfoodforever.com , www.virtualitalia.com
   6. Students demonstrate preparation of a recipe including historical and cultural
      information using charts or other visuals.
   7. Students will complete a questionnaire about nutritional value, health benefits and good
      eating habits in Italian Cuisine.

ASSESSMENTS:
  Rubric – Assess students‘ final presentations of recipes for completeness of research
           and clarity of explanation for each recipe. (See attached)
  Rubric – Assess students‘ menus to ensure completeness of all categories. (See
           attached)
   Monitor the quality of language used during interactions in cooperative groups.
   Completed questionnaire

NOTE:



                                                                                             119
Italian Food Pyramid




                       120
                                      Questionnaire
1. Is all Italian food fattening?

     ________________________________________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________

2. What nutritional value is found in pasta?

      ________________________________________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________

3. Why is olive oil frequently used in Italian dishes and is it good for your cholesterol?
   ________________________________________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________

4. How can Italian dishes that are high in calories be modified to still provide nutritional value?
   ________________________________________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________

5. Why are fruits and vegetables so evident in Italian cuisine?

     ________________________________________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________

6. What role do exercise and good nutrition play in prevention of diseases? How is this evident in
   the lifestyles of Italians?

      _______________________________________________________________

      _______________________________________________________________

7.     What is your opinion on the nutritional value and health benefits of Italian food?

     _______________________________________________________________

     _______________________________________________________________




                                                                                                  121
                             Recipe Presentation Rubric
Name: _________________

                                      Recipe Presentation Rubric

                                                  Possible                          Teacher
Recipe Presentation Rubric                                    Self-Assessment
                                                   Points                          Assessment

Provided historical and cultural information         10

Student used graphs, charts or other visuals.        10

Personal experience integrated where relevant
and appropriate. Explanations and reasons            10
given for conclusions.

Student followed directions according to
                                                     10
recipe.

Presentation was well planned and coherent.          10

Total Possible Points                                50


Rate each category according to the following scale: 9-10 = excellent, 7-8 = very good, 5-6 = good, 3-4
= satisfactory, 1-2 = poor, and 0 = unsatisfactory.




                                                                                                   122
THEME: Dante Alighieri e La Divina Comedia

OBJECTIVES/INDICATORS:
1. 7.1-3 Interpretive Mode - Identify people, places, objects and activities in
         daily life based on oral or written descriptions.
2. 7.1-5 Interpretive Mode - Connect the learning of the target language to
          information studied in other content areas.
3. 7.1-6 Interpretive Mode - Demonstrate comprehension of the main idea, and
          identify the principal character in readings from age-appropriate
          culturally authentic selections.
4. 7.1-1 Interpretive Mode- Demonstrate comprehension of oral and
          written instructions connected to daily activities through appropriate
          responses.
5. 7.1-5 Interpretive Mode - Apply knowledge and skills gained in other core
           content areas to the learning of the target language.

ACTIVITIES/PROCEDURES:

   1. Provide students with background information on Dante and the Divine Comedy.
   2. Introduce students to the Divine Comedy by having them read Canto I of Inferno,
      which stands as a prelude to the entire poem. (See attached)
   3. Review with students Dante‘s nine circles of hell utilizing a graphic organizer. (See
      attached)
   4. Have students view video of Dante‘s circles of hell with particular attention to the
      scenes that portray the first and the final two circles of hell. Students will write an essay
      on the highlights of the video.
   5. Students will work in cooperative groups to develop geography of hell based on their
      life experiences. They will decide which sins belong in each circle. To complete their
      portrayal of hell, students will select a guide and brainstorm ideas about the meaning of
      moral redemption.
   6. Students can draw their geography of hell on poster paper or create in the computer.
      They should include a paragraph describing each circle, why it belongs in hell and why
      they selected the particular guide.
   7. Each cooperative group will compare and contrast their circles of hell to the entire class
      and share their ideas about moral redemption.
   8. Have students discuss what they learned from this activity.

ASSESSMENTS:
        Rubric - Assess students throughout the entire activity – circles of hell. (See
                   attached)
        Cooperative Learning Group – checklist. (See attached)
        Writing analysis on video - discussion for comprehension.

NOTES:




                                                                                                123
                             Dante Alighieri, Poet, Spiritual Writer
                                      15 September 1321



        Dante Alighieri is beyond doubt the greatest of Italian poets, and, many readers think,
one of the greatest poets that Western civilization has produced. W. B. Yeats called him "the
chief imagination of Christendom." T. S. Eliot said: "Dante and Shakespeare divide the modern
world between them. There is no third."

        He was born in Florence, Italy, in 1265. Italy in those days was not a united country, but
a collection of mostly small city-states. Feuds and power struggles between noble families were
a constant source of wars between states and of turmoil and civil war within them. Dante, heir
of a poor but noble family, was one of the seven elected officials in charge of the government
of Florence, when an accidental collision in the street during the May Festival in 1300 led to a
brawl that escalated into a civil war that ultimately got Dante's party overthrown and its leaders
(including Dante) exiled from Florence. He spent the rest of his life in exile, pining for his
native city.

        In 1293 he published a book called the Vita Nuova ("The New Life"), in which he
relates how he fell in love with a young girl (Beatrice), and found his chief happiness in
thinking of her, and looking at her from afar. In 1304 or shortly thereafter he published De
Vulgari Eloquentia, an argument for writing poems and other works in the language that people
speak (in his case, Italian) rather than in Latin. At the same time he wrote Il Convivio ("The
Banquet"), in which he discusses grammar, and styles of poetry, and complains that his own
poems, and in particular some of the things he said in the Vito Nuova, have been much
misunderstood. In 1313 he published De Monarchia ("On Monarchy" or "A Treatise on
Government"), in which he argued that the authority of a secular prince is not derived from the
authority of the church, and is not given him by the pope, but comes directly from God
(although in his exercise of it he ought, like every other Christian, to be guided by the moral
instruction of the spiritual authority).

        When he began writing his masterpiece, the Commedia, we do not know. (A "comedy,"
as traditionally defined, is a story that "begins in sorrow and ends in joy". Dante called his work
simply "The Comedy." Later Italian writers speaking of the work called it "The Divine

                                                                                                  124
Comedy," by which name it is usually known today.) It appears that he had finished the first of
its three parts by 1314, and the last only shortly before his death on 14 September 1321.
(Because that is the Feast of the Holy Cross, he is remembered on the following day.)

       The plot of the Comedy is straightforward. It begins with Dante lost and walking in a
Dark Wood, unable to remember how he got there or how long he has been walking. He sees a
mountain and tries to get out of the wood by climbing it, but is driven back by three beasts that
bar his path. He runs in panic, sees a man approaching, and asks for help. The man replies: I am
the poet Virgil. You cannot get out of the wood by climbing the mountain. You must follow
me, and I will take you the long way round. Your Lady Beatrice has sent me to guide you,
through the depths of Hell and up the slopes of Purgatory, to meet her in the country of the
Blessed." Dante then follows Virgil, who conducts him through Hell, a vast funnel-shaped
region under the surface of the earth, with a series of terraces that form ever-narrowing circles
on which various kinds of evil deeds are punished, down to the center. They reach the tip of the
funnel, located at the center of the earth, "the point toward which all things down-weigh",
where the directions "up" and "down" are reversed, and find a small tunnel or pathway cut
through the rock that leads them finally out on the other side of the earth, directly opposite
Jerusalem, at the foot of Mount Purgatory, which is surrounded by cornices on which the seven
basic kinds of inclination to sin are purged and corrected. They climb the mount and at its
summit they find the earthly Paradise, the Eden from which our first parents were expelled
when they turned aside from a relation of loving obedience to God and of loving trust in Him.
There Beatrice meets Dante, and conducts him upward through the planetary spheres. Finally,
he soars beyond the planets, beyond the stars, and beholds the whole company of Heaven
assembled together, and is given a vision of the glory of God Himself. And here the poem ends.



Source - http://elvis.rowan.edu/~kilroy/JEK/09/15.html




                                                                                                 125
              INFERNO CANTO 01
            Dante and Longfellow Tr.


    Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita
     mi ritrovai per una selva oscura
       ché la diritta via era smarrita.

    MIDWAY upon the journey of our life
      I found myself within a forest dark,
For the straightforward pathway had been lost.

    Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura
     esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte
      che nel pensier rinova la paura!

    Ah me! how hard a thing it is to say
 What was this forest savage, rough, and stern,
  Which in the very thought renews the fear.

    Tant'è amara che poco è più morte;
    ma per trattar del ben ch'i' vi trovai,
    dirò de l'altre cose ch'i' v'ho scorte.

      So bitter is it, death is little more;
 But of the good to treat, which there I found,
 Speak will I of the other things I saw there.

      Io non so ben ridir com'i' v'intrai,
     tant'era pien di sonno a quel punto
        che la verace via abbandonai.

   I cannot well repeat how there I entered,
    So full was I of slumber at the moment
    In which I had abandoned the true way.

   Ma poi ch'i' fui al piè d'un colle giunto,
      là dove terminava quella valle
   che m'avea di paura il cor compunto,

  But after I had reached a mountain's foot,
  At that point where the valley terminated,
Which had with consternation pierced my heart,




                                                  126
127
128
                                           Appendix

                            Italian Websites for Teachers
http://www.wikispace.com

http://www.voki.com

http://www.goethe-verlag.com

http://www.italianissima.net/testi

http://polyglot.lss.wisc.edu/lss/lang/italian.html

http://eleaston.com/italian.html

http://www.studystack.com/

http://bubl.ac.uk/link/world/italy.html

http://www.schoolatlas.com/search2/Teacher_Lessons/Foreign_Languages/

http://www.daycartes.org/italian/content.htm

http://www.italianfoodforever.com

http://italianliving.com/

http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~bjbeatty/itec712/712_Resources_Foreign_Language_W04.htm

http://www.italtrade.com/

http://qcpages.qc.cuny.edu/calandra/community/commlinks.htm

http://college.hmco.com/languages/italian/resources/students/trans/index.html

http://www.favole.org/

http://www.skpe.com

http://www.pikistrips.com

http://www.epals.com




                                                                                   129
                          Italian Websites For Students
http://www.uni.edu/becker/italiano2.html

http://www.italica.rai.it/eng/principal/multimedia/surfing/index2.htm

http://www.my-italy-online.com/italy/food.htm

http://www.uky.edu/~allaire/links.html

http://www.italiamia.com/world_links.html

http://www.musicaitaliana.com/

http://www.cilea.it/music/musinst.htm

http://www.usembassy.it/cons/acs/health.htm

http://www.deliciousitaly.com/linkpartners.htm

http://www.sicilianculture.com/info/government.htm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/1065345.stm




                                                                        130
                   Checklist for pair activity
                                                                Yes   No



1. Students demonstrated comprehension of oral directions,
commands and requests through appropriate physical
response.




2. Students connected the learning of the target language to
information studied in other core content areas. (e.g. use of
currency and its’ value)



3. Students asked and responded to questions, made
requests, and expressed preferences by using learned
expressions, and strings of sentences about the home..



4. Students remained focused throughout task.




5. Students shared responsibilities within their group.




                                                                           131
                                                 Figure 50
                    AN INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS
WHAT IS IT? A strategy in which teachers and students transfer abstract concepts and processes into
visual representations.


   HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                      WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

   The teacher provides a specific format for              • helps students visualize abstract concepts
   learning, recalling, and organizing linguistic or       • helps learners organize ideas
   cultural concepts learned through the target            • provides a visual format for study
   language.




                                                 Figure 51
                    CONSEQUENCE DIAGRAM/DECISION TREES
WHAT IS IT? A graphic organizer strategy in which students use diagrams or decision trees to illustrate
real or possible outcomes of different target cultural actions or situations.


   HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                      WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

   Students visually depict outcomes for a given           • helps in transferring target-language
   problem, by charting various decisions and                learning to application
   their possible consequences.                            • aids in predicting with accuracy
                                                           • develops the ability to identify the causes
                                                             and effects of decisions
                                                           • aids in clarifying positive and negative
                                                             statements




                                                  PROBLEM




         POSSIBLE SOLUTION                   POSSIBLE SOLUTION                    POSSIBLE SOLUTION
       Advantages         Disadvantages   Advantages        Disadvantages       Advantages     Disadvantages




                                                                                                               132
                                                      Figure 52
                                             CONCEPT MAPPING
WHAT IS IT? A graphic organizer strategy that shows the relationships among concepts. Usually the con-
cepts are circled and the relationships are shown by connecting lines with short explanations in the target language, or
graphical depictions of the objects or concepts.



    HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                          WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

    The teacher selects a main idea. Using the                  • helps students visualize how ideas are
    target language, the teacher and students                     connected, understand linguistic, relationships,
    then identify a set of concepts associated                    and how knowledge is organized
    with a main idea. Concepts are ranked in                    • improves oral communication, comprehension, and
    related groups from most general to most spe-                 problem-solving skills
    cific. Related concepts are connected and the
    links labeled with words, pictures, or short
    phrases.




                                                          TOPIC




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996




                                                                                                                      133
                                                      Figure 53
                      K-W-L (KNOW—WHAT TO KNOW—LEARNED)
WHAT IS IT? An introductory strategy that provides a structure for recalling what students know regard-
ing a target language or cultural topic, noting what students want to know, and finally listing what has been
learned and is yet to be learned.


   HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                       WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

   Before engaging in an activity, reading a                • builds on prior knowledge
   chapter, listening to a lecture, or watching a           • develops predicting skills
   film or presentation, the teacher lists on the           • provides a structure for learning
   board under the heading “What We Know” all               • develops research skills
   the information students know or think they              • develops communication skills in cooperative
   know about a topic. Then, the teacher lists all            groups
   the information the students want to know                • strengthens teamwork skills
   about a topic under “What We Want to                     • provides opportunities to use target-language
   Know.”                                                     reading, writing, listening, speaking, and
                                                              viewing
   While engaging in the planned activity, the stu-
   dents research and read about the topic, keep-
   ing in mind the information they had listed
                                                                  K            W               L
   under “What We Want to Know.”
                                                                  What         What we         What
   After completing the activity, the students con-               We           Want            We
   firm the accuracy of what was listed and identi-               Know         To Know         Learned
   fy what they learned, contrasting it with what
   they wanted to know. The teacher lists what
   the students learned under “What We
   Learned.”

                                                      Figure 54
                                                  LEARNING LOG
WHAT IS IT? A strategy to develop structured writing in the target language. An excellent follow-up to
K-W-L.

   HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                       WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

   During different stages of the language learn-           • bridges the gap between prior knowledge
   ing process, students respond in written form              and new content
   under three columns:                                     • provides a structure for translating target
            “What I Think”                                    language concepts into written form.
            “What I Learned”
            “How My Thinking Has Changed”

Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996




                                                                                                              134
                                                      Figure 55
                                                      WEBBING
WHAT IS IT? A graphic organizer strategy that provides a visual picture of how target language words or
phrases connect to a content-based or cultural topic.



   HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                       WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

   The teacher lists a topic and builds a web-like          • provides opportunities for the visual learner
   structure of target language words or phrases              to “recall” the connections for later use
   that students call out as being connected to             • helps students use and share their prior
   a topic. Students can also use this strategy               linguistic knowledge
   individually in planning, writing, or in study-          • helps students identify patterns of informa-
   ing for a test.                                            tion




                                                      TOPIC




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996




                                                                                                              135
                                               Figure 56
                                         VENN DIAGRAM
WHAT IS IT? A graphic organizer strategy, derived from mathematics, for creating a visual analysis of
information representing the similarities and differences among, for example, target language concepts or tar-
get culture objects, events, animals, and people.


   HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                     WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

   Using two overlapping circles, students list           • helps students organize ideas, target lan-
   unique characteristics of two items or concepts          guage and culture concepts
   (one in the left part of circle and one in the         • helps students develop a plan for writing
   right); in the middle they list shared charac-         • allows students to focus on the similarities
   teristics. More than two circles can be used             and differences within and among languages
   for a more complex process.                              and cultures.
                                                          • develops the ability to draw conclusions and
                                                            synthesize
                                                          • stimulates higher cognitive thinking skills




       Unique                              Shared                                    Unique
    Characteristics                     Characteristics                           Characteristics




                                                                                                           136
                                                       Figure 57
                                                      FLOWCHART
WHAT IS IT? A graphic organizer strategy used to depict a sequence of events, actions, roles, or deci-
sions.


   HOW DO YOU USE IT?                                           WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?

   Students structure a sequential flow of events,              • fosters logical and sequential thinking
   actions, roles, or decisions graphically on                  • focuses on cultural connections
   paper.                                                       • develops the ability to identify details and
                                                                  specific points
                                                                • develops organizational skills
                                                                • aids in planning
                                                                • provides an outline for writing in the target
                                                                  language




Adapted from the Florida Curriculum Framework, 1996




                                                          137

				
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